Scientists investigated the in vivo role of Dhx15 in intestinal antibacterial responses by generating mice that were intestinal epithelial cell-specific deficient for Dhx15.
[Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America]
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Murakami, K., Terakado, Y., Saito, K., Jomen, Y., Takeda, H., Oshima, M., & Barker, N. (2021). A genome-scale CRISPR screen reveals factors regulating Wnt-dependent renewal of mouse gastric epithelial cells. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 118(4). https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2016806118 Cite
Scientists used a novel co-culture system with E14.5 intestinal epithelial organoids to examine the microenvironmental cues that regulate the embryonic stem/progenitor population, focusing on the role of Notch pathway factor, Delta-Like Protein 1.
[American Journal of Physiology-Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology]
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Ichinose, M., Suzuki, N., Wang, T., Wright, J. A., Lannagan, T. R., Vrbanac, L., Kobayashi, H., Gieniec, K. A., Ng, J. Q., Hayakawa, Y., García-Gallastegui, P., Monsalve, E. M., Bauer, S. R., Laborda, J., García-Ramírez, J. J., Ibarretxe, G., Worthley, D. L., & Woods, S. L. (2021). Stromal DLK1 promotes proliferation and inhibits differentiation of the intestinal epithelium during development. American Journal of Physiology-Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpgi.00445.2020 Cite
Researchers describe a primary organoid system derived from endometrial tissue to recapitulate epithelial cell diversity, polarity, and ensuing responses to Chlamydia infection.
[Journal of Cell Science]
In vitro organoids generated from epithelial cells of mouse or patient with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis co-cultured with young, aged or retinoic acid-pretreated murine fibroblasts were used to test potential targets.
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Gokey, J. J., Snowball, J., Green, J., Waltamath, M., Spinney, J. J., Black, K. E., Hariri, L. P., Xu, Y., & Perl, A. K. (2021). Pretreatment of aged mice with retinoic acid supports alveolar regeneration via upregulation of reciprocal PDGFA signalling. Thorax. https://doi.org/10.1136/thoraxjnl-2020-214986 Cite
The authors discuss the enhancement of organoid systems for therapeutic applications using biofabrication and organoid-on-chip platforms, which facilitate the assembly of complex organoid systems for in vitro modeling of development and diseases.
Researchers present a 3D high-density multifunctional microelectrode array with optical stimulation and drug delivery for investigating neural circuit dynamics within engineered 3D neural tissues.
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3D high-density microelectrode array with optical stimulation and drug delivery for investigating neural circuit dynamics | Nature Communications. (n.d.). Retrieved January 22, 2021, from https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-020-20763-3 Cite
Scientists found that recombinant EREG, BTC, and NRG1 but not Lgr5 ligand R-Spondin promoted growth and proliferation of Apc double mutant colonic organoids.
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Westendorp, F., Karpus, O. N., Koelink, P. J., Vermeulen, J. L. M., Meisner, S., Koster, J., Büller, N. V. J. A., Wildenberg, M. E., Muncan, V., & van den Brink, G. R. (2021). Epithelium-derived Indian Hedgehog restricts stromal expression of ErbB family members that drive colonic tumor cell proliferation. Oncogene, 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41388-020-01633-0 Cite
Researchers found that the expression levels of several genes, which were highly expressed in original colorectal carcinoma tissues, were downregulated in organoids but re-expressed in organoids by co-culturing with cancer-associated fibroblasts.
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Naruse, M., Ochiai, M., Sekine, S., Taniguchi, H., Yoshida, T., Ichikawa, H., Sakamoto, H., Kubo, T., Matsumoto, K., Ochiai, A., & Imai, T. (2021). Re-expression of REG family and DUOX s genes in CRC organoids by co-culturing with CAFs. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 2077. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-81475-2 Cite
Using a high-throughput approach that combines enteroid monolayers and quantitative imaging, scientists identified conditions that enrich for specific cell types as well as interactions between pathways.
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Sanman, L. E., Chen, I. W., Bieber, J. M., Steri, V., Trentesaux, C., Hann, B., Klein, O. D., Wu, L. F., & Altschuler, S. J. (2021). Transit-Amplifying Cells Coordinate Changes in Intestinal Epithelial Cell-Type Composition. Developmental Cell, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.devcel.2020.12.020 Cite
Researchers studied cross-reactivity using a highly multiplexed peptide assay to generate an epitope-resolved view of IgG reactivity across all human coronaviruses in both COVID-19 convalescent and negative donors.
[Cell Reports Medicine]
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Ladner, J. T., Henson, S. N., Boyle, A. S., Engelbrektson, A. L., Fink, Z. W., Rahee, F., D’ambrozio, J., Schaecher, K. E., Stone, M., Dong, W., Dadwal, S., Yu, J., Caligiuri, M. A., Cieplak, P., Bjørås, M., Fenstad, M. H., Nordbø, S. A., Kainov, D. E., Muranaka, N., … Altin, J. A. (2021). Epitope-resolved profiling of the SARS-CoV-2 antibody response identifies cross-reactivity with endemic human coronaviruses. Cell Reports Medicine, 2(1). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.xcrm.2020.100189 Cite
Scientists review recent advances in the development of CNS organoid models, their application in neurodegenerative diseases and technical limitations.
[Tissue Engineering Part C: Methods]