Scientists showed that in aging mice myeloid cell bioenergetics were suppressed in response to increased signaling by the lipid messenger prostaglandin E2, a major modulator of inflammation.
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Minhas, P. S., Latif-Hernandez, A., McReynolds, M. R., Durairaj, A. S., Wang, Q., Rubin, A., Joshi, A. U., He, J. Q., Gauba, E., Liu, L., Wang, C., Linde, M., Sugiura, Y., Moon, P. K., Majeti, R., Suematsu, M., Mochly-Rosen, D., Weissman, I. L., Longo, F. M., … Andreasson, K. I. (2021). Restoring metabolism of myeloid cells reverses cognitive decline in ageing. Nature, 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-03160-0 Cite
Scientists identified a novel enhancer of RORγt gene in Th17 cells, RORCE2. RORCE2 deficiency suppressed RORγt expression and Th17 differentiation, leading to reduced severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.
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SOX-5 activates a novel RORγt enhancer to facilitate experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by promoting Th17 cell differentiation | Nature Communications. (n.d.). Retrieved January 22, 2021, from https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-020-20786-w Cite
Scientists showed that multiple synthetically accessible bryologs replicate the anti-inflammatory effects of bryostatin-1 on innate immune cells in vitro, and a lead bryolog attenuates neuroinflammation in vivo.
[Cell Chemical Biology]
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Abramson, E., Hardman, C., Shimizu, A. J., Hwang, S., Hester, L. D., Snyder, S. H., Wender, P. A., Kim, P. M., & Kornberg, M. D. (2021). Designed PKC-targeting bryostatin analogs modulate innate immunity and neuroinflammation. Cell Chemical Biology, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chembiol.2020.12.015 Cite
Scientists combined the serial intravascular staining technique with single-cell RNA sequencing to dissect the tightly connected processes by which donor T cells initially infiltrate tissues and then established a pathogenic tissue residency program in a rhesus macaque allo-HCT model that develops acute graft-versus-host disease.
[Science Translational Medicine]
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Spatiotemporal single-cell profiling reveals that invasive and tissue-resident memory donor CD8+ T cells drive gastrointestinal acute graft-versus-host disease | Science Translational Medicine. (n.d.). Retrieved January 22, 2021, from https://stm.sciencemag.org/content/13/576/eabc0227 Cite
Investigators found that IKKβ ubiquitination on lysine-238 was substantially increased during inflammation. Using mass spectrometry, they identified USP16 as an essential regulator of the IKKβ ubiquitination level that selectively affected p105 phosphorylation without directly affecting p65 or IκBα phosphorylation.
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Substrate-specific recognition of IKKs mediated by USP16 facilitates autoimmune inflammation | Science Advances. (n.d.). Retrieved January 22, 2021, from https://advances.sciencemag.org/content/7/3/eabc4009 Cite
Bone marrow-derived macrophages from recovered EV-A71-infected mice showed sustained innate immune memory that could drive naïve T helper cells toward Th2 and Th17 cell differentiation when in contact with mites.
[Cellular & Molecular Immunology]
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Early-life EV-A71 infection augments allergen-induced airway inflammation in asthma through trained macrophage immunity | Cellular & Molecular Immunology. (n.d.). Retrieved January 22, 2021, from https://www.nature.com/articles/s41423-020-00621-4 Cite
Consistent with a driver oncogenic role, FYN–TRAF3IP2 expression in hematopoietic progenitors induced NF-κB-driven T-cell transformation in mice and cooperated with loss of the Tet2 tumor suppressor in peripheral T-cell lymphoma development.
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Scientists showed that liver‐infiltrating dnTGFβRII CD8 T cells have significantly decreased levels of the miRNA biogenesis molecules P4ha1 and Ago2 along with significantly increased levels of granzyme B and perforin.
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Itoh, A., Adams, D., Huang, W., Wu, Y., Kachapati, K., Bednar, K. J., Leung, P. S. C., Zhang, W., Flavell, R. A., Gershwin, M. E., & Ridgway, W. M. (n.d.). Enoxacin upregulates microRNA biogenesis and downregulates cytotoxic CD8 T cell function in autoimmune cholangitis. Hepatology, n/a(n/a). https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1002/hep.31724 Cite
Investigators discovered that T cell receptor antigen recognition increases in the left ventricle as cardiac dysfunction progresses.
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Ngwenyama Njabulo, Kirabo Annet, Aronovitz Mark, Velázquez Francisco, Carrillo-Salinas Francisco, Salvador Ane M., Nevers Tania, Amarnath Venkataraman, Tai Albert, Blanton Robert M., Harrison David G., & Alcaide Pilar. (n.d.). Isolevuglandin-Modified Cardiac Proteins Drive CD4+ T Cell Activation in the Heart and Promote Cardiac Dysfunction. Circulation, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.120.051889 Cite
The authors discuss novel approaches to overcome the key challenges associated with CD3+ bispecific T-cell redirection in order to achieve an optimal balance of anti-tumour activity and safety.
[British Journal of Cancer]
Scientists found that γδ T cell subsets making either interferon-γ or interleukin-17 have intrinsically distinct metabolic requirements.
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Lopes, N., McIntyre, C., Martin, S., Raverdeau, M., Sumaria, N., Kohlgruber, A. C., Fiala, G. J., Agudelo, L. Z., Dyck, L., Kane, H., Douglas, A., Cunningham, S., Prendeville, H., Loftus, R., Carmody, C., Pierre, P., Kellis, M., Brenner, M., Argüello, R. J., … Lynch, L. (2021). Distinct metabolic programs established in the thymus control effector functions of γδ T cell subsets in tumor microenvironments. Nature Immunology, 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41590-020-00848-3 Cite