Immune Checkpoint-Bioengineered Beta Cell Vaccine Reverses Early-Onset Type 1 Diabetes

A subcutaneous injectable acellular pancreatic extracellular matrix platform for localizing the bioengineered β cells while creating a pancreas‐like immunogenic microenvironment, in which the autoreactive T cells can interface with the β cells, was devised.
[Advanced Materials]
Associations of accumulated selected persistent organic pollutants in adipose tissue with insulin sensitivity and risk of incident type-2 diabetes. (2021). Environment International, 155, 106607. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2021.106607 Cite
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Bigfoot Biomedical® Receives FDA Clearance for Bigfoot Unity Diabetes Management System, Featuring First-of-Its-Kind Smart Pen Caps for Insulin Pens Used to Treat Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes

Bigfoot Biomedical, Inc. announced that the FDA has granted 510(k) clearance for first-of-its-kind Bigfoot Unity Diabetes Management System, which features connected smart pen caps that recommend insulin doses for people using multiple daily injection therapy.
[Bigfoot Biomedical, Inc. (Business Wire, Inc.)]
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CD82 Is a Marker to Isolate β Cell Precursors from Human iPS Cells and Plays a Role for the Maturation of β Cells

To isolate β cell precursors from late stage pancreatic endocrine progenitor (EP) cells derived from iPS cells, researchers have identified CD82, a member of the tetraspanin family. CD82+ cells at the EP stage differentiated into endocrine cells more efficiently than CD82− EP stage cells.
[Scientific Reports]
Watanabe, A., Tanaka, A., Koga, C., Matsumoto, M., Okazaki, Y., Kin, T., & Miyajima, A. (2021). CD82 is a marker to isolate β cell precursors from human iPS cells and plays a role for the maturation of β cells. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 9530. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-88978-y Cite
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Comparison of Independent and Combined Effects of the Neurotensin Receptor Agonist, JMV-449, and Incretin Mimetics on Pancreatic Islet Function, Glucose Homeostasis and Appetite Control

Researchers assessed the actions of JMV-449 on pancreatic beta-cells alone, and in combination with glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1).
[Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta-General Subjects]
Comparison of independent and combined effects of the neurotensin receptor agonist, JMV-449, and incretin mimetics on pancreatic islet function, glucose homeostasis and appetite control. (2021). Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - General Subjects, 129917. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbagen.2021.129917 Cite
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Cyclic AMP-Dependent Activation of ERK via GLP-1 Receptor Signaling Requires the Neuroendocrine Cell-Specific Guanine Nucleotide Exchanger NCS-RapGEF2

Scientists examined the expression of other Family B Gs‐protein coupled receptor in the cell line and assessed cAMP elevation and neuritogenesis after treatment with their cognate peptide ligands.
[Journal of Neuroendocrinology]
Xu, W., Dahlke, S. P., Emery, A. C., Sung, M., Chepurny, O. G., Holz, G. G., & Eiden, L. E. (n.d.). Cyclic AMP-dependent activation of ERK via GLP-1 receptor signalling requires the neuroendocrine cell-specific guanine nucleotide exchanger NCS-RapGEF2. Journal of Neuroendocrinology, n/a(n/a), e12974. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1111/jne.12974 Cite
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NOX4 Links Metabolic Regulation in Pancreatic Cancer to Endoplasmic Reticulum Redox Vulnerability and Dependence on PRDX4

Using functional genomics and subsequent in vitro and in vivo validations, investigators found that pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cell lines with high NADPH levels were dependent on peroxiredoxin 4 for their growth and survival.
[Science Advances]
Jain, P., Dvorkin-Gheva, A., Mollen, E., Malbeteau, L., Xie, M., Jessa, F., Dhavarasa, P., Chung, S., Brown, K. R., Jang, G. H., Vora, P., Notta, F., Moffat, J., Hedley, D., Boutros, P. C., Wouters, B. G., & Koritzinsky, M. (2021). NOX4 links metabolic regulation in pancreatic cancer to endoplasmic reticulum redox vulnerability and dependence on PRDX4. Science Advances, 7(19), eabf7114. https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abf7114 Cite
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Exosomal circ_0030167 Derived from BM-MSCs Inhibits the Invasion, Migration, Proliferation and Stemness of Pancreatic Cancer Cells by Sponging miR-338-5p and Targeting the Wif1/Wnt8/β-Catenin Axis

Researchers found that BM-MSC-derived exosomes significantly reduced the invasion, migration, and proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells, as well as tumor stemness.
[Cancer Letters]
Exosomal circ_0030167 derived from BM-MSCs inhibits the invasion, migration, proliferation and stemness of pancreatic cancer cells by sponging miR-338-5p and targeting the Wif1/Wnt8/β-catenin axis. (2021). Cancer Letters. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.canlet.2021.04.030 Cite
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Antitumor Effects of iPSC-Based Cancer Vaccine in Pancreatic Cancer

Investigators showed that an iPSC-based cancer vaccine, comprised of autologous iPSCs and CpG, stimulated cytotoxic antitumor CD8+ T cell effector and memory responses, induced cancer-specific humoral immune responses, reduced immunosuppressive CD4+ T regulatory cells, and prevented tumor formation in 75% of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma mice.
[Stem Cell Reports]
Ouyang, X., Liu, Y., Zhou, Y., Guo, J., Wei, T.-T., Liu, C., Lee, B., Chen, B., Zhang, A., Casey, K. M., Wang, L., Kooreman, N. G., Habtezion, A., Engleman, E. G., & Wu, J. C. (2021). Antitumor effects of iPSC-based cancer vaccine in pancreatic cancer. Stem Cell Reports, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stemcr.2021.04.004 Cite
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Impact of Histological Response after Neoadjuvant Therapy on Podocalyxin as a Prognostic Marker in Pancreatic Cancer

Researchers developed a six-tier grading scheme for neoadjuvant responses evaluating the remaining tumor cells in surgical specimens.
[Scientific Reports]
Eurola, A., Ristimäki, A., Mustonen, H., Nurmi, A.-M., Hagström, J., Haglund, C., & Seppänen, H. (2021). Impact of histological response after neoadjuvant therapy on podocalyxin as a prognostic marker in pancreatic cancer. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 9896. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-89134-2 Cite
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Phenylethynylbenzyl-Modified Biguanides Inhibit Pancreatic Cancer Tumor Growth

Scientists presented the design and synthesis of a small library of substituted biguanidium salts and their capacity to inhibit the growth of pancreatic cancer cells.
[Scientific Reports]
Hébert, A., Parisotto, M., Rowell, M.-C., Doré, A., Fernandez Ruiz, A., Lefrançois, G., Kalegari, P., Ferbeyre, G., & Schmitzer, A. R. (2021). Phenylethynylbenzyl-modified biguanides inhibit pancreatic cancer tumor growth. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 9854. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-87993-3 Cite
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The Complex Link between NAFLD and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus — Mechanisms and Treatments

The authors describe the evidence of an association and causal link between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), discusses the putative pathophysiological mechanisms linking NAFLD to T2DM and summarizes the current pharmacological treatments for NAFLD or T2DM that might benefit or adversely affect the risk of T2DM or NAFLD progression.
[Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology]
Targher, G., Corey, K. E., Byrne, C. D., & Roden, M. (2021). The complex link between NAFLD and type 2 diabetes mellitus — mechanisms and treatments. Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology, 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41575-021-00448-y Cite
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