Expression of the Transcription Factor PU.1 Induces the Generation of Microglia-Like Cells in Human Cortical Organoids

The authors developed a method to generate functional microglia in human cortical organoids from human embryonic stem cells.
[Nature Communications]
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Androgens Increase Excitatory Neurogenic Potential in Human Brain Organoids

Investigators used brain organoids to show that although sex chromosomal complement had no observable effect on neurogenesis, sex steroids—namely androgens—led to increased proliferation of cortical progenitors and an increased neurogenic pool.
[Nature]
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Orbus Therapeutics’ Phase III Eflornithine STELLAR Study Reaches Full Patient Enrollment

Orbus Therapeutics, Inc. announced that patient enrollment of its Phase III STELLAR clinical study of eflornithine in patients with recurrent anaplastic astrocytoma is complete. The STELLAR study completed full enrollment with a total of 343 patients.
[Orbus Therapeutics, Inc.]
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AI Therapeutics Announces Initiation of a Phase II Clinical Trial of AIT-101 for Treatment of ALS

AI Therapeutics, Inc., a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company developing novel therapeutics for rare diseases, announced the initiation of a Phase II study for a promising new approach to treat ALS.
[AI Therapeutics, Inc.]
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EIF4A3-Induced circCCNB1 (hsa_circ_0001495) Promotes Glioma Progression by Elevating CCND1 through Interacting miR-516b-5p and HuR

CircRNA cyclin B1 (circCCNB1) knockdown reduced cyclin D1 (CCND1) expression in glioma cells and CCND1 overexpression bated the effect of circCCNB1 knockdown on glioma cell growth.
[Metabolic Brain Disease]
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Astrocytes Display Cell Autonomous and Diverse Early Reactive States in Familial Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

The authors revealed that reactive transformation can occur cell autonomously in human ALS astrocytes and with a striking degree of early molecular and functional heterogeneity when comparing different disease-causing mutations.
[Brain]
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Chemokine CCL18 Promotes Phagocytosis Through Its Receptor CCR8 Rather than PITPNM3 in Human Microglial Cells

Investigators showed that CCL18 did not change the expression of the inflammatory factors, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha, or inducible nitric oxide synthase, but significantly induced expression of the macrophage markers, MRC-1 and ARG-1 M2, in a human microglial clone 3 cell line
[Journal of Interferon and Cytokine Research]
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The Neuronal Retromer Can Regulate Both Neuronal and Microglial Phenotypes of Alzheimer’s Disease

Scientists showed that the neuronal retromer could regulate Alzheimer’s disease (AD)-associated pathologies in two of AD’s principal cell types, which strengthened the link, and clarified the mechanism, between endosomal trafficking and late-onset sporadic AD.
[Cell Reports]
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Recent Investigations on Neurotransmitters’ Role in Acute White Matter Injury of Perinatal Glia and Pharmacotherapies—Glia Dynamics in Stem Cell Therapy

The authors discuss multiple pathophysiological aspects of white matter injury along with glial dynamics, and the pharmacotherapies including recent insights into the application of MSCs as therapeutic modality in treating white matter injury.
[Molecular Neurobiology]
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Transcription Elongation Machinery Is a Druggable Dependency and Potentiates Immunotherapy in Glioblastoma Stem Cells

Researchers interrogated gene expression and whole-genome CRISPR/Cas9 screening in a large panel of patient-derived glioblastoma (GBM) stem cells (GSCs), differentiated GBM cells, and neural stem cells to identify master regulators of GSC stemness.
[Cancer Discovery]
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POLE2 Facilitates the Malignant Phenotypes of Glioblastoma through Promoting AURKA-Mediated Stabilization of FOXM1

The authors revealed crucial roles and a novel mechanism of poly ε-B subunit (POLE2) involved in glioblastoma (GBM) through Aurora kinase A (AURKA)-mediated stability of forkhead transcription factor (FOXM1) and may provide the theoretical basis of molecular therapy for GBM.
[Cell Death & Disease]
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