US Bars International Students from Online-Only Learning in Fall

Since higher education institutions ended in-person classes in March due to the COVID-19 pandemic, there has been uncertainty over what classes will look like in the fall. Universities will soon have to come up with an answer.
[The Scientist]
Editorial

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Microglia Phagocytose Myelin Sheaths to Modify Developmental Myelination

To determine whether microglia also prune myelin sheaths, scientists used zebrafish to visualize and manipulate interactions between microglia, oligodendrocytes, and neurons during development.
[Nature Neuroscience]
Hughes, A. N., & Appel, B. (2020). Microglia phagocytose myelin sheaths to modify developmental myelination. Nature Neuroscience, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41593-020-0654-2 Cite
Abstract

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Spiking Neurons with Spatiotemporal Dynamics and Gain Modulation for Monolithically Integrated Memristive Neural Networks

Investigators demonstrated an artificial neuron based on NbOx volatile memristor that not only realized traditional all-or-nothing, threshold-driven spiking and spatiotemporal integration.
[Nature Communications]
Duan, Q., Jing, Z., Zou, X., Wang, Y., Yang, K., Zhang, T., … Yang, Y. (2020). Spiking neurons with spatiotemporal dynamics and gain modulation for monolithically integrated memristive neural networks. Nature Communications, 11(1), 3399. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-17215-3 Cite
Full Article

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Extrinsic Activin Signaling Cooperates with an Intrinsic Temporal Program to Increase Mushroom Body Neuronal Diversity

Scientists showed that the Activin ligand Myoglianin produced from glia downregulated the levels of the intrinsic temporal factor Imp in mushroom body neuroblasts.
[eLife]
Rossi, A. M., & Desplan, C. (2020). Extrinsic Activin signaling cooperates with an intrinsic temporal program to increase mushroom body neuronal diversity. ELife, 9, e58880. https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.58880 Cite
Abstract

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PCP4/PEP19 Downregulates Neurite Outgrowth via Transcriptional Regulation of Ascl1 and NeuroD1 Expression in Human Neuroblastoma M17 Cells

Researchers investigated the effects of PCP4/PEP19 expression on neuronal differentiation by analyzing neurite outgrowth, and expression of neuronal differentiation markers in cultured human neuroblastoma M17 cells.
[Laboratory investigation]
Kitazono, I., Hamada, T., Yoshimura, T., Kirishima, M., Yokoyama, S., Akahane, T., & Tanimoto, A. (2020). PCP4/PEP19 downregulates neurite outgrowth via transcriptional regulation of Ascl1 and NeuroD1 expression in human neuroblastoma M17 cells. Laboratory Investigation, 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41374-020-0462-z Cite
Abstract

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Neuronal Regulation of the Blood-Brain Barrier and Neurovascular Coupling

Scientists review how neural and vascular activity act on one another with regard to the blood–brain barrier and neurovascular coupling.
[Nature Reviews Neuroscience]
Neuronal regulation of the blood–brain barrier and neurovascular coupling | Nature Reviews Neuroscience. (n.d.). Retrieved July 7, 2020, from https://www.nature.com/articles/s41583-020-0322-2 Cite
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Glucose Metabolism Links Astroglial Mitochondria to Cannabinoid Effects

Investigators showed that activation of mouse astroglial type-1 cannabinoid receptors associated with mitochondrial membranes hampered the metabolism of glucose and the production of lactate in the brain, resulting in altered neuronal functions.
[Nature]
Glucose metabolism links astroglial mitochondria to cannabinoid effects | Nature. (n.d.). Retrieved July 8, 2020, from https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-020-2470-y#Abs1 Cite
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Ziopharm Oncology Doses First DIPG Patient in Phase I/II Trial of Controlled IL-12 for the Treatment of Pediatric Brain Tumors

Ziopharm Oncology, Inc. announced that the first patient with diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma has been dosed in its Phase I/II study of Ad-RTS-hIL-12 with veledimex for the treatment of pediatric brain tumors.
[Ziopharm Oncology]
Press Release

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Neurological Immunotherapy in the Era of COVID-19 — Looking for Consensus in the Literature

The authors summarize international recommendations, discuss them in light of the first available data from patients with COVID-19 receiving immunotherapy and provide an overview of management approaches in the COVID-19 era.
[Nature Reviews Neurology]
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An Optimist Takes the Helm at the National Science Foundation

The new director of the National Science Foundation (NSF), Sethuraman “Panch” Panchanathan, is familiar with the dark clouds over the agency. His boss, President Donald Trump, keeps proposing big cuts to NSF’s budget. Two recent executive orders on immigration make it harder for foreign scientists—who make up a sizeable share of the U.S. research enterprise—to enter the country.
[Science]
Press Release

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Pre-Clinical Study of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Dopaminergic Progenitor Cells for Parkinson’s Disease

Scientists evaluated the safety and efficacy of dopaminergic progenitors (DAPs) derived from a clinical-grade human iPSC line. They confirmed the characteristics of DAPs by in vitro analyses.
[Nature Communications]
Doi, D., Magotani, H., Kikuchi, T., Ikeda, M., Hiramatsu, S., Yoshida, K., … Takahashi, J. (2020). Pre-clinical study of induced pluripotent stem cell-derived dopaminergic progenitor cells for Parkinson’s disease. Nature Communications, 11(1), 3369. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-17165-w Cite
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