Specific Populations of Basal Ganglia Output Neurons Target Distinct Brain Stem Areas While Collateralizing throughout the Diencephalon

Using genetically targeted viral tracing and whole-brain anatomical analysis, investigators identified over 40 substantia nigra pars reticulata targets that encompass a roughly 50-fold range of axonal densities.
[Neuron]
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Three-Dimensional Human Neural Stem Cell Models to Mimic Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans and the Neural Niche

This review examines the current knowledge of heparan sulfate proteoglycans in the stem cell niche, human stem cell models, and their role in the development of 3D models that mimic the in vivo neural extracellular matrix.
[Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis]
Peall, I. W., Okolicsanyi, R. K., Griffiths, L. R., & Haupt, L. M. (2021). Three-Dimensional Human Neural Stem Cell Models to Mimic Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans and the Neural Niche. Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis, 47(03), 308–315. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0041-1724117 Cite
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An Interplay of Microglia and Matrix Metalloproteinase MMP9 under Hypoxic Stress Regulates the Opticin Expression in Retina

Researchers demonstrated that a reduced opticin levels in ROP vitreous are regulated by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) secreted by activated microglia.
[Scientific Reports]
Patnaik, S., Rai, M., Jalali, S., Agarwal, K., Badakere, A., Puppala, L., Vishwakarma, S., Balakrishnan, D., Rani, P. K., Kekunnaya, R., Chhablani, P. P., Chakrabarti, S., & Kaur, I. (2021). An interplay of microglia and matrix metalloproteinase MMP9 under hypoxic stress regulates the opticin expression in retina. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 7444. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-86302-2 Cite
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Receptor-Ligand Supplementation via a Self-Cleaving 2A Peptide–Based Gene Therapy Promotes CNS Axonal Transport with Functional Recovery

Researchers offered evidence that combined overexpression of both brain-derived neurotrophic factor and its receptor, tropomyosin receptor kinase B, was more effective in stimulating axonal transport than either receptor administration or ligand administration alone.
[Science Advances]
Khatib, T. Z., Osborne, A., Yang, S., Ali, Z., Jia, W., Manyakin, I., Hall, K., Watt, R., Widdowson, P. S., & Martin, K. R. (2021). Receptor-ligand supplementation via a self-cleaving 2A peptide–based gene therapy promotes CNS axonal transport with functional recovery. Science Advances, 7(14), eabd2590. https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abd2590 Cite
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Wnt5a Promotes Hippocampal Postsynaptic Development and GluN2B-Induced Expression via the eIF2α HRI Kinase

Trying to unveil the molecular pathway triggering postsynaptic effects, researchers found that Wnt5a treatment induces a time-dependent increases in the length of the postsynaptic density, elicits novel synaptic contacts and facilitates F-actin flow both in in vitro and ex vivo models.
[Scientific Reports]
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Assessing Fatty Acid-Induced Lipotoxicity and Its Therapeutic Potential in Glioblastoma Using Stimulated Raman Microscopy

The authors evaluated the therapeutic potential of free fatty acid-induced lipotoxicity for the suppression of glioma growth.
[Scientific Reports]
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Loss of Microglial SIRPα Promotes Synaptic Pruning in Preclinical Models of Neurodegeneration

To investigate the role of SIRPα in neurodegeneration, researchers modulated the expression of microglial SIRPα in mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease.
[Nature Communications]
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Molecular Profiling Reveals Involvement of ESCO2 in Intermediate Progenitor Cell Maintenance in the Developing Mouse Cortex

Investigators characterized the molecular profile of intermediate progenitor cells (IPCs). They isolated TBR2-positive IPCs and TBR2-negative cell populations in the developing mouse cortex.
[Stem Cell Reports]
Ulmke, P. A., Sakib, M. S., Ditte, P., Sokpor, G., Kerimoglu, C., Pham, L., Xie, Y., Mao, X., Rosenbusch, J., Teichmann, U., Nguyen, H. P., Fischer, A., Eichele, G., Staiger, J. F., & Tuoc, T. (2021). Molecular Profiling Reveals Involvement of ESCO2 in Intermediate Progenitor Cell Maintenance in the Developing Mouse Cortex. Stem Cell Reports, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stemcr.2021.03.008 Cite
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c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1) Modulates Oligodendrocyte Progenitor Cell Architecture, Proliferation and Myelination

Myelin alterations are accompanied by higher oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC) density and proliferation during the first weeks of life, consistent with a transient alteration of mechanisms regulating OPC self-renewal and differentiation.
[Scientific Reports]
Lorenzati, M., Boda, E., Parolisi, R., Bonato, M., Borsello, T., Herdegen, T., Buffo, A., & Vercelli, A. (2021). c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1) modulates oligodendrocyte progenitor cell architecture, proliferation and myelination. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 7264. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-86673-6 Cite
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ATF5 Deficiency Causes Abnormal Cortical Development

To investigate the cause of abnormal behaviors exhibited by ATF5−/− mice, researchers analyzed the embryonic cerebral cortex of ATF5−/− mice. The ATF5−/− embryonic cerebral cortex was slightly thinner and had reduced numbers of radial glial cells and neural progenitor cells, compared to a wild-type cerebral cortex.
[Scientific Reports]
Umemura, M., Kaneko, Y., Tanabe, R., & Takahashi, Y. (2021). ATF5 deficiency causes abnormal cortical development. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 7295. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-86442-5 Cite
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UPF1 Reduces C9orf72 HRE-Induced Neurotoxicity in the Absence of Nonsense-Mediated Decay Dysfunction

Scientists investigated the role that overexpression of UPF1, a protein involved in nonsense-mediated decay, plays in mitigating neurotoxicity in multiple models of C9orf72 ALS/FTD.
[Cell Reports]
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