Manipulating the Tumor Microenvironment in Tumor Organoids Induces Phenotypic Changes and Chemoresistance

Investigators used a tumor organoid model, consisting of hepatic stellate cells embedded in Collagen-1 (Col1) and colorectal cancer cell (HCT-116) spheroids, to determine the relationship between the ECM architecture, cancer cell malignancy, and chemoresistance.
[iScience]
Dominijanni, A., Devarasetty, M., & Soker, S. (2020). Manipulating the Tumor Microenvironment in Tumor Organoids Induces Phenotypic Changes and Chemoresistance. IScience, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2020.101851 Cite
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Cellular Extrusion Bioprinting Improves Kidney Organoid Reproducibility and Conformation

Scientists applied extrusion-based three-dimensional cellular bioprinting to deliver rapid and high-throughput generation of kidney organoids with highly reproducible cell number and viability.
[Nature Materials]
Lawlor, K. T., Vanslambrouck, J. M., Higgins, J. W., Chambon, A., Bishard, K., Arndt, D., Er, P. X., Wilson, S. B., Howden, S. E., Tan, K. S., Li, F., Hale, L. J., Shepherd, B., Pentoney, S., Presnell, S. C., Chen, A. E., & Little, M. H. (2020). Cellular extrusion bioprinting improves kidney organoid reproducibility and conformation. Nature Materials, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41563-020-00853-9 Cite
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ROCK Inhibitors Beneficially Alter the Spatial Configuration of TGFβ2-Treated 3D Organoids from a Human Trabecular Meshwork (HTM)

TGFβ2 significantly increased the TEER values in 2D cultures, and the ECM expression indicated that the 3D organoids assumed a more densely packed shape.
[Scientific Reports]
Ota, C., Ida, Y., Ohguro, H., & Hikage, F. (2020). ROCK inhibitors beneficially alter the spatial configuration of TGFβ2-treated 3D organoids from a human trabecular meshwork (HTM). Scientific Reports, 10(1), 20292. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-77302-9 Cite
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Organoids and Spheroids As Novel Models for Studying Cholestatic Liver Injury and Cholangiocarcinoma

The authors summarize current methodologies for organoid/spheroid formation and a potential for 3D hepatic cell cultures as novel in vitro models of cholangiopathies.
[Hepatology]
Organoids and spheroids as novel models for studying cholestatic liver injury and cholangiocarcinoma - Sato - - Hepatology - Wiley Online Library. (n.d.). Retrieved November 24, 2020, from https://aasldpubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/hep.31653 Cite
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Organoids and Organ Chips in Ophthalmology

Scientists review the current situation of organoids and organ chips in ophthalmology and discuss how they can be leveraged for translational applications.
[Ocular Surface]
Organoids and organ chips in ophthalmology - ScienceDirect. (n.d.). Retrieved November 24, 2020, from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1542012420301713?via%3Dihub Cite
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Gastric Organoids—an In Vitro Model System for the Study of Gastric Development and Road to Personalized Medicine

Investigators review different adult stem cell derived gastric organoid model systems and focus on their establishment, phenotypic and genotypic characterizations as well as their use in predicting therapy response.
[Cell Death & Differentiation]
Seidlitz, T., Koo, B.-K., & Stange, D. E. (2020). Gastric organoids—an in vitro model system for the study of gastric development and road to personalized medicine. Cell Death & Differentiation, 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41418-020-00662-2 Cite
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Dissecting the Non-Neuronal Cell Contribution to Parkinson’s Disease Pathogenesis using Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

The authors report on recent work using human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) and 3D brain organoid models showing that iPSC technology can be used to recapitulate Parkinson’s disease-relevant disease-associated phenotypes, including protein aggregation, cell death or loss of neurite complexity and deficient autophagic vacuoles clearance and focus on the recent co-culture systems that are revealing new insights into the complex interactions that occur between different brain cell types during neurodegeneration
[Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences]
Pons-Espinal, M., Blasco-Agell, L., & Consiglio, A. (2020). Dissecting the non-neuronal cell contribution to Parkinson’s disease pathogenesis using induced pluripotent stem cells. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00018-020-03700-x Cite
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FAM3D is Essential for Colon Homeostasis and Host Defense against Inflammation Associated Carcinogenesis

Researchers demonstrated that deficiency in Fam3D was associated with impaired integrity of colonic mucosa, increased epithelial hyper-proliferation, reduced anti-microbial peptide production and increased sensitivity to chemically induced colitis associated with high incidence of cancer.
[Nature Communications]
Liang, W., Peng, X., Li, Q., Wang, P., Lv, P., Song, Q., She, S., Huang, S., Chen, K., Gong, W., Yuan, W., Thovarai, V., Yoshimura, T., O’huigin, C., Trinchieri, G., Huang, J., Lin, S., Yao, X., Bian, X., … Wang, Y. (2020). FAM3D is essential for colon homeostasis and host defense against inflammation associated carcinogenesis. Nature Communications, 11(1), 5912. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-19691-z Cite
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Membrane Tension Gates ERK-Mediated Regulation of Pluripotent Cell Fate

Researchers found that shape change was regulated by a β-catenin-mediated decrease in RhoA activity and subsequent decrease in the plasma membrane tension. Preventing a decrease in membrane tension results in early differentiation defects in ESCs and gastruloids.
[Cell Stem Cell]
Belly, H. D., Stubb, A., Yanagida, A., Labouesse, C., Jones, P. H., Paluch, E. K., & Chalut, K. J. (2020). Membrane Tension Gates ERK-Mediated Regulation of Pluripotent Cell Fate. Cell Stem Cell, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stem.2020.10.018 Cite
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An In Vitro Differentiation Protocol for Human Embryonic Bipotential Gonad and Testis Cell Development

Researchers describe a fully defined feeder-free protocol to generate early testis-like cells with the ability to be cultured as an organoid, from human induced pluripotent stem cells.
[Stem Cell Reports]
Knarston, I. M., Pachernegg, S., Robevska, G., Ghobrial, I., Er, P. X., Georges, E., Takasato, M., Combes, A. N., Jørgensen, A., Little, M. H., Sinclair, A. H., & Ayers, K. L. (2020). An In Vitro Differentiation Protocol for Human Embryonic Bipotential Gonad and Testis Cell Development. Stem Cell Reports, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stemcr.2020.10.009 Cite
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The Promise of Human Organoids in the Digestive System

Scientists review the recent portfolios of primary tissue-derived and PSC-derived organoids in the digestive systems. They also discuss the promise and challenges in disease modeling and drug development applications for digestive disorders.
[Cell Death & Differentiation]
Funata, M., Nio, Y., Erion, D. M., Thompson, W. L., & Takebe, T. (2020). The promise of human organoids in the digestive system. Cell Death & Differentiation, 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41418-020-00661-3 Cite
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