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Differential Histone Distribution Patterns in Induced Asymmetrically Dividing Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells

The authors report that mouse ESCs with Wnt3a-bead induction displayed nonoverlapping preexisting (old) versus newly synthesized (new) histone H3 patterns, but mouse ESCs without Wnt3a beads had largely overlapping patterns.
[Cell Reports]
Ma, B., Trieu, T.-J., Cheng, J., Zhou, S., Tang, Q., Xie, J., Liu, J.-L., Zhao, K., Habib, S. J., & Chen, X. (2020). Differential Histone Distribution Patterns in Induced Asymmetrically Dividing Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells. Cell Reports, 32(6). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.108003 Cite
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Generation of Functional Brown Adipocytes from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells via Progression through a Paraxial Mesoderm State

Human PSCs were subject to directed differentiation through a paraxial mesoderm progenitor state that generates brown adipocytes (BAs) at high efficiency. Molecular analysis identified potential regulatory networks for BA development, giving insight into development along this lineage.
[Cell Stem Cell]
Zhang, L., Avery, J., Yin, A., Singh, A. M., Cliff, T. S., Yin, H., & Dalton, S. (2020). Generation of Functional Brown Adipocytes from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells via Progression through a Paraxial Mesoderm State. Cell Stem Cell, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stem.2020.07.013 Cite
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Water-Extracted Ganoderma lucidum Induces Apoptosis and S-Phase Arrest via Cyclin-CDK2 Pathway in Glioblastoma Cells

The anti-tumor effect of a water extract of G. lucidum was investigated using brain tumor cells. Researchers used an analysis of cell viability, flow cytometry, the IncuCyte live-cell analysis system, and Western blotting to study its effects.
[Molecules]
Molecules | Free Full-Text | Water-Extracted Ganoderma lucidum Induces Apoptosis and S-Phase Arrest via Cyclin-CDK2 Pathway in Glioblastoma Cells | HTML. (n.d.). Retrieved August 12, 2020, from https://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/25/16/3585/htm Cite
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Neurotrophic Factors and Target-Specific Retrograde Signaling Interactions Define the Specificity of Classical and Neuropeptide Cotransmitter Release at Identified Lymnaea Synapses

Scientists report that an identified Lymnaea neuron selectively released its classical small molecule and peptide neurotransmitters, acetylcholine and FMRFamide-derived neuropeptides, to differentially influence the activity of distinct postsynaptic targets that coordinated cardiorespiratory behaviour.
[Scientific Reports]
Getz, A. M., Janes, T. A., Visser, F., Zaidi, W., & Syed, N. I. (2020). Neurotrophic factors and target-specific retrograde signaling interactions define the specificity of classical and neuropeptide cotransmitter release at identified Lymnaea synapses. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 13526. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-70322-5 Cite
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EED-Mediated Histone Methylation Is Critical for CNS Myelination and Remyelination by Inhibiting WNT, BMP, and Senescence Pathways

Depletion of embryonic ectoderm development (EED), a core polycomb repressive complex 2 subunit, reduced differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitors (OPCs), and caused an OPC-to-astrocyte fate switch in a region-specific manner.
[Science Advances]
Wang, J., Yang, L., Dong, C., Wang, J., Xu, L., Qiu, Y., Weng, Q., Zhao, C., Xin, M., & Lu, Q. R. (2020). EED-mediated histone methylation is critical for CNS myelination and remyelination by inhibiting WNT, BMP, and senescence pathways. Science Advances, 6(33), eaaz6477. https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aaz6477 Cite
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α-Cyperone Inhibitory Effects on Tumor-Derived DNA Trigger Microglia by STING Pathway

Tumor-derived DNA isolated from Lewis cell lines was transfected into microglia, and analyzed for stimulator of interferon genes (STING) effects.
[Journal of Ethnopharmacology]
Gao, P., Ding, N., Lv, J., Ramzan, M. N., & Wen, Q. (2020). α-Cyperone Inhibitory Effects on Tumor-Derived DNA Trigger Microglia by STING Pathway. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 113246. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2020.113246 Cite
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Regulation of Myonuclear Positioning and Muscle Function by the Skeletal Muscle-Specific CIP Protein

[Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America]
Liu, J., Huang, Z.-P., Nie, M., Wang, G., Silva, W. J., Yang, Q., Freire, P. P., Hu, X., Chen, H., Deng, Z., Pu, W. T., & Wang, D.-Z. (2020). Regulation of myonuclear positioning and muscle function by the skeletal muscle-specific CIP protein. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 117(32), 19254–19265. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1922911117 Cite
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Somatotopic Organization and Intensity Dependence in Driving Distinct NPY-Expressing Sympathetic Pathways by Electroacupuncture

Researchers used intersectional genetic strategy to ablate NPY+ noradrenergic neurons and/or adrenal chromaffin cells.
[Neuron]
Liu, S., Wang, Z.-F., Su, Y.-S., Ray, R. S., Jing, X.-H., Wang, Y.-Q., & Ma, Q. (2020). Somatotopic Organization and Intensity Dependence in Driving Distinct NPY-Expressing Sympathetic Pathways by Electroacupuncture. Neuron, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2020.07.015 Cite
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Keratinocyte-Specific Peptides-Based Surfaces for Hemidesmosome Upregulation and Prevention of Bacterial Colonization

The co-immobilized peptide surfaces showed anti-biofilm activity against Streptococcus gordonii while enhancing proliferation, hemidesmosome formation, and mechanical attachment of orally-derived keratinocytes.
[ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering]
Fischer, N. G., Moussa, D. G., Skoe, E. P., De Jong, D. A., & Aparicio, C. (2020). Keratinocyte-specific Peptides-based Surfaces for Hemidesmosome Upregulation and Prevention of Bacterial Colonization. ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsbiomaterials.0c00845 Cite
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Protein Kinase C Regulates ASIC1a Protein Expression and Channel Function via NF-kB Signaling Pathway

Investigators demonstrated that treatment with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate for six hours significantly increased acid-sensing ion channel 1a (ASIC1a) protein expression and ASIC currents in NS20Y cells, a neuronal cell line, and in primary cultured mouse cortical neurons.
[Molecular Neurobiology]
Zhang, L., Leng, T.-D., Yang, T., Li, J., & Xiong, Z.-G. (2020). Protein Kinase C Regulates ASIC1a Protein Expression and Channel Function via NF-kB Signaling Pathway. Molecular Neurobiology. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12035-020-02056-4 Cite
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Loss of NARS1 Impairs Progenitor Proliferation in Cortical Brain Organoids and Leads to Microcephaly

Cortical brain organoid modeling showed reduced proliferation of radial glial cells, leading to smaller organoids characteristic of microcephaly.
[Nature Communications]
Wang, L., Li, Z., Sievert, D., Smith, D. E. C., Mendes, M. I., Chen, D. Y., Stanley, V., Ghosh, S., Wang, Y., Kara, M., Aslanger, A. D., Rosti, R. O., Houlden, H., Salomons, G. S., & Gleeson, J. G. (2020). Loss of NARS1 impairs progenitor proliferation in cortical brain organoids and leads to microcephaly. Nature Communications, 11(1), 4038. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-17454-4 Cite
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Additive Manufacturing Enables Production of De Novo Cardiomyocytes by Controlling Embryoid Body Aggregation

Investigators demonstrated the production of cardiomyocytes by using high definition direct writing technologies to influence embryoid bodies aggregation from stem cells.
[Bioprinting]
Das, R., & Fernandez, J. G. (2020). Additive manufacturing enables production of de novo cardiomyocytes by controlling embryoid body aggregation. Bioprinting, e00091. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bprint.2020.e00091 Cite
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