Developing Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-Based Cerebral Organoids with a Controllable Microglia Ratio for Modeling Brain Development and Pathology

Investigators reported a new brain region-specific, microglia-containing organoid model by co-culturing human PSC-derived primitive neural progenitor cells and primitive macrophage progenitors.
[Stem Cell Reports]
Xu, R., Boreland, A. J., Li, X., Erickson, C., Jin, M., Atkins, C., Pang, Z. P., Daniels, B. P., & Jiang, P. (2021). Developing human pluripotent stem cell-based cerebral organoids with a controllable microglia ratio for modeling brain development and pathology. Stem Cell Reports, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stemcr.2021.06.011 Cite
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Functional Immune Cell-Astrocyte Interactions

Scientists review the interactions between immune cells and astrocytes and their roles in health and neurological diseases, with a special focus on multiple sclerosis.
[Journal of Experimental Medicine]
Sanmarco, L. M., Polonio, C. M., Wheeler, M. A., & Quintana, F. J. (2021). Functional immune cell–astrocyte interactions. Journal of Experimental Medicine, 218(9). https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20202715 Cite
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GRP78 Determines Glioblastoma Sensitivity to UBA1 Inhibition-Induced UPR Signaling and Cell Death

Scientists evaluated the functional activity and mechanism of TAK-243 in preclinical models of glioblastoma multiforme.
[Cell Death & Disease]
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Elevated Cellular PpIX Potentiates Sonodynamic Therapy in a Mouse Glioma Stem Cell-Bearing Glioma Model by Downregulating the Akt/NF-κB/MDR1 Pathway

Researchers hypothesized that elevation of cellular PpIX levels by down-regulation of MDR1 enhances anti-tumor effects by sonodynamic therapy.
[Scientific Reports]
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Distinctive Features of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

At variance with viral HCC, NAFLD-HCC shows a frequent association with cardiovascular co-morbidities, absence of cirrhosis in up to half of patients and an association with persistently normal transaminase values.
[Digestive and Liver Disease]
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Pathophysiological Communication between Hepatocytes and Non-Parenchymal Cells in Liver Injury from NAFLD to Liver Fibrosis

Reseachers overview recent findings from human study and animal models on the pathophysiological communication among hepatocytes, Kupffer cells, hepatic stellate cells and liver sinusoidal endothelial cells during the disease development.
[Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews]
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Elevated Cellular PpIX Potentiates Sonodynamic Therapy in a Mouse Glioma Stem Cell-Bearing Glioma Model by Downregulating the Akt/NF-κB/MDR1 Pathway

In high invasive progeny cells from mouse glioma stem cells (GSCs) and a GSC-bearing mouse glioma model, researchers assessed the anti-tumor effects of sonodynamic therapy with a COX-2 inhibitor, celecoxib.
[Scientific Reports]
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FDA Gives Speedy Review to Bayer’s Parkinson’s Stem Cell Therapy

Bayer subsidiary BlueRock Therapeutics has been granted a fast-track review by the FDA for DA01, its stem cell-based therapy for Parkinson’s disease which is currently in early-stage clinical testing.
[PharmaPhorum]
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Modest Changes in Spi1 Dosage Reveal the Potential for Altered Microglial Function as Seen in Alzheimer’s Disease

Investigators determined how the microglial transcriptome was altered following modest changes to Spi1 expression in primary mouse microglia.
[Scientific Reports]
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Exosomal miR-101-3p and miR-423-5p Inhibit Medulloblastoma Tumorigenesis through Targeting FOXP4 and EZH2

An in vitro functional analysis of miR-101-3p and miR-423-5p showed that treating medulloblastoma cells with the corresponding mimics significantly inhibited the proliferation, colony-forming ability, migratory ability, and invasive capacity of tumor cells, and promoted cell apoptosis.
[Cell Death & Differentiation]
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Simultaneous Disruption of PRC2 and Enhancer Function Underlies Histone H3.3-K27M Oncogenic Activity in Human Hindbrain Neural Stem Cells

Scientists used human hindbrain neural stem cells to model the consequences of H3.3-K27M on the epigenomic landscape in a relevant developmental context.
[Nature Genetics]
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