Immunostimulation with Chemotherapy in the Era of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors

Understanding the precise immunological mechanisms that underlie the efficacy of chemotherapy has the potential not only to enable the identification of superior biomarkers of response but also to accelerate the development of synergistic combination regimens that enhance the clinical effectiveness of immune checkpoint inhibitors relative to their effectiveness as monotherapies.
[Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology]
Galluzzi, L., Humeau, J., Buqué, A., Zitvogel, L., & Kroemer, G. (2020). Immunostimulation with chemotherapy in the era of immune checkpoint inhibitors. Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology, 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41571-020-0413-z Cite
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Clinical Value of DNA Methylation Markers in Autoimmune Rheumatic Diseases

Scientists provide an updated discussion on DNA methylation alterations in autoimmune rheumatic diseases and the advantages and disadvantages of using these markers in clinical practice.
[Nature Reviews Rheumatology]
Ballestar, E., Sawalha, A. H., & Lu, Q. (2020). Clinical value of DNA methylation markers in autoimmune rheumatic diseases. Nature Reviews Rheumatology, 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41584-020-0470-9 Cite
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Mucosal or Systemic Microbiota Exposures Shape the B Cell Repertoire

Microbial exposures at the intestinal mucosa generated oligoclonal responses that differed from those of germ-free mice, and from the diverse repertoire that was generated after intravenous systemic exposure to microbiota.
[Nature]
Li, H., Limenitakis, J. P., Greiff, V., Yilmaz, B., Schären, O., Urbaniak, C., Zünd, M., Lawson, M. A. E., Young, I. D., Rupp, S., Heikenwälder, M., McCoy, K. D., Hapfelmeier, S., Ganal-Vonarburg, S. C., & Macpherson, A. J. (2020). Mucosal or systemic microbiota exposures shape the B cell repertoire. Nature, 1–5. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2564-6 Cite
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The BXD21/TyJ Recombinant Inbred Strain as a Model for Innate Inflammatory Response in Distinct Brain Regions

Scientists determined whether BXD recombinant inbred mice strains were more suitable than C57BL/6J mice for the understanding of the relationship between antioxidant response and inflammatory responses.
[Scientific Reports]
López-Granero, C., Ferrer, B., dos Santos, A. A., Barrasa, A., & Aschner, M. (2020). The BXD21/TyJ recombinant inbred strain as a model for innate inflammatory response in distinct brain regions. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 13168. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-70213-9 Cite
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Lysophosphatidic Acid-Mediated GPR35 Signaling in CX3CR1+ Macrophages Regulates Intestinal Homeostasis

Investigators demonstrated that intestinal G protein-coupled receptor 35 (Gpr35) expression was microbiota dependent and enhanced upon inflammation. Moreover, murine GPR35+ colonic macrophages were characterized by enhanced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines.
[Cell Reports]
Kaya, B., Doñas, C., Wuggenig, P., Diaz, O. E., Morales, R. A., Melhem, H., Hernández, P. P., Kaymak, T., Das, S., Hruz, P., Franc, Y., Geier, F., Ayata, C. K., Villablanca, E. J., & Niess, J. H. (2020). Lysophosphatidic Acid-Mediated GPR35 Signaling in CX3CR1+ Macrophages Regulates Intestinal Homeostasis. Cell Reports, 32(5). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.107979 Cite
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Marginal Zone Formation Requires ACKR3 Expression on B Cells

The authors showed that expression of atypical chemokine receptor 3 defined two equal-sized populations of mouse marginal B cells
[Cell Reports]
Radice, E., Ameti, R., Melgrati, S., Foglierini, M., Antonello, P., Stahl, R. A. K., Thelen, S., Jarrossay, D., & Thelen, M. (2020). Marginal Zone Formation Requires ACKR3 Expression on B Cells. Cell Reports, 32(5). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.107951 Cite
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Twitter Account of Embattled #MeTooSTEM Founder Suspended

Twitter has suspended the account of MeTooSTEM founder BethAnn McLaughlin after allegations emerged that the former Vanderbilt University neuroscientist fabricated the Twitter account of an apparently nonexistent female Native American anthropologist at Arizona State University who had claimed to be an anonymous victim of sexual harassment by a Harvard professor.
[ScienceInsider]
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Genmab Announces European Myeloma Network and Janssen Achieve Positive Topline Results from Phase III APOLLO Study of Daratumumab in Combination with Pomalidomide and Dexamethasone in Relapsed or Refractory Multiple Myeloma

Genmab A/S announced that the European Myeloma Network in collaboration with Janssen Research & Development, LLC reported positive results from the Phase III APOLLO study of the subcutaneous formulation of daratumumab in combination with pomalidomide and dexamethasone (Pd) versus Pd alone as treatment for patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma who have previously been treated with lenalidomide and a proteasome inhibitor.
[Genmab A/S]
Press Release

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Adoptive T Cell Therapy Targeting Different Gene Products Reveals Diverse and Context-Dependent Immune Evasion in Melanoma

Researchers examined how regulation and function of gene products that provide the target epitopes for CD8+ T cell anti-tumor immunity influence therapeutic efficacy and resistance.
[Immunity]
Effern, M., Glodde, N., Braun, M., Liebing, J., Boll, H. N., Yong, M., Bawden, E., Hinze, D., Boorn-Konijnenberg, D. van den, Daoud, M., Aymans, P., Landsberg, J., Smyth, M. J., Flatz, L., Tüting, T., Bald, T., Gebhardt, T., & Hölzel, M. (2020). Adoptive T Cell Therapy Targeting Different Gene Products Reveals Diverse and Context-Dependent Immune Evasion in Melanoma. Immunity, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.immuni.2020.07.007 Cite
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Interleukin-10 and Small Molecule SHIP1 Allosteric Regulators Trigger Anti-Inflammatory Effects Through SHIP1/STAT3 Complexes

Scientists report that IL10, but not IL6 signaling, induced formation of a complex between STAT3 and the inositol polyphosphate-5-phosphatase SHIP1 in macrophages.
[iScience]
Chamberlain, T. C., Cheung, S. T., Yoon, J. S. J., Ming-Lum, A., Gardill, B. R., Shakibakho, S., Dzananovic, E., Ban, F., Samiea, A., Jawanda, K., Priatel, J., Krystal, G., Ong, C. J., Cherkasov, A., Andersen, R. J., McKenna, S. A., Petegem, F. V., & Mui, A. L.-F. (2020). Interleukin-10 and Small Molecule SHIP1 Allosteric Regulators Trigger Anti-Inflammatory Effects Through SHIP1/STAT3 Complexes. IScience, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2020.101433 Cite
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A Nanoscale Metal Organic Frameworks-Based Vaccine Synergises with PD-1 Blockade to Potentiate Anti-Tumor Immunity

Scientists designed an ultrafast, low-temperature, and universal self-assembly route to integrate immunology-associated large molecules into metal-organic-framework-gated mesoporous silica as cancer vaccines.
[Nature Communications]
Li, X., Wang, X., Ito, A., & Tsuji, N. M. (2020). A nanoscale metal organic frameworks-based vaccine synergises with PD-1 blockade to potentiate anti-tumour immunity. Nature Communications, 11(1), 3858. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-17637-z Cite
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A Novel Transgenic Mouse Strain Expressing PKCβII Demonstrates Expansion of B1 and Marginal Zone B Cell Populations

Researchers investigated the relative role of PKCβII in B cells by generating transgenic mice where expression of the transgene is directed to these cells using the Eµ promoter
[Scientific Reports]
Azar, A. A., Michie, A. M., Tarafdar, A., Malik, N., Menon, G. K., Till, K. J., Vlatković, N., & Slupsky, J. R. (2020). A novel transgenic mouse strain expressing PKCβII demonstrates expansion of B1 and marginal zone B cell populations. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 13156. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-70191-y Cite
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