APOE2 Mitigates Disease-Related Phenotypes in an Isogenic hiPSC-Based Model of Alzheimer’s Disease

Investigators utilized an isogenic human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-based system to demonstrate that conversion of APOE3 to APOE2 greatly reduced the production of amyloid-beta peptides in hiPSC-derived neural cultures.
[Molecular Psychiatry]
Brookhouser, N., Raman, S., Frisch, C., Srinivasan, G., & Brafman, D. A. (2021). APOE2 mitigates disease-related phenotypes in an isogenic hiPSC-based model of Alzheimer’s disease. Molecular Psychiatry, 1–18. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41380-021-01076-3 Cite
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Neuroendocrine Control of Appetite and Metabolism

The authors discuss the regulation of appetite and metabolism by hypothalamic neurohormone-expressing cells, with a focus on the distinct contributions of neurohormones and neurotransmitters released by these neurons.
[Experimental & Molecular Medicine]
Yoo, E.-S., Yu, J., & Sohn, J.-W. (2021). Neuroendocrine control of appetite and metabolism. Experimental & Molecular Medicine, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1038/s12276-021-00597-9 Cite
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Astrocytes in Cocaine Addiction and Beyond

Scientists provide a brief overview of the role of astrocytes in regulating synaptic transmission and neuronal function, and discuss how cocaine influences these astrocyte-mediated mechanisms to induce persistent synaptic and circuit alterations that promote cocaine seeking and relapse.
[Molecular Psychiatry]
Wang, J., Holt, L. M., Huang, H. H., Sesack, S. R., Nestler, E. J., & Dong, Y. (2021). Astrocytes in cocaine addiction and beyond. Molecular Psychiatry, 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41380-021-01080-7 Cite
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MrgprC11+ Sensory Neurons Mediate Glabrous Skin Itch

Investigators developed a mouse glabrous skin behavioral assay to investigate the contribution of three previously identified pruriceptive neurons in glabrous skin itch.
[Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America]
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Neural Stem Cells Traffic Functional Mitochondria via Extracellular Vesicles

The authors investigated the hypothesis that neural stem cells release and traffic functional mitochondria via extracellular vesicles to restore mitochondrial function in target cells.
[PLoS Biology]
Peruzzotti-Jametti, L., Bernstock, J. D., Willis, C. M., Manferrari, G., Rogall, R., Fernandez-Vizarra, E., Williamson, J. C., Braga, A., Bosch, A. van den, Leonardi, T., Krzak, G., Kittel, Á., Benincá, C., Vicario, N., Tan, S., Bastos, C., Bicci, I., Iraci, N., Smith, J. A., … Pluchino, S. (2021). Neural stem cells traffic functional mitochondria via extracellular vesicles. PLOS Biology, 19(4), e3001166. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3001166 Cite
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Astrocytes and Neurons Share Region-Specific Transcriptional Signatures That Confer Regional Identity to Neuronal Reprogramming

Investigators showed that in the neocortex and thalamus, neurons and astrocytes express shared region-specific transcriptional and epigenetic signatures.
[Science Advances]
Herrero-Navarro, Á., Puche-Aroca, L., Moreno-Juan, V., Sempere-Ferràndez, A., Espinosa, A., Susín, R., Torres-Masjoan, L., Leyva-Díaz, E., Karow, M., Figueres-Oñate, M., López-Mascaraque, L., López-Atalaya, J. P., Berninger, B., & López-Bendito, G. (2021). Astrocytes and neurons share region-specific transcriptional signatures that confer regional identity to neuronal reprogramming. Science Advances, 7(15), eabe8978. https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abe8978 Cite
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Soluble α-Synuclein–Antibody Complexes Activate the NLRP3 Inflammasome in hiPSC-Derived Microglia

Researchers showed that αSyn activated the NLRP3 inflammasome in human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived microglia via dual stimulation involving Toll-like receptor 2 engagement and mitochondrial damage.
[Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America]
Trudler, D., Nazor, K. L., Eisele, Y. S., Grabauskas, T., Dolatabadi, N., Parker, J., Sultan, A., Zhong, Z., Goodwin, M. S., Levites, Y., Golde, T. E., Kelly, J. W., Sierks, M. R., Schork, N. J., Karin, M., Ambasudhan, R., & Lipton, S. A. (2021). Soluble α-synuclein–antibody complexes activate the NLRP3 inflammasome in hiPSC-derived microglia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 118(15). https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2025847118 Cite
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Efficient Conversion of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Into Microglia by Defined Transcription Factors

The authors report a novel approach that produces, within ten days, the differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells into microglia by forced expression of both SPI1 and CEBPA.
[Stem Cell Reports]
Chen, S.-W., Hung, Y.-S., Fuh, J.-L., Chen, N.-J., Chu, Y.-S., Chen, S.-C., Fann, M.-J., & Wong, Y.-H. (2021). Efficient conversion of human induced pluripotent stem cells into microglia by defined transcription factors. Stem Cell Reports, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stemcr.2021.03.010 Cite
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Integrins Protect Sensory Neurons in Models of Paclitaxel-Induced Peripheral Sensory Neuropathy

The authors used a genetically tractable Drosophila model and primary sensory neurons isolated from adult mouse to examine the mechanisms underlying chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy and identify protective pathways.
[Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America]
Shin, G. J., Pero, M. E., Hammond, L. A., Burgos, A., Kumar, A., Galindo, S. E., Lucas, T., Bartolini, F., & Grueber, W. B. (2021). Integrins protect sensory neurons in models of paclitaxel-induced peripheral sensory neuropathy. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 118(15). https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2006050118 Cite
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Targeting Autophagy as a Therapeutic Strategy to Prevent Dopamine Neuron Loss in Early Stages of Alzheimer Disease

Investigators summarized new data showing how macroautophagy/autophagy impairment – due to enhanced activity of the ABL/c-Abl kinase – might have caused the dopamine neuron loss.
[Autophagy]
Nobili, A., Barbera, L. L., & D’Amelio, M. (2021). Targeting autophagy as a therapeutic strategy to prevent dopamine neuron loss in early stages of Alzheimer disease. Autophagy, 0(0), 1–3. https://doi.org/10.1080/15548627.2021.1909409 Cite
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Hypoxic Glioma-Derived Exosomes Promote M2-Like Macrophage Polarization by Enhancing Autophagy Induction

The authors investigated the effects of glioma-derived exosomes on autophagy, the polarization of tumor-associated macrophages, and glioma progression.
[Cell Death & Disease]
Xu, J., Zhang, J., Zhang, Z., Gao, Z., Qi, Y., Qiu, W., Pan, Z., Guo, Q., Li, B., Zhao, S., Guo, X., Qian, M., Chen, Z., Wang, S., Gao, X., Zhang, S., Wang, H., Guo, X., Zhang, P., … Li, G. (2021). Hypoxic glioma-derived exosomes promote M2-like macrophage polarization by enhancing autophagy induction. Cell Death & Disease, 12(4), 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41419-021-03664-1 Cite
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