Investigators used a tumor organoid model, consisting of hepatic stellate cells embedded in Collagen-1 (Col1) and colorectal cancer cell (HCT-116) spheroids, to determine the relationship between the ECM architecture, cancer cell malignancy, and chemoresistance.
Scientists applied extrusion-based three-dimensional cellular bioprinting to deliver rapid and high-throughput generation of kidney organoids with highly reproducible cell number and viability.
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Lawlor, K. T., Vanslambrouck, J. M., Higgins, J. W., Chambon, A., Bishard, K., Arndt, D., Er, P. X., Wilson, S. B., Howden, S. E., Tan, K. S., Li, F., Hale, L. J., Shepherd, B., Pentoney, S., Presnell, S. C., Chen, A. E., & Little, M. H. (2020). Cellular extrusion bioprinting improves kidney organoid reproducibility and conformation. Nature Materials, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41563-020-00853-9 Cite
TGFβ2 significantly increased the TEER values in 2D cultures, and the ECM expression indicated that the 3D organoids assumed a more densely packed shape.
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The authors summarize current methodologies for organoid/spheroid formation and a potential for 3D hepatic cell cultures as novel in vitro models of cholangiopathies.
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Organoids and spheroids as novel models for studying cholestatic liver injury and cholangiocarcinoma - Sato - - Hepatology - Wiley Online Library. (n.d.). Retrieved November 24, 2020, from https://aasldpubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/hep.31653 Cite
Scientists review the current situation of organoids and organ chips in ophthalmology and discuss how they can be leveraged for translational applications.
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Investigators review different adult stem cell derived gastric organoid model systems and focus on their establishment, phenotypic and genotypic characterizations as well as their use in predicting therapy response.
[Cell Death & Differentiation]
The authors report on recent work using human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) and 3D brain organoid models showing that iPSC technology can be used to recapitulate Parkinson’s disease-relevant disease-associated phenotypes, including protein aggregation, cell death or loss of neurite complexity and deficient autophagic vacuoles clearance and focus on the recent co-culture systems that are revealing new insights into the complex interactions that occur between different brain cell types during neurodegeneration
[Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences]
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Researchers demonstrated that deficiency in Fam3D was associated with impaired integrity of colonic mucosa, increased epithelial hyper-proliferation, reduced anti-microbial peptide production and increased sensitivity to chemically induced colitis associated with high incidence of cancer.
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Liang, W., Peng, X., Li, Q., Wang, P., Lv, P., Song, Q., She, S., Huang, S., Chen, K., Gong, W., Yuan, W., Thovarai, V., Yoshimura, T., O’huigin, C., Trinchieri, G., Huang, J., Lin, S., Yao, X., Bian, X., … Wang, Y. (2020). FAM3D is essential for colon homeostasis and host defense against inflammation associated carcinogenesis. Nature Communications, 11(1), 5912. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-19691-z Cite
Researchers found that shape change was regulated by a β-catenin-mediated decrease in RhoA activity and subsequent decrease in the plasma membrane tension. Preventing a decrease in membrane tension results in early differentiation defects in ESCs and gastruloids.
[Cell Stem Cell]
Researchers describe a fully defined feeder-free protocol to generate early testis-like cells with the ability to be cultured as an organoid, from human induced pluripotent stem cells.
[Stem Cell Reports]
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Knarston, I. M., Pachernegg, S., Robevska, G., Ghobrial, I., Er, P. X., Georges, E., Takasato, M., Combes, A. N., Jørgensen, A., Little, M. H., Sinclair, A. H., & Ayers, K. L. (2020). An In Vitro Differentiation Protocol for Human Embryonic Bipotential Gonad and Testis Cell Development. Stem Cell Reports, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stemcr.2020.10.009 Cite
Scientists review the recent portfolios of primary tissue-derived and PSC-derived organoids in the digestive systems. They also discuss the promise and challenges in disease modeling and drug development applications for digestive disorders.
[Cell Death & Differentiation]