Researchers showed that autophagy, especially in the liver, promotes tumor immune tolerance by enabling regulatory T-cell function and limiting stimulator of interferon genes, T-cell response and interferon-γ, which enables growth of high-tumor mutational burden tumors.
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Poillet-Perez, L., Sharp, D. W., Yang, Y., Laddha, S. V., Ibrahim, M., Bommareddy, P. K., Hu, Z. S., Vieth, J., Haas, M., Bosenberg, M. W., Rabinowitz, J. D., Cao, J., Guan, J.-L., Ganesan, S., Chan, C. S., Mehnert, J. M., Lattime, E. C., & White, E. (2020). Autophagy promotes growth of tumors with high mutational burden by inhibiting a T-cell immune response. Nature Cancer, 1(9), 923–934. https://doi.org/10.1038/s43018-020-00110-7 Cite
Tmunity Therapeutics, Inc. announced that it has dosed the first patient in its Phase I CART-TnMUC1-01 clinical trial with the Tn/STn glycoform of mucin 1 (TnMUC1) CAR-T therapy in patients with TnMUC1-positive advanced cancers.
[Tmunity Therapeutics, Inc.]
CEL-SCI Corporation announced that the European Patent Office has issued CEL-SCI patent: European Patent 2989121 titled “Method of Preparation and Composition of Peptide Constructs for Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis” for the company’s LEAPS platform technology.
Artax Biopharma, Inc. announced that the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) has granted a composition of matter patent for AX-158, the Company’s lead autoimmune therapeutic candidate. US Patent No. 10,696,663 covers AX-158, certain additional backup compounds, and pharmaceutical compositions thereof, and is expected to expire no earlier than 2039 in the United States.
[Artax Biopharma, Inc.]
The authors determined that the modulation of the Ivns1abp gene in macrophages could modify resistance to macrophages against inflammation and maintain functional phagocytosis.
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Hotter, G., Mastora, C., Jung, M., Brüne, B., Carbonell, T., Josa, C., Pérez-Calvo, J. I., Cruzado, J. M., Guiteras, R., & Sola, A. (2020). The influenza virus NS1A binding protein gene modulates macrophages response to cytokines and phagocytic potential in inflammation. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 15302. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-72342-7 Cite
Scientists assessed dosage and delivery of tamoxifen for activation of Cre in immune cell subsets assessed longitudinally and spatially using transgenic mice with ubiquitously expressed Cre/ER and the Cre-inducible fluorescent reporter YFP.
The authors demonstrated that P2X7 was highly expressed in tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and that P2X7 deficiency impaired the “M2-like” polarization of TAMs via down-regulation of STAT6 and IRF4 phosphorylation both in vivo and in vitro.
[Cancer Immunology Research]
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Scientists showed that IL‐2 signaling was required to maintain open chromatin at hundreds of gene regulatory elements, many of which control subsequent stimulus‐dependent alternative pathways of T cell differentiation.
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Bevington, S. L., Keane, P., Soley, J. K., Tauch, S., Gajdasik, D. W., Fiancette, R., Matei-Rascu, V., Willis, C. M., Withers, D. R., & Cockerill, P. N. (2020). IL-2/IL-7-inducible factors pioneer the path to T cell differentiation in advance of lineage-defining factors. The EMBO Journal, n/a(n/a), e105220. https://doi.org/10.15252/embj.2020105220 Cite
Researchers describe a clot regulatory T (Treg) population that forms the matricellular acid- and cysteine-rich protein (SPARC), and showed that SPARC enhanced monocyte matrix metalloproteinase activity and that SPARC+ Tregs were crucial for blood clot resorption.
In response to noise damage, immune cells increased in number. B, T, NK, and myeloid cells were the predominant immune cells present.
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To find cellular defects triggered by tumor exposure and associated PD-1 signaling, scientists established an ex vivo imaging approach to investigate the response of antigen-specific, activated effector CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes after interaction with target tumor cells.
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Ambler, R., Edmunds, G. L., Tan, S. L., Cirillo, S., Pernes, J. I., Ruan, X., Huete-Carrasco, J., Wong, C. C. W., Lu, J., Ward, J., Toti, G., Hedges, A. J., Dovedi, S. J., Murphy, R. F., Morgan, D. J., & Wülfing, C. (2020). PD-1 suppresses the maintenance of cell couples between cytotoxic T cells and target tumor cells within the tumor. Science Signaling, 13(649). https://doi.org/10.1126/scisignal.aau4518 Cite