Kinetics of T Lymphocyte Subsets and B Lymphocytes in Response to Immunostimulants in Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus): Implications for CD4+ T Lymphocyte Differentiation

Monoclonal antibodies against CD4-1 and CD4-2 of flounder were produced, CD4+ T lymphocytes were isolated and identified, and the variations in CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes and IgM+ B lymphocytes after Poly I:C, PMA or β-glucan stimulation were investigated.
[Scientific Reports]
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DPP8/9 Inhibitors Activate the CARD8 Inflammasome in Resting Lymphocytes

Scientists showed that small molecule inhibitors of dipeptidyl peptidases 8 and 9, which activate the related CARD8 and NLRP1 inflammasomes, also activated pyroptosis in human and rodent resting lymphocytes.
[Cell Death & Disease]
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Overexposure to Apoptosis via Disrupted Glial Specification Perturbs Drosophila Macrophage Function and Reveals Roles of the CNS during Injury

The authors sought to understand how apoptotic cells affect macrophage function in the context of a genetically tractable Drosophila model in which macrophages encountered excessive amounts of apoptotic cells.
[Cell Death & Disease]
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Mef2d Sustains Activation of Effector Foxp3+ Tregs during Transplant Survival and Anticancer Immunity

Mice with the conditional deletion in Tregs of the gene encoding Mef2d were unable to maintain long-term allograft survival despite costimulation blockade and had enhanced antitumor immunity in syngeneic models, but they displayed only minor evidence of autoimmunity when maintained under normal conditions.
[Journal of Clinical Investigation]
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Akari Therapeutics Announces Successful End-of-Phase II Meeting with FDA to Initiate Pivotal Phase III Study for Treatment of Bullous Pemphigoid with Nomacopan

Akari Therapeutics, Plc announced a successful End of Phase II meeting with the FDA regarding Akari’s proposed pivotal Phase III program for the treatment of bullous pemphigoid.
[Akari Therapeutics, Plc]
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Extracellular Vesicle–Encapsulated IL-10 as Novel Nanotherapeutics against Ischemic AKI

Treatment with IL-10+ extracellular vesicles significantly ameliorated renal tubular injury and inflammation caused by ischemia/reperfusion injury, and potently prevented the transition to chronic kidney disease.
[Science Advances]
Tang, T.-T., Wang, B., Wu, M., Li, Z.-L., Feng, Y., Cao, J.-Y., Yin, D., Liu, H., Tang, R.-N., Crowley, S. D., Lv, L.-L., & Liu, B.-C. (2020). Extracellular vesicle–encapsulated IL-10 as novel nanotherapeutics against ischemic AKI. Science Advances, 6(33), eaaz0748. https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aaz0748 Cite
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Early Pregnancy-Induced Transcripts in Peripheral Blood Immune Cells in Bos indicus Heifers

Beef heifers were artificially inseminated on day 0 and pregnancies were diagnosed on D28. On days 10, 14, 16, 18, and 20, blood was collected for isolation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells and blood polymorphonuclear cells from heifers that were retrospectively classified as pregnant or non-pregnant
[Scientific Reports]
Rocha, C. C., da Silva Andrade, S. C., de Melo, G. D., Motta, I. G., Coutinho, L. L., Gonella-Diaza, A. M., Binelli, M., & Pugliesi, G. (2020). Early pregnancy-induced transcripts in peripheral blood immune cells in Bos indicus heifers. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 13733. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-70616-8 Cite
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The Immunomodulatory Metabolite Itaconate Modifies NLRP3 and Inhibits Inflammasome Activation

Investigators provide evidence that itaconate modified NLRP3 and inhibited inflammasome activation. Itaconate and its derivative, 4-octyl itaconate, inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome activation, but not AIM2 or NLRC4.
[Cell Metabolism]
Hooftman, A., Angiari, S., Hester, S., Corcoran, S. E., Runtsch, M. C., Ling, C., Ruzek, M. C., Slivka, P. F., McGettrick, A. F., Banahan, K., Hughes, M. M., Irvine, A. D., Fischer, R., & O’Neill, L. A. J. (2020). The Immunomodulatory Metabolite Itaconate Modifies NLRP3 and Inhibits Inflammasome Activation. Cell Metabolism, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cmet.2020.07.016 Cite
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Kinetically Distinct Processing Pathways Diversify the CD8+ T Cell Response to a Single Viral Epitope

Investigators determined that optimal CD8+ T cell expansion and function were induced by the peptides that were rapidly produced from the exceedingly minor fraction of protein mislocalized to the cytosol.
[Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America]
Cosma, G. L., Lobby, J. L., Fay, E. J., Siciliano, N. A., Langlois, R. A., & Eisenlohr, L. C. (2020). Kinetically distinct processing pathways diversify the CD8+ T cell response to a single viral epitope. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 117(32), 19399–19407. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2004372117 Cite
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IL-9-Producing T Cells: Potential Players in Allergy and Cancer

The authors review the latest literature on the development of IL-9-producing T cells and their functions in disease settings, with a particular focus on allergy and cancer.
[Nature Reviews Immunology]
Angkasekwinai, P., & Dong, C. (2020). IL-9-producing T cells: potential players in allergy and cancer. Nature Reviews Immunology, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41577-020-0396-0 Cite
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cDC1 Prime and Are Licensed by CD4+ T Cells to Induce Anti-Tumour Immunity

Early priming of CD4+ T cells against tumor-derived antigens required cDC1, and this was not simply because they transport antigens to lymph nodes for processing by cDC2, as selective deletion of major histocompatibility class II molecules in cDC1 also prevented early CD4+ T cell priming.
[Nature]
Ferris, S. T., Durai, V., Wu, R., Theisen, D. J., Ward, J. P., Bern, M. D., Davidson, J. T., Bagadia, P., Liu, T., Briseño, C. G., Li, L., Gillanders, W. E., Wu, G. F., Yokoyama, W. M., Murphy, T. L., Schreiber, R. D., & Murphy, K. M. (2020). cDC1 prime and are licensed by CD4 + T cells to induce anti-tumour immunity. Nature, 1–6. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2611-3 Cite
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