Autophagy Promotes Growth of Tumors with High Mutational Burden by Inhibiting a T-Cell Immune Response

Researchers showed that autophagy, especially in the liver, promotes tumor immune tolerance by enabling regulatory T-cell function and limiting stimulator of interferon genes, T-cell response and interferon-γ, which enables growth of high-tumor mutational burden tumors.
[Nature Cancer]
Poillet-Perez, L., Sharp, D. W., Yang, Y., Laddha, S. V., Ibrahim, M., Bommareddy, P. K., Hu, Z. S., Vieth, J., Haas, M., Bosenberg, M. W., Rabinowitz, J. D., Cao, J., Guan, J.-L., Ganesan, S., Chan, C. S., Mehnert, J. M., Lattime, E. C., & White, E. (2020). Autophagy promotes growth of tumors with high mutational burden by inhibiting a T-cell immune response. Nature Cancer, 1(9), 923–934. https://doi.org/10.1038/s43018-020-00110-7 Cite
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Tmunity Announces First Patient Dosed in Phase I Clinical Trial with CART-TnMUC1

Tmunity Therapeutics, Inc. announced that it has dosed the first patient in its Phase I CART-TnMUC1-01 clinical trial with the Tn/STn glycoform of mucin 1 (TnMUC1) CAR-T therapy in patients with TnMUC1-positive advanced cancers.
[Tmunity Therapeutics, Inc.]
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CEL-SCI Awarded European Patent for LEAPS Vaccine in Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis

CEL-SCI Corporation announced that the European Patent Office has issued CEL-SCI patent: European Patent 2989121 titled “Method of Preparation and Composition of Peptide Constructs for Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis” for the company’s LEAPS platform technology.
[CEL-SCI Corporation]
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Artax Biopharma Announces Issuance of US Composition of Matter Patent for Autoimmune Disease Program AX-158

Artax Biopharma, Inc. announced that the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) has granted a composition of matter patent for AX-158, the Company’s lead autoimmune therapeutic candidate. US Patent No. 10,696,663 covers AX-158, certain additional backup compounds, and pharmaceutical compositions thereof, and is expected to expire no earlier than 2039 in the United States.
[Artax Biopharma, Inc.]
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The Influenza Virus NS1A Binding Protein Gene Modulates Macrophages Response to Cytokines and Phagocytic Potential in Inflammation

The authors determined that the modulation of the Ivns1abp gene in macrophages could modify resistance to macrophages against inflammation and maintain functional phagocytosis.
[Scientific Reports]
Hotter, G., Mastora, C., Jung, M., Brüne, B., Carbonell, T., Josa, C., Pérez-Calvo, J. I., Cruzado, J. M., Guiteras, R., & Sola, A. (2020). The influenza virus NS1A binding protein gene modulates macrophages response to cytokines and phagocytic potential in inflammation. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 15302. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-72342-7 Cite
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Optimization of Tamoxifen-Induced Cre Activity and Its Effect on Immune Cell Populations

Scientists assessed dosage and delivery of tamoxifen for activation of Cre in immune cell subsets assessed longitudinally and spatially using transgenic mice with ubiquitously expressed Cre/ER and the Cre-inducible fluorescent reporter YFP.
[Scientific Reports]
Donocoff, R. S., Teteloshvili, N., Chung, H., Shoulson, R., & Creusot, R. J. (2020). Optimization of tamoxifen-induced Cre activity and its effect on immune cell populations. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 15244. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-72179-0 Cite
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Blocking P2X7-Mediated Macrophage Polarization Overcomes Treatment Resistance in Lung Cancer

The authors demonstrated that P2X7 was highly expressed in tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and that P2X7 deficiency impaired the “M2-like” polarization of TAMs via down-regulation of STAT6 and IRF4 phosphorylation both in vivo and in vitro.
[Cancer Immunology Research]
Qin, J., Zhang, X., Tan, B., Zhang, S., Yin, C., Xue, Q., Zhang, Z., Ren, H., Chen, J., Liu, M., Qian, M., & Du, B. (2020). Blocking P2X7-Mediated Macrophage Polarization Overcomes Treatment Resistance in Lung Cancer. Cancer Immunology Research. https://doi.org/10.1158/2326-6066.CIR-20-0123 Cite
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IL‐2/IL‐7‐Inducible Factors Pioneer the Path to T Cell Differentiation in Advance of Lineage‐Defining Factors

Scientists showed that IL‐2 signaling was required to maintain open chromatin at hundreds of gene regulatory elements, many of which control subsequent stimulus‐dependent alternative pathways of T cell differentiation.
[EMBO Journal]
Bevington, S. L., Keane, P., Soley, J. K., Tauch, S., Gajdasik, D. W., Fiancette, R., Matei-Rascu, V., Willis, C. M., Withers, D. R., & Cockerill, P. N. (2020). IL-2/IL-7-inducible factors pioneer the path to T cell differentiation in advance of lineage-defining factors. The EMBO Journal, n/a(n/a), e105220. https://doi.org/10.15252/embj.2020105220 Cite
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Specialized Regulatory T Cells Control Venous Blood Clot Resolution through SPARC

Researchers describe a clot regulatory T (Treg) population that forms the matricellular acid- and cysteine-rich protein (SPARC), and showed that SPARC enhanced monocyte matrix metalloproteinase activity and that SPARC+ Tregs were crucial for blood clot resorption.
[Blood]
Shahneh, F., Alexandra, G., Klein, M., Frauhammer, F., Bopp, T., Schäfer, K., Raker, V., & Becker, C. (n.d.). Specialized regulatory T cells control venous blood clot resolution through SPARC. Blood. https://doi.org/10.1182/blood.2020005407 Cite
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The Immune Response after Noise Damage in the Cochlea Is Characterized by a Heterogeneous Mix of Adaptive and Innate Immune Cells

In response to noise damage, immune cells increased in number. B, T, NK, and myeloid cells were the predominant immune cells present.
[Scientific Reports]
Rai, V., Wood, M. B., Feng, H., Schabla, N. M., Tu, S., & Zuo, J. (2020). The immune response after noise damage in the cochlea is characterized by a heterogeneous mix of adaptive and innate immune cells. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 15167. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-72181-6 Cite
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PD-1 Suppresses the Maintenance of Cell Couples between Cytotoxic T Cells and Target Tumor Cells within the Tumor

To find cellular defects triggered by tumor exposure and associated PD-1 signaling, scientists established an ex vivo imaging approach to investigate the response of antigen-specific, activated effector CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes after interaction with target tumor cells.
[Science Signaling]
Ambler, R., Edmunds, G. L., Tan, S. L., Cirillo, S., Pernes, J. I., Ruan, X., Huete-Carrasco, J., Wong, C. C. W., Lu, J., Ward, J., Toti, G., Hedges, A. J., Dovedi, S. J., Murphy, R. F., Morgan, D. J., & Wülfing, C. (2020). PD-1 suppresses the maintenance of cell couples between cytotoxic T cells and target tumor cells within the tumor. Science Signaling, 13(649). https://doi.org/10.1126/scisignal.aau4518 Cite
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