Using genetically targeted viral tracing and whole-brain anatomical analysis, investigators identified over 40 substantia nigra pars reticulata targets that encompass a roughly 50-fold range of axonal densities.
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This review examines the current knowledge of heparan sulfate proteoglycans in the stem cell niche, human stem cell models, and their role in the development of 3D models that mimic the in vivo neural extracellular matrix.
[Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis]
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Researchers demonstrated that a reduced opticin levels in ROP vitreous are regulated by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) secreted by activated microglia.
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Patnaik, S., Rai, M., Jalali, S., Agarwal, K., Badakere, A., Puppala, L., Vishwakarma, S., Balakrishnan, D., Rani, P. K., Kekunnaya, R., Chhablani, P. P., Chakrabarti, S., & Kaur, I. (2021). An interplay of microglia and matrix metalloproteinase MMP9 under hypoxic stress regulates the opticin expression in retina. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 7444. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-86302-2 Cite
Researchers offered evidence that combined overexpression of both brain-derived neurotrophic factor and its receptor, tropomyosin receptor kinase B, was more effective in stimulating axonal transport than either receptor administration or ligand administration alone.
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Khatib, T. Z., Osborne, A., Yang, S., Ali, Z., Jia, W., Manyakin, I., Hall, K., Watt, R., Widdowson, P. S., & Martin, K. R. (2021). Receptor-ligand supplementation via a self-cleaving 2A peptide–based gene therapy promotes CNS axonal transport with functional recovery. Science Advances, 7(14), eabd2590. https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abd2590 Cite
Trying to unveil the molecular pathway triggering postsynaptic effects, researchers found that Wnt5a treatment induces a time-dependent increases in the length of the postsynaptic density, elicits novel synaptic contacts and facilitates F-actin flow both in in vitro and ex vivo models.
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The authors evaluated the therapeutic potential of free fatty acid-induced lipotoxicity for the suppression of glioma growth.
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To investigate the role of SIRPα in neurodegeneration, researchers modulated the expression of microglial SIRPα in mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease.
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Investigators characterized the molecular profile of intermediate progenitor cells (IPCs). They isolated TBR2-positive IPCs and TBR2-negative cell populations in the developing mouse cortex.
[Stem Cell Reports]
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Ulmke, P. A., Sakib, M. S., Ditte, P., Sokpor, G., Kerimoglu, C., Pham, L., Xie, Y., Mao, X., Rosenbusch, J., Teichmann, U., Nguyen, H. P., Fischer, A., Eichele, G., Staiger, J. F., & Tuoc, T. (2021). Molecular Profiling Reveals Involvement of ESCO2 in Intermediate Progenitor Cell Maintenance in the Developing Mouse Cortex. Stem Cell Reports, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stemcr.2021.03.008 Cite
Myelin alterations are accompanied by higher oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC) density and proliferation during the first weeks of life, consistent with a transient alteration of mechanisms regulating OPC self-renewal and differentiation.
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Lorenzati, M., Boda, E., Parolisi, R., Bonato, M., Borsello, T., Herdegen, T., Buffo, A., & Vercelli, A. (2021). c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1) modulates oligodendrocyte progenitor cell architecture, proliferation and myelination. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 7264. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-86673-6 Cite
To investigate the cause of abnormal behaviors exhibited by ATF5−/− mice, researchers analyzed the embryonic cerebral cortex of ATF5−/− mice. The ATF5−/− embryonic cerebral cortex was slightly thinner and had reduced numbers of radial glial cells and neural progenitor cells, compared to a wild-type cerebral cortex.
Scientists investigated the role that overexpression of UPF1, a protein involved in nonsense-mediated decay, plays in mitigating neurotoxicity in multiple models of C9orf72 ALS/FTD.
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