The authors performed an in silico study of ADAMTS1 and endothelial markers in human gliomas, providing the basis to further assess these molecules in several primary glioblastoma-initiating cells and established glioblastoma cells with the ability to acquire an endothelial-like phenotype.
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Investigators summarize the impact of hypoxia and acidic stress on glioma stem cell signaling and biologic phenotypes, and potential methods to inhibit these pathways.
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The effects of ACT001 on cell survival of normal human astrocytes and patient-derived glioma stem-like cells were evaluated. RNA-Seq were performed to detect differentially expressed genes.
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Investigators demonstrated that STING was a critical regulator of nociception through type-I interferon signaling in peripheral nociceptive sensory neurons.
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Donnelly, C. R., Jiang, C., Andriessen, A. S., Wang, K., Wang, Z., Ding, H., Zhao, J., Luo, X., Lee, M. S., Lei, Y. L., Maixner, W., Ko, M.-C., & Ji, R.-R. (2021). STING controls nociception via type I interferon signalling in sensory neurons. Nature, 1–6. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-03151-1 Cite
Scientists describe and characterized a protocol focused on the generation of retinal ganglion cells within an accelerated four week timeframe without any external small molecules or growth factors.
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Researchers observed that monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) loss from oligodendrocyte lineage cells was dispensable for normal myelination and axonal energy homeostasis early in life.
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Philips, T., Mironova, Y. A., Jouroukhin, Y., Chew, J., Vidensky, S., Farah, M. H., Pletnikov, M. V., Bergles, D. E., Morrison, B. M., & Rothstein, J. D. (2021). MCT1 Deletion in Oligodendrocyte Lineage Cells Causes Late-Onset Hypomyelination and Axonal Degeneration. Cell Reports, 34(2). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.108610 Cite
To explore what signaling pathways may be involved, investigators employed heterologous synapse formation assays in which a synaptic adhesion molecule expressed in a nonneuronal cell induced pre- or postsynaptic specializations in cocultured neurons.
[Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America]
Cognito Therapeutic. Inc. announced its lead product has received Breakthrough Device Designation from the FDA for the treatment of cognitive and functional symptoms associated with Alzheimer’s disease.
[Cognito Therapeutic. Inc. (Business Wire, Inc.)]
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OX2 Therapeutics, Inc. announced that they treated their first patient in a Phase I human trial of a new treatment developed to combat recurrent high-grade brain tumors.
[OX2 Therapeutics, Inc. (Business Wire, Inc.)]
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The authors showed that a deficiency of aminopeptidase P1 modified the glial population and neuronal excitability in the hippocampus.
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Scientists used three independent approaches to probe the capacity of SARS-CoV-2 to infect the brain. Using human brain organoids, they observed clear evidence of infection with accompanying metabolic changes in infected and neighboring neurons.
[Journal of Experimental Medicine]
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Song, E., Zhang, C., Israelow, B., Lu-Culligan, A., Prado, A. V., Skriabine, S., Lu, P., Weizman, O.-E., Liu, F., Dai, Y., Szigeti-Buck, K., Yasumoto, Y., Wang, G., Castaldi, C., Heltke, J., Ng, E., Wheeler, J., Alfajaro, M. M., Levavasseur, E., … Iwasaki, A. (2021). Neuroinvasion of SARS-CoV-2 in human and mouse brain. Journal of Experimental Medicine, 218(e20202135). https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20202135 Cite