Cryptosporidial Infection Suppresses Intestinal Epithelial Cell MAPK Signaling Impairing Host Anti-Parasitic Defense

Using various models of intestinal cryptosporidiosis, the authors found that Cryptosporidium infection caused suppression of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling in infected murine intestinal epithelial cells.
[Microorganisms]
He, W., Li, J., Gong, A.-Y., Deng, S., Li, M., Wang, Y., Mathy, N. W., Feng, Y., Xiao, L., & Chen, X.-M. (2021). Cryptosporidial Infection Suppresses Intestinal Epithelial Cell MAPK Signaling Impairing Host Anti-Parasitic Defense. Microorganisms, 9(1), 151. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9010151 Cite
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Plumericin Protects against Experimental Inflammatory Bowel Disease by Restoring Intestinal Barrier Function and Reducing Apoptosis

Plumericin was evaluated for its ability to improve barrier function and to reduce apoptotic parameters during inflammation, both in intestinal epithelial cells, and in an animal experimental model of 2, 4, 6-dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis.
[Biomedicines]
Rapa, S. F., Di Paola, R., Cordaro, M., Siracusa, R., D’Amico, R., Fusco, R., Autore, G., Cuzzocrea, S., Stuppner, H., & Marzocco, S. (2021). Plumericin Protects against Experimental Inflammatory Bowel Disease by Restoring Intestinal Barrier Function and Reducing Apoptosis. Biomedicines, 9(1), 67. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9010067 Cite
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Leading BioSciences Announces FDA Fast Track Designation Granted to LB1148 for the Treatment of Postoperative Gastrointestinal Dysfunction Associated with Pediatric Cardiovascular Surgery

Leading BioSciences, Inc. announced that the FDA has granted Fast Track Designation to LB1148 for the treatment of postoperative gastrointestinal dysfunction associated with pediatric heart surgery.
[Leading BioSciences, Inc. (GlobeNewswire, Inc.)]
Press Release
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HCMV-Mediated Interference of Bortezomib-Induced Apoptosis in Colon Carcinoma Cell Line Caco-2

Researchers investigated if proteasome inhibitors have therapeutic potential for colon carcinoma and how this is influenced by human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection. They showed by immunofluorescence and flow cytometry that the colon carcinoma cell line Caco-2 was susceptible to HCMV infection.
[Viruses-Basel]
Härtel, H., Theiß, J., Abdelaziz, M. O., Raftery, M. J., Pecher, G., & Bogner, E. (2021). HCMV-Mediated Interference of Bortezomib-Induced Apoptosis in Colon Carcinoma Cell Line Caco-2. Viruses, 13(1), 83. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13010083 Cite
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Eubacterium rectale Contributes to Colorectal Cancer Initiation via Promoting Colitis

Scientists showed that E. rectale endotoxin activated the transcription factor NF-κΒ, which regulated multiple aspects of innate and adaptive immune responses in normal colon epithelial cells.
[Gut Pathogens]
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The Role of the Hippo Pathway in the Pathogenesis of Inflammatory Bowel Disease

The authors summarize the latest scientific literature on the involvement of this pathway in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) from the following perspectives that account for the IBD pathogenesis: intestinal epithelial cell regeneration, immune regulation, gut microbiota, and angiogenesis.
[Cell Death & Disease]
Xie, Z., Wang, Y., Yang, G., Han, J., Zhu, L., Li, L., & Zhang, S. (2021). The role of the Hippo pathway in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. Cell Death & Disease, 12(1), 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41419-021-03395-3 Cite
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Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Exploits Cycling through Epithelial Cells to Colonize Human and Murine Enteroids

Investigators employed microinjection, time-lapse microscopy, bacterial genetics, and barcoded consortium infections to describe the complete infection cycle of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in both human and murine enteroids.
[mBio]
Geiser, P., Martino, M. L. D., Ventayol, P. S., Eriksson, J., Sima, E., Al-Saffar, A. K., Ahl, D., Phillipson, M., Webb, D.-L., Sundbom, M., Hellström, P. M., & Sellin, M. E. (2021). Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Exploits Cycling through Epithelial Cells To Colonize Human and Murine Enteroids. MBio, 12(1). https://doi.org/10.1128/mBio.02684-20 Cite
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A Diet-Microbial Metabolism Feedforward Loop Modulates Intestinal Stem Cell Renewal in the Stressed Gut

The authors showed that dietary raffinose metabolism to fructose couples stress-induced gut microbial remodeling to intestinal stem cells renewal and epithelial homeostasis.
[Nature Communications]
Hou, Y., Wei, W., Guan, X., Liu, Y., Bian, G., He, D., Fan, Q., Cai, X., Zhang, Y., Wang, G., Zheng, X., & Hao, H. (2021). A diet-microbial metabolism feedforward loop modulates intestinal stem cell renewal in the stressed gut. Nature Communications, 12(1), 271. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20673-4 Cite
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Induced Organoids Derived from Patients with Ulcerative Colitis Recapitulate Colitic Reactivity

Researchers took advantage of induced pluripotent stem cells to develop an induced human UC-derived organoid model and compared it with the induced human normal organoid model.
[Nature Communications]
Sarvestani, S. K., Signs, S., Hu, B., Yeu, Y., Feng, H., Ni, Y., Hill, D. R., Fisher, R. C., Ferrandon, S., DeHaan, R. K., Stiene, J., Cruise, M., Hwang, T. H., Shen, X., Spence, J. R., & Huang, E. H. (2021). Induced organoids derived from patients with ulcerative colitis recapitulate colitic reactivity. Nature Communications, 12(1), 262. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20351-5 Cite
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E-Cigarettes Compromise the Gut Barrier and Trigger Inflammation

Using murine models of acute and chronic e-cigarette aerosol inhalation, murine colon transcriptomics and murine and human gut-derived organoids in co-culture models, researchers assessed the effects of e-cigarette use on the gut barrier.
[iScience]
E-cigarettes compromise the gut barrier and trigger inflammation: iScience. (n.d.). Retrieved January 11, 2021, from https://www.cell.com/iscience/fulltext/S2589-0042(21)00003-1 Cite
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CREPT Is Required for Murine Stem Cell Maintenance during Intestinal Regeneration

Scientists report that CREPT, a recently identified tumor-promoting protein, was required for the maintenance of murine intestinal stem cells. CREPT was preferably expressed in the crypts but not in the villi.
[Nature Communications]
Yang, L., Yang, H., Chu, Y., Song, Y., Ding, L., Zhu, B., Zhai, W., Wang, X., Kuang, Y., Ren, F., Jia, B., Wu, W., Ye, X., Wang, Y., & Chang, Z. (2021). CREPT is required for murine stem cell maintenance during intestinal regeneration. Nature Communications, 12(1), 270. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20636-9 Cite
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