Remodeling without Destruction: Non-Proteolytic Ubiquitin Chains in Neural Function and Brain Disorders

The authors discuss recent advances on nonconventional ubiquitin chains in neural development, function, plasticity, and related pathologies.
[Molecular Psychiatry]
Zajicek, A., & Yao, W.-D. (2020). Remodeling without destruction: non-proteolytic ubiquitin chains in neural function and brain disorders. Molecular Psychiatry, 1–18. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41380-020-0849-7 Cite
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Chaperone-Mediated Autophagy Regulates the Pluripotency of Embryonic Stem Cells

The authors showed that core pluripotency factors OCT4 and SOX2 suppress chaperone-mediated autophagy, a selective form of autophagy, until the initiation of differentiation.
[Science]
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Glucocorticoid Priming of Nonviral Gene Delivery to Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Increases Transfection by Reducing Induced Stresses

Scientists showed that transgene expression enhancement was mediated by transcriptional activation of endogenous human MSC genes by the cytosolic glucocorticoid receptor.
[Molecular Therapy-Methods & Clinical Development]
Hamann, A., Kozisek, T., Broad, K., & Pannier, A. K. (2020). Glucocorticoid Priming of Nonviral Gene Delivery to Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Increases Transfection by Reducing Induced Stresses. Molecular Therapy - Methods & Clinical Development, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.omtm.2020.07.014 Cite
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Zeta Inhibitory Peptide Attenuates Learning and Memory by Inducing NO-Mediated Downregulation of AMPA Receptor

Scientists found that zeta inhibitory peptide induced redistribution of the AMPARGluA1 in HEK293 cells and primary cortical neurons, and decreased AMPAR-mediated currents in the nucleus accumbens.
[Nature Communications]
Bingor, A., Haham, T., Thornton, C., Stern-Bach, Y., & Yaka, R. (2020). Zeta Inhibitory Peptide attenuates learning and memory by inducing NO-mediated downregulation of AMPA receptors. Nature Communications, 11(1), 3688. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-17484-y Cite
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Gene Expression Profiling of Glioblastoma Cell Lines Depending on TP53 Status after Tumor-Treating Fields (TTFields) Treatment

Researchers identified the key gene signatures and pathways associated with TTFields in four glioblastoma cell lines varying in TP53 mutation status using gene profiling and functional annotation.
[Scientific Reports]
Lee, Y.-J., Seo, H. W., Baek, J.-H., Lim, S. H., Hwang, S.-G., & Kim, E. H. (2020). Gene expression profiling of glioblastoma cell lines depending on TP53 status after tumor-treating fields (TTFields) treatment. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 12272. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-68473-6 Cite
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PAX 6D Instructs Neural Retinal Specification from Human Embryonic Stem Cell‐Derived Neuroectoderm

Investigators found that the paired‐less PAX 6, PAX 6D, was expressed in neural retina cells during human eye development and along human embryonic stem cell specification to retinal cells.
[EMBO Reports]
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hUC-MSCs Ameliorated CUMS-Induced Depression by Modulating Complement C3 Signaling-Mediated Microglial Polarization during Astrocyte-Microglia Crosstalk

Human umbilical cord (hUC)-MSCs were administered into chronic unpredictable mild stress model mice through the tail vein once a week for four weeks. After the administration of hUC-MSCs, the depression-like and anxiety-like phenotypes, neuronal histopathology, synaptic-related protein expression and inflammatory index of the mice were assessed.
[Brain Research Bulletin]
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Microglia Require CD4 T Cells to Complete the Fetal-to-Adult Transition

The authors used a combination of imaging, single cell, and surgical approaches to identify a CD69+ CD4 T cell population in both the mouse and human brain, distinct from circulating CD4 T cells.
[Cell]
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Clinical Trials Rebound After COVID-19 Crash, but Can Enrollment Gains Continue?

For the hundreds of thousands of people enrolling in clinical trials every year—and for whom experimental therapies can offer a last hope—a new report provides some welcome news: Enrollment in clinical studies in the United States is on the rebound after disruptions caused by the COVID-19 pandemic.
[ScienceInsider]
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CytRx Corporation Highlights Orphazyme’s Announcement of its Collaboration with The Michael J. Fox Foundation on Parkinson’s Disease Research

CytRx Corporation highlighted that Orphayzme A/S announced it will join The Michael J. Fox Foundation’s Parkinson’s Disease Research Tools Consortium.
[CytRx Corporation]
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Science Money Slashed in EU’s €1.8-Trillion Budget Deal

A historic €1.8-trillion (US$2.1-trillion) budget deal reached by European Union (EU) leaders to fund its next seven years — and its recovery from the coronavirus pandemic — has left scientists and research advocates disappointed.
[Nature News]
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Axon Growth of CNS Neurons in Three Dimensions Is Amoeboid and Independent of Adhesions

Reserachers explored the mechanisms underlying axon growth in three dimensions. They found that CNS neurons used amoeboid mechanisms to drive axon growth.
[Cell Reports]
Santos, T. E., Schaffran, B., Broguière, N., Meyn, L., Zenobi-Wong, M., & Bradke, F. (2020). Axon Growth of CNS Neurons in Three Dimensions Is Amoeboid and Independent of Adhesions. Cell Reports, 32(3). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.107907 Cite
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