LILRB4 Suppresses Immunity in Solid Tumors and Is a Potential Target for Immunotherapy

The authors observed a high correlation in LILRB4 expression with other immune inhibitory receptors. After tumor challenge, LILRB4−/− mice and mice treated with anti-LILRB4 antibody showed reduced tumor burden and increased survival.
[Journal of Experimental Medicine]
Sharma, N., Atolagbe, O. T., Ge, Z., & Allison, J. P. (2021). LILRB4 suppresses immunity in solid tumors and is a potential target for immunotherapy. Journal of Experimental Medicine, 218(e20201811). https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20201811 Cite
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Knockout RAGE Alleviates Cardiac Fibrosis through Repressing Endothelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition (EndMT) Mediated by Autophagy

Scientists found a decrease in endothelial cells and an increase in cells co-expressing CD31 and α-smooth muscle actin at eight weeks in heart tissue of mice subjected to transverse aortic constriction, which implied EndMT.
[Cell Death & Disease]
Zhang, L., He, J., Wang, J., Liu, J., Chen, Z., Deng, B., Wei, L., Wu, H., Liang, B., Li, H., Huang, Y., Lu, L., Yang, Z., Xian, S., & Wang, L. (2021). Knockout RAGE alleviates cardiac fibrosis through repressing endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) mediated by autophagy. Cell Death & Disease, 12(5), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41419-021-03750-4 Cite
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The MNK1/2-eIF4E Axis Supports Immune Suppression and Metastasis in Postpartum Breast Cancer

Investigators used a combination of in vivo postpartum breast cancer models and in vitro assays to study the effects of inactivation of the MNK1/2-eIF4E axis on the pro-tumor function of select cells of the TME
[Cancer Research]
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Visualizing Extracellular Vesicles and Their Function in 3D Tumor Microenvironment Models

The authors discuss extracellular vesicle (EV) biology in 3D culture correlates of the tumor microenvironment (TME). This includes EV communication between cell types of the TME, differences in EV biogenesis and signaling associated with differing scaffold choices and in scaffold-free 3D cultures and cultivation of the premetastatic niche.
[International Journal of Molecular Sciences]
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CSA Medical Announces Completion of Enrollment in Mechanism of Action Study Utilizing the RejuvenAir® System for COPD Patients with Chronic Bronchitis

CSA Medical, Inc. announced that all subjects have been enrolled in the RejuvenAir® System study. The aim of this study is to determine the mechanism by which Metered CryoSpray reduces the density of goblet cells responsible for over-producing mucus and observe re-growth of healthy cilia in the airways.
[CSA Medical, Inc. (Cision US, Inc.)]
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Cross-Tissue Organization of the Fibroblast Lineage

The authors constructed fibroblast atlases by integrating single-cell transcriptomic data from about 230,000 fibroblasts across 17 tissues, 50 datasets, 11 disease states and 2 species.
[Nature]
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Mechanical Plasticity of Collagen Directs Branch Elongation in Human Mammary Gland Organoids

Investigators reported that epithelial ductal elongation within human mammary organoid branches relied on the non-linear and plastic mechanical response of the surrounding collagen.
[Nature Communications]
Buchmann, B., Engelbrecht, L. K., Fernandez, P., Hutterer, F. P., Raich, M. K., Scheel, C. H., & Bausch, A. R. (2021). Mechanical plasticity of collagen directs branch elongation in human mammary gland organoids. Nature Communications, 12(1), 2759. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-22988-2 Cite
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Activation of Transmembrane Receptor Tyrosine Kinase DDR1-STAT3 Cascade by Extracellular Matrix Remodeling Promotes Liver Metastatic Colonization in Uveal Melanoma

The authors postulated the hypothesis that DDR1 and its ligand might ignite the interaction between uveal melanoma (UM) cells and their surrounding niche of liver thereby conferring strengthened survival, proliferation, stemness and eventually promoting metastatic colonization in liver.
[Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy]
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Symmetry Breaking of Tissue Mechanics in Wound Induced Hair Follicle Regeneration of Laboratory and Spiny Mice

Scientists demonstrated that tissue mechanics, or the stiffness of the wound bed, the ECM, and the stiffness of the cells also partook during wound-induced hair neogenesis; the hair primordia formation was not exclusive to molecular signaling events.
[Nature Communications]
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Hyaluronic Acid Is a Negative Regulator of Mucosal Fibroblast-Mediated Enhancement of HIV Infection

Since inflammation is known to facilitate HIV sexual transmission, researchers investigated the role of hyaluronic acid in genital mucosal fibroblast-mediated enhancement of HIV infection.
[Mucosal Immunology]
Egedal, J. H., Xie, G., Packard, T. A., Laustsen, A., Neidleman, J., Georgiou, K., Pillai, S. K., Greene, W. C., Jakobsen, M. R., & Roan, N. R. (2021). Hyaluronic acid is a negative regulator of mucosal fibroblast-mediated enhancement of HIV infection. Mucosal Immunology, 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41385-021-00409-3 Cite
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IL4 Promotes Phagocytosis of Murine Leukemia Cells Counteracted by CD47 Upregulation

Scientists investigated whether interleukin 4 (IL4) had antileukemic activity via immune-mediated mechanisms in an in vivo murine model of acute myeloid leukemia driven by the MLL–AF9 fusion gene.
[Haematologica]
Peña-Martínez, P., Ramakrishnan, R., Högberg, C., Jansson, C., Nord, D. G., & Järås, M. (2020). IL4 promotes phagocytosis of murine leukemia cells counteracted by CD47 upregulation. Haematologica. https://doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2020.270421 Cite
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