Induced, but Not Natural, Regulatory T Cells Retain Phenotype and Function Following Exposure to Inflamed Synovial Fibroblasts

Scientists compared of both Treg subsets and demonstrated that induced Tregs, but not natural Tregs, retained Foxp3 expression and regulatory function on T effector cells after being primed with inflamed synovial fibroblasts.
[Science Advances]
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Overcoming Primary and Acquired Resistance to Anti-PD-L1 Therapy by Induction and Activation of Tumor-Residing cDC1s

Using multiple orthotopic tumor mouse models resistant to anti-PD-L1-therapy, scientists tested the hypothesis that in situ induction and activation of tumor-residing cDC1s overcomes poor T-cell infiltration.
[Nature Communications]
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Macrophage-Derived Extracellular Vesicles: Diverse Mediators of Pathology and Therapeutics in Multiple Diseases

The authors introduced an overview of macrophage and extracellular vesicle (EV) biology, and primarily focusing on current findings and future perspectives with respect to the pathological and therapeutic effects of macrophage-EVs in various diseases.
[Cell Death & Disease]
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Modulation of PKM Activity affects the Differentiation of TH17 Cells

To understand how TEPP-46 and DASA-58 alter T cell function, scientists assessed their therapeutic activity in a mouse model of T cell–mediated autoimmunity that mimics multiple sclerosis.
[Science Signaling]
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Pairwise Stimulations of Pathogen-Sensing Pathways Predict Immune Responses to Multi-Adjuvant Combinations

Using coculture experiments and statistical analyses, researchers discover a general property for the combinatorial sensing of microbial signals, whereby the effects of triplet combinations of microbial signals on immune responses can be predicted by combining the effects of single and pairs.
[Cell Systems]
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Tunable Dynamics of B Cell Selection in Gut Germinal Centres

By combining multicolour ‘Brainbow’ cell-fate mapping and sequencing of immunoglobulin genes from single cells, scientists found that 5–10% of gut-associated germinal centres from specific-pathogen-free (SPF) mice contained highly dominant ‘winner’ B cell clones at steady state, despite rapid turnover of germinal-centre B cells.
[Nature]
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The SARS-CoV-2 Targets by the PscRNA Profiling of ACE2, TMPRSS2 and Furin Proteases

Scientists incorporated the protein information to analyze the expression of ACE2, the SARS-CoV-2 receptor, together with co-factors, TMPRSS2 and Furin, at single cell level in situ, which they called protein-proofed single-cell RNA (pscRNA) profiling.
[iScience]
Zhou, L., Niu, Z., Jiang, X., Zhang, Z., Zheng, Y., Wang, Z., Zhu, Y., Gao, L., Huang, H., Wang, X., & Sun, Q. (2020). The SARS-CoV-2 targets by the pscRNA profiling of ACE2, TMPRSS2 and Furin proteases. IScience, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2020.101744 Cite
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T Cell-Intrinsic Role for Nod2 in Protection Against Th17-Mediated Uveiti

Scientists report a non-conventional, T cell-intrinsic function for Nod2 in suppression of Th17 immunity and experimental uveitis.
[Nature Communications]
Napier, R. J., Lee, E. J., Davey, M. P., Vance, E. E., Furtado, J. M., Snow, P. E., Samson, K. A., Lashley, S. J., Brown, B. R., Horai, R., Mattapallil, M. J., Xu, B., Callegan, M. C., Uebelhoer, L. S., Lancioni, C. L., Vehe, R. K., Binstadt, B. A., Smith, J. R., Caspi, R. R., & Rosenzweig, H. L. (2020). T cell-intrinsic role for Nod2 in protection against Th17-mediated uveitis. Nature Communications, 11(1), 5406. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-18961-0 Cite
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Proton-Driven Transformable Nanovaccine for Cancer Immunotherapy

The authors present a proton-driven nanotransformer-based vaccine, comprising a polymer–peptide conjugate-based nanotransformer and loaded antigenic peptide.
[Nature Nanotechnology]
Gong, N., Zhang, Y., Teng, X., Wang, Y., Huo, S., Qing, G., Ni, Q., Li, X., Wang, J., Ye, X., Zhang, T., Chen, S., Wang, Y., Yu, J., Wang, P. C., Gan, Y., Zhang, J., Mitchell, M. J., Li, J., & Liang, X.-J. (2020). Proton-driven transformable nanovaccine for cancer immunotherapy. Nature Nanotechnology, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41565-020-00782-3 Cite
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A New Neutrophil Subset Promotes CNS Neuron Survival and Axon Regeneration

identify a unique granulocyte subset, with characteristics of an immature neutrophil, that had neuroprotective properties and drove CNS axon regeneration in vivo, in part via secretion of a cocktail of growth factors.
[Nature Immunology]
Sas, A. R., Carbajal, K. S., Jerome, A. D., Menon, R., Yoon, C., Kalinski, A. L., Giger, R. J., & Segal, B. M. (2020). A new neutrophil subset promotes CNS neuron survival and axon regeneration. Nature Immunology, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41590-020-00813-0 Cite
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Metabolic Regulation by PPARγ Is Required for IL-33-Mediated Activation of ILC2s in Lung and Adipose Tissue

Scientists found that the metabolic sensor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma was highly expressed in ILC2s of the lung and adipose tissue and increased responsiveness to IL-33.
[Mucosal Immunology]
Fali, T., Aychek, T., Ferhat, M., Jouzeau, J.-Y., Busslinger, M., Moulin, D., & Eberl, G. (2020). Metabolic regulation by PPARγ is required for IL-33-mediated activation of ILC2s in lung and adipose tissue. Mucosal Immunology, 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41385-020-00351-w Cite
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