Megalencephalic Leukoencephalopathy with Subcortical Cysts 1 (MLC1) Promotes Glioblastoma Cell Invasion in the Brain Microenvironment

The authors showed that Mlc1 was expressed in human stem-like glioblastoma (GBM) cells and was linked to the development of primary and recurrent GBM.
[Oncogene]
Lattier, J. M., De, A., Chen, Z., Morales, J. E., Lang, F. F., Huse, J. T., & McCarty, J. H. (2020). Megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts 1 (MLC1) promotes glioblastoma cell invasion in the brain microenvironment. Oncogene, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41388-020-01503-9 Cite
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Neuronal Lipolysis Participates in PUFA-Mediated Neural Function and Neurodegeneration

Investigators discovered that mutations of two key lipolysis genes atgl‐1 and lid‐1 led to lipid droplets appearance in neurons of Caenorhabditis elegans. This neuronal lipid accumulation protected neurons from hyperactivation‐triggered neurodegeneration, with a mild decrease in touch sensation.
[EMBO Reports]
Yang, L., Liang, J., Lam, S. M., Yavuz, A., Shui, G., Ding, M., & Huang, X. (2020). Neuronal lipolysis participates in PUFA-mediated neural function and neurodegeneration. EMBO Reports, n/a(n/a), e50214. https://doi.org/10.15252/embr.202050214 Cite
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Tideglusib Attenuates Growth of Neuroblastoma Cancer Stem/Progenitor Cells In Vitro and In Vivo by Specifically Targeting GSK-3β

Investigators evaluated the potential anti-tumor effect of Tideglusib, an irreversible glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β inhibitor drug, on three human neuroblastoma cell lines, SK-N-SH, SH-SY5Y, and IMR-32.
[Pharmacological Reports]
Bahmad, H. F., Chalhoub, R. M., Harati, H., Bou-Gharios, J., Assi, S., Ballout, F., Monzer, A., Msheik, H., Araji, T., Elajami, M. K., Ghanem, P., Chamaa, F., Kadara, H., Abou-Antoun, T., Daoud, G., Fares, Y., & Abou-Kheir, W. (2020). Tideglusib attenuates growth of neuroblastoma cancer stem/progenitor cells in vitro and in vivo by specifically targeting GSK-3β. Pharmacological Reports. https://doi.org/10.1007/s43440-020-00162-7 Cite
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Alpha-Synuclein Is Involved in Manganese-Induced Spatial Memory and Synaptic Plasticity Impairments via TrkB/Akt/Fyn-Mediated Phosphorylation of NMDA Receptors

Investigators transfected HT22 cells with lentivirus–alpha-synuclein (α-Syn) shRNA, followed by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and manganese stimulation. In vitro experiments indicated that α-Syn selectively interacted with TrkB receptors and inhibited BDNF/TrkB signaling, leading to phosphorylation and downregulation of GluN2B.
[Cell Death & Disease]
Ma, Z., Liu, K., Li, X.-R., Wang, C., Liu, C., Yan, D.-Y., Deng, Y., Liu, W., & Xu, B. (2020). Alpha-synuclein is involved in manganese-induced spatial memory and synaptic plasticity impairments via TrkB/Akt/Fyn-mediated phosphorylation of NMDA receptors. Cell Death & Disease, 11(10), 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41419-020-03051-2 Cite
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Nuclear WRAP53 Promotes Neuronal Survival and Functional Recovery After Stroke

Investigators found that DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in oxygen/glucose-deprived neurons spatiotemporally correlated with the up-regulation of WRAP53 (WD40-encoding p53-antisense RNA), which translocated to the nucleus to activate the DSB repair response.
[Science Advances]
Sánchez-Morán, I., Rodríguez, C., Lapresa, R., Agulla, J., Sobrino, T., Castillo, J., Bolaños, J. P., & Almeida, A. (2020). Nuclear WRAP53 promotes neuronal survival and functional recovery after stroke. Science Advances, 6(41), eabc5702. https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abc5702 Cite
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Immunocytokines Are a Promising Immunotherapeutic Approach Against Glioblastoma

Researchers showed that L19 accumulated in the tumor microenvironment of two orthotopic immunocompetent mouse glioma models.
[Science Translational Medicine]
Weiss, T., Puca, E., Silginer, M., Hemmerle, T., Pazahr, S., Bink, A., Weller, M., Neri, D., & Roth, P. (2020). Immunocytokines are a promising immunotherapeutic approach against glioblastoma. Science Translational Medicine, 12(564). https://doi.org/10.1126/scitranslmed.abb2311 Cite
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Astrocytes Regulate Brain Extracellular pH via a Neuronal Activity-Dependent Bicarbonate Shuttle

The authors described an astroglial mechanism that contributed to the protection of the brain milieu from acidification. In vivo and in vitro experiments conducted in rodent models showed that at least one third of all astrocytes release bicarbonate to buffer extracellular H+ loads associated with increases in neuronal activity.
[Scientific Reports]
Theparambil, S. M., Hosford, P. S., Ruminot, I., Kopach, O., Reynolds, J. R., Sandoval, P. Y., Rusakov, D. A., Barros, L. F., & Gourine, A. V. (2020). Astrocytes regulate brain extracellular pH via a neuronal activity-dependent bicarbonate shuttle. Nature Communications, 11(1), 5073. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-18756-3 Cite
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A Spinal Neural Circuitry for Converting Touch to Itch Sensation

Scientists report that spinal interneurons expressing Tachykinin 2-Cre received direct Aβ low threshold mechanoreceptor input and formed monosynaptic connections with GRPR neurons.
[Nature Communications]
Chen, S., Gao, X.-F., Zhou, Y., Liu, B.-L., Liu, X.-Y., Zhang, Y., Barry, D. M., Liu, K., Jiao, Y., Bardoni, R., Yu, W., & Chen, Z.-F. (2020). A spinal neural circuitry for converting touch to itch sensation. Nature Communications, 11(1), 5074. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-18895-7 Cite
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The lncRNA LOC102549805 (U1) Modulates Neurotoxicity of HIV-1 Tat Protein

Scientists discovered that exposure of rat primary neurons to Tat resulted in the up-regulation of an uncharacterized long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), LOC102549805.
[Cell Death & Disease]
Torkzaban, B., Natarajaseenivasan, K., Mohseni Ahooyi, T., Shekarabi, M., Amini, S., Langford, T. D., & Khalili, K. (2020). The lncRNA LOC102549805 (U1) modulates neurotoxicity of HIV-1 Tat protein. Cell Death & Disease, 11(10), 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41419-020-03033-4 Cite
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Acrylamide Alters CREB and Retinoic Acid Signalling Pathways During Differentiation of the Human Neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y Cell Line

Scientists elucidated if non-cytotoxic concentrations of acrylamidealter neuronal differentiation by studying gene expression of markers significant for neurodevelopment in the human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell model.
[Scientific Reports]
Attoff, K., Johansson, Y., Cediel-Ulloa, A., Lundqvist, J., Gupta, R., Caiment, F., Gliga, A., & Forsby, A. (2020). Acrylamide alters CREB and retinoic acid signalling pathways during differentiation of the human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 16714. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-73698-6 Cite
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Glioma Pericytes Promote Angiogenesis by Producing Periostin

The authors describe succinctly the results and implications of this discovery in what we know about pericytes within the glioma microenvironment.
[Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology]
Bernardes, S. S., Pinto, M. C. X., Amorim, J. H., Azevedo, V. A. de C., Resende, R. R., Mintz, A., & Birbrair, A. (2020). Glioma Pericytes Promote Angiogenesis by Producing Periostin. Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10571-020-00975-3 Cite
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