Generation of Immune Cell Containing Adipose Organoids for In Vitro Analysis of Immune Metabolism

Scientists created the first 3D adipose tissue organoid model which could contain and maintain resident immune cell populations of the stromal vascular fraction and proved to be effective in studying adipose tissue biology in a convenient manner.
[Scientific Reports]
Taylor, J., Sellin, J., Kuerschner, L., Krähl, L., Majlesain, Y., Förster, I., Thiele, C., Weighardt, H., & Weber, E. (2020). Generation of immune cell containing adipose organoids for in vitro analysis of immune metabolism. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 21104. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-78015-9 Cite
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Silk Fibroin Vascular Graft: A Promising Tissue-Engineered Scaffold Material for Abdominal Venous System Replacement

The authors focused on the development of new tissue-engineered vascular graft using a silk-based scaffold material for abdominal venous system replacement. A rat vein, the inferior vena cava, was replaced by a silk fibroin tissue-engineered vascular graft.
[Scientific Reports]
Kiritani, S., Kaneko, J., Ito, D., Morito, M., Ishizawa, T., Akamatsu, N., Tanaka, M., Iida, T., Tanaka, T., Tanaka, R., Asakura, T., Arita, J., & Hasegawa, K. (2020). Silk fibroin vascular graft: a promising tissue-engineered scaffold material for abdominal venous system replacement. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 21041. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-78020-y Cite
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The Vascular Landscape of Human Cancer

Researchers developed a standardized metric- the Endothelial Index- to estimate vascular density in over 10,000 human tumors, corresponding to 31 solid tumor types, from transcriptome data.
[Journal of Clinical Investigation]
Kahn, B. M., Lucas, A., Alur, R., Wengyn, M. D., Schwartz, G. W., Li, J., Sun, K., Maurer, H. C., Olive, K. P., Faryabi, R. B., & Stanger, B. (2020). The vascular landscape of human cancer. The Journal of Clinical Investigation. https://doi.org/10.1172/JCI136655 Cite
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Bio-Thera Solutions Submits Marketing Authorization Application (MAA) for BAT1706, a Proposed Biosimilar to Avastin®, to European Medicines Agency (EMA)

Bio-Thera Solutions announced that it has submitted the MAA for BAT1706, a proposed biosimilar to Avastin®, to EMA. Bio-Thera seeks a commercial license for all approved indications of bevacizumab in the European Union Member States, Iceland, Norway and Liechtenstein.
[Bio-Thera Solution]
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Fruquintinib Inhibits VEGF/VEGFR2 Axis of Choroidal Endothelial Cells and M1-Type Macrophages to Protect against Mouse Laser-Induced Choroidal Neovascularization

Investigators HMPL-013 inhibited VEGF/VEGFR2 binding in choroidal endothelial cells and macrophages, as well as macrophage M1 polarization. In vitro, noncontact coculture of human choroidal vascular endothelial cells and macrophages under hypoxia conditions was established.
[Cell Death & Disease]
Liu, X., Guo, A., Tu, Y., Li, W., Li, L., Liu, W., Ju, Y., Zhou, Y., Sang, A., & Zhu, M. (2020). Fruquintinib inhibits VEGF/VEGFR2 axis of choroidal endothelial cells and M1-type macrophages to protect against mouse laser-induced choroidal neovascularization. Cell Death & Disease, 11(11), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41419-020-03222-1 Cite
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Olfactory Transmucosal SARS-CoV-2 Invasion as a Port of Central Nervous System Entry in Individuals with COVID-19

SARS-CoV-2 could enter the nervous system by crossing the neural–mucosal interface in olfactory mucosa, exploiting the close vicinity of olfactory mucosal, endothelial and nervous tissue, including delicate olfactory and sensory nerve endings.
[Nature Neuroscience]
Meinhardt, J., Radke, J., Dittmayer, C., Franz, J., Thomas, C., Mothes, R., Laue, M., Schneider, J., Brünink, S., Greuel, S., Lehmann, M., Hassan, O., Aschman, T., Schumann, E., Chua, R. L., Conrad, C., Eils, R., Stenzel, W., Windgassen, M., … Heppner, F. L. (2020). Olfactory transmucosal SARS-CoV-2 invasion as a port of central nervous system entry in individuals with COVID-19. Nature Neuroscience, 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41593-020-00758-5 Cite
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A Comprehensive Library of Human Transcription Factors for Cell Fate Engineering

Scientists demonstrated orthogonal programming by including oligodendrocyte-inducible hPSCs with unmodified hPSCs to generate cerebral organoids, which expedited in situ myelination.
[Nature Biotechnology]
Ng, A. H. M., Khoshakhlagh, P., Rojo Arias, J. E., Pasquini, G., Wang, K., Swiersy, A., Shipman, S. L., Appleton, E., Kiaee, K., Kohman, R. E., Vernet, A., Dysart, M., Leeper, K., Saylor, W., Huang, J. Y., Graveline, A., Taipale, J., Hill, D. E., Vidal, M., … Church, G. M. (2020). A comprehensive library of human transcription factors for cell fate engineering. Nature Biotechnology, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41587-020-0742-6 Cite
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Targeting PAK4 to Reprogram the Vascular Microenvironment and Improve CAR-T Immunotherapy for Glioblastoma

PAK4 knockout induced adhesion protein re-expression in endothelial cells, reduced vascular abnormalities, improved T cell infiltration and inhibits glioblastoma growth in mice.
[Nature Cancer]
Ma, W., Wang, Y., Zhang, R., Yang, F., Zhang, D., Huang, M., Zhang, L., Dorsey, J. F., Binder, Z. A., O’Rourke, D. M., Fraietta, J. A., Gong, Y., & Fan, Y. (2020). Targeting PAK4 to reprogram the vascular microenvironment and improve CAR-T immunotherapy for glioblastoma. Nature Cancer, 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1038/s43018-020-00147-8 Cite
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In Vitro Model of Distinct Catabolic and Inflammatory Response Patterns of Endothelial Cells to Intervertebral Disc Cell Degeneration

The authors analyzed IL-6 and -8, VEGF, matrix metalloproteinase-1 and -3, nerve growth factor-β, and brain-derived neurotrophic factors with qRT-PCR and ELISA.
[Scientific Reports]
Hwang, M. H., Son, H.-G., Kim, J., & Choi, H. (2020). In vitro model of distinct catabolic and inflammatory response patterns of endothelial cells to intervertebral disc cell degeneration. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 20596. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-77785-6 Cite
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Commensal-Driven Immune Zonation of the Liver Promotes Host Defence

Investigators used quantitative multiplex imaging, genetic perturbations, transcriptomics, infection-based assays and mathematical modeling to reassess the relationship between the localization of immune cells in the liver and host protection.
[Nature]
Gola, A., Dorrington, M. G., Speranza, E., Sala, C., Shih, R. M., Radtke, A. J., Wong, H. S., Baptista, A. P., Hernandez, J. M., Castellani, G., Fraser, I. D. C., & Germain, R. N. (2020). Commensal-driven immune zonation of the liver promotes host defence. Nature, 1–6. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2977-2 Cite
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Immunobiology and Immunotherapy of HCC: Spotlight on Endothelial Specific YY1 Deletion Restricts Tumor Angiogenesis and Tumor Growthinnate and Innate-Like Immune Cells

VEGF-induced endothelial cell (EC) migration was diminished in Yin Yang 1 (YY1)-depleted HUVECs. A rescue experiment revealed that YY1-regulated BMP6 expression in ECs was involved in EC migration.
[Scientific Reports]
Ruf, B., Heinrich, B., & Greten, T. F. (2020). Immunobiology and immunotherapy of HCC: spotlight on innate and innate-like immune cells. Cellular & Molecular Immunology, 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41423-020-00572-w Cite
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