LILRB4 Suppresses Immunity in Solid Tumors and Is a Potential Target for Immunotherapy

The authors observed a high correlation in LILRB4 expression with other immune inhibitory receptors. After tumor challenge, LILRB4−/− mice and mice treated with anti-LILRB4 antibody showed reduced tumor burden and increased survival.
[Journal of Experimental Medicine]
Sharma, N., Atolagbe, O. T., Ge, Z., & Allison, J. P. (2021). LILRB4 suppresses immunity in solid tumors and is a potential target for immunotherapy. Journal of Experimental Medicine, 218(e20201811). https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20201811 Cite
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Therapeutic Potential of Targeting Membrane-Spanning Proteoglycan SDC4 in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Mechanism studies revealed that bufalin directly bond to SDC4 and selectively increased SDC4 interaction with substrate protein DEAD-box helicase 23 (DDX23) to induce hepatocellular carcinoma genomic instability.
[Cell Death & Disease]
Yang, H., Liu, Y., Zhao, M.-M., Guo, Q., Zheng, X.-K., Liu, D., Zeng, K.-W., & Tu, P.-F. (2021). Therapeutic potential of targeting membrane-spanning proteoglycan SDC4 in hepatocellular carcinoma. Cell Death & Disease, 12(5), 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41419-021-03780-y Cite
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PD-1 Suppresses TCR-CD8 Cooperativity during T-cell Antigen Recognition

Researchers reported PD-1 signaling regulated the initial T cell receptor antigen recognition manifested in a smaller spreading area, fewer molecular bonds formed, and shorter bond lifetime of T cell interaction with peptide-major histocompatibility complex in the presence than absence of PD-1 ligand-1 in a manner dependent on Src homology region 2 domain-containing phosphatases and Leukocyte C-terminal Src kinase.
[Nature Communications]
Li, K., Yuan, Z., Lyu, J., Ahn, E., Davis, S. J., Ahmed, R., & Zhu, C. (2021). PD-1 suppresses TCR-CD8 cooperativity during T-cell antigen recognition. Nature Communications, 12(1), 2746. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-22965-9 Cite
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CD200 Limits Monopoiesis and Monocyte Recruitment in Atherosclerosis

Investigators showed that the CD200-CD200R pathway restrained activation of CD200R+ lesional macrophages, their production of CCR2 ligands, and monocyte recruitment in vitro and in vivo in an air pouch model.
[Circulation Research]
Kassiteridi Christina, Cole Jennifer E, Griseri Thibault, Falck-Hansen Mika, Goddard Michael E, Seneviratne Anusha N, Green Patricia Ann, Park Inhye, Shami Annelie, Pattarabanjird Tanyaporn, Upadhye Aditi, Taylor Angela M, Handa Ashok, Channon Keith M, Lutgens Esther, McNamara Coleen A, Williams Richard O, & Monaco Claudia. (n.d.). CD200 Limits Monopoiesis and Monocyte Recruitment in Atherosclerosis. Circulation Research, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.119.316062 Cite
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Dynamic Regulation of the Molecular Mechanisms of Regulatory T Cell Migration in Inflamed Skin

Scientists used multiphoton intravital microscopy to examine the role of RGD-binding integrins and signaling through phosphoinositide 3-kinase P110δ in intradermal Treg migration in resting and inflamed skin.
[Frontiers in Immunology]
Norman, M. U., Chow, Z., Snelgrove, S. L., Prakongtham, P., & Hickey, M. J. (2021). Dynamic Regulation of the Molecular Mechanisms of Regulatory T Cell Migration in Inflamed Skin. Frontiers in Immunology, 12. https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.655499 Cite
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CD4+ T Cells Are Essential for the Development of Destructive Thyroiditis Induced by Anti–PD-1 Antibody in Thyroglobulin-Immunized Mice

To clarify which T cell subsets were involved in the development of destructive thyroiditis (thyroid-irAE), a mouse model of thyroid-irAE was analyzed.
[Science Translational Medicine]
Yasuda, Y., Iwama, S., Sugiyama, D., Okuji, T., Kobayashi, T., Ito, M., Okada, N., Enomoto, A., Ito, S., Yan, Y., Sugiyama, M., Onoue, T., Tsunekawa, T., Ito, Y., Takagi, H., Hagiwara, D., Goto, M., Suga, H., Banno, R., … Arima, H. (2021). CD4+ T cells are essential for the development of destructive thyroiditis induced by anti–PD-1 antibody in thyroglobulin-immunized mice. Science Translational Medicine, 13(593). https://doi.org/10.1126/scitranslmed.abb7495 Cite
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Ferroptosis in Infection, Inflammation, and Immunity

The authors discuss new discoveries related to how ferroptotic cells and their spilled contents shape innate and adaptive immunity in health and disease.
[Journal of Experimental Medicine]
Chen, X., Kang, R., Kroemer, G., & Tang, D. (2021). Ferroptosis in infection, inflammation, and immunity. Journal of Experimental Medicine, 218(e20210518). https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20210518 Cite
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Food Colorants Metabolized by Commensal Bacteria Promote Colitis in Mice with Dysregulated Expression of Interleukin-23

Investigators showed that the azo dyes Red 40 and Yellow 6, the most abundant food colorants in the world, could trigger an IBD-like colitis in mice conditionally expressing interluekin (IL)-23, or in two additional animal models in which IL-23 expression was augmented.
[Cell Metabolism]
He, Z., Chen, L., Catalan-Dibene, J., Bongers, G., Faith, J. J., Suebsuwong, C., DeVita, R. J., Shen, Z., Fox, J. G., Lafaille, J. J., Furtado, G. C., & Lira, S. A. (2021). Food colorants metabolized by commensal bacteria promote colitis in mice with dysregulated expression of interleukin-23. Cell Metabolism, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cmet.2021.04.015 Cite
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Auris Medical Reaches Midpoint for Enrollment in Part B of AM-125 Phase II TRAVERS Trial in Acute Peripheral Vertigo

Auris Medical Holding Ltd. announced that it has reached the midpoint for enrollment in Part B of its Phase II proof-of-concept trial of AM-125 in the treatment of acute peripheral vertigo.
[Auris Medical Holding Ltd.]
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Connect Biopharma Announces First Patient Dosed in Phase II Trial Evaluating CBP-201 in Adults with Moderate-to-Severe Persistent Asthma

Connect Biopharma Holdings Limited announced that the first patient has been dosed in a Phase II trial evaluating CBP-201 in adults with moderate-to-severe persistent asthma.
[Connect Biopharma Holdings Limited]
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Axcella Announces Initiation of EMMPACT Phase IIb Clinical Trial of AXA1125

Axcella (Nasdaq: AXLA), a clinical-stage biotechnology company pioneering a new approach to treat complex diseases and improve health using endogenous metabolic modulator (EMM) compositions, today announced that it has activated initial clinical sites and begun patient screening for its EMMPACT Phase 2b clinical trial of AXA1125, the company’s multi-targeted oral product candidate for the treatment of NASH.
[Axcella, Inc (Business Wire, Inc.)]
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