Inhibition of Mitochondrial Complex II in Neuronal Cells Triggers Unique Pathways Culminating in Autophagy with Implications for Neurodegeneration

Scientists unravelled the down-stream pathways associated with mitochondrial complex II (CII) inhibition and compared with CI inhibition and the Manganese neurotoxicity. Genome-wide transcriptomics of N27 neuronal cells exposed to 3-nitropropionic acid, compared with 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium and Mn revealed varied transcriptomic profile.
[Scientific Reports]
Ranganayaki, S., Jamshidi, N., Aiyaz, M., Rashmi, S.-K., Gayathri, N., Harsha, P. K., Padmanabhan, B., & Srinivas Bharath, M. M. (2021). Inhibition of mitochondrial complex II in neuronal cells triggers unique pathways culminating in autophagy with implications for neurodegeneration. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 1483. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-79339-2 Cite
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Endothelial Progenitor/Stem Cells in Engineered Vessels for Vascular Transplantation

Umbilical-cord blood vessels were isolated for decellularization and to establish endothelial cell culture. Cultured cells were characterized by immunophenotype, gene expression and in vitro angiogenesis assay.
[Journal of Materials Science-Materials in Medicine]
Muniswami, D. M., Reddy, L. V. K., Amirtham, S. M., Babu, S., Raj, A. N., Sen, D., & Manivasagam, G. (2020). Endothelial progenitor/stem cells in engineered vessels for vascular transplantation. Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine, 31(12), 119. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10856-020-06458-7 Cite
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Neurotrophic Effects of Dental Pulp Stem Cells on Trigeminal Neuronal Cells

Scientists investigated the trophic potential of dental pulp stem cells-derived conditioned medium to protect and regenerate isolated primary trigeminal ganglion neuronal cells.
[Scientific Reports]
Sultan, N., Amin, L. E., Zaher, A. R., Grawish, M. E., & Scheven, B. A. (2020). Neurotrophic effects of dental pulp stem cells on trigeminal neuronal cells. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 19694. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-76684-0 Cite
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Unacylated-Ghrelin Impairs Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Memory in Mice and Is Altered in Parkinson’s Dementia in Humans

The authors report that elevating circulating unacylated-ghrelin, using both pharmacological and genetic methods, reduced hippocampal neurogenesis and plasticity in mice.
[Cell Reports Medicine]
Unacylated-Ghrelin Impairs Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Memory in Mice and Is Altered in Parkinson’s Dementia in Humans: Cell Reports Medicine. (n.d.). Retrieved October 22, 2020, from https://www.cell.com/cell-reports-medicine/fulltext/S2666-3791(20)30162-2 Cite
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Alpha-Synuclein Is Involved in Manganese-Induced Spatial Memory and Synaptic Plasticity Impairments via TrkB/Akt/Fyn-Mediated Phosphorylation of NMDA Receptors

Investigators transfected HT22 cells with lentivirus–alpha-synuclein (α-Syn) shRNA, followed by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and manganese stimulation. In vitro experiments indicated that α-Syn selectively interacted with TrkB receptors and inhibited BDNF/TrkB signaling, leading to phosphorylation and downregulation of GluN2B.
[Cell Death & Disease]
Ma, Z., Liu, K., Li, X.-R., Wang, C., Liu, C., Yan, D.-Y., Deng, Y., Liu, W., & Xu, B. (2020). Alpha-synuclein is involved in manganese-induced spatial memory and synaptic plasticity impairments via TrkB/Akt/Fyn-mediated phosphorylation of NMDA receptors. Cell Death & Disease, 11(10), 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41419-020-03051-2 Cite
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Acrylamide Alters CREB and Retinoic Acid Signalling Pathways During Differentiation of the Human Neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y Cell Line

Scientists elucidated if non-cytotoxic concentrations of acrylamidealter neuronal differentiation by studying gene expression of markers significant for neurodevelopment in the human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell model.
[Scientific Reports]
Attoff, K., Johansson, Y., Cediel-Ulloa, A., Lundqvist, J., Gupta, R., Caiment, F., Gliga, A., & Forsby, A. (2020). Acrylamide alters CREB and retinoic acid signalling pathways during differentiation of the human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 16714. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-73698-6 Cite
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STAT3–BDNF–TrkB Signaling Promotes Alveolar Epithelial Regeneration after Lung Injury

Single-cell transcriptome analysis identified brain-derived neurotrophic factor as a STAT3 target gene with newly accessible chromatin in a unique population of regenerating AT2 cells.
[Nature Cell Biology]
Paris, A. J., Hayer, K. E., Oved, J. H., Avgousti, D. C., Toulmin, S. A., Zepp, J. A., Zacharias, W. J., Katzen, J. B., Basil, M. C., Kremp, M. M., Slamowitz, A. R., Jayachandran, S., Sivakumar, A., Dai, N., Wang, P., Frank, D. B., Eisenlohr, L. C., Cantu, E., Beers, M. F., … Worthen, G. S. (2020). STAT3–BDNF–TrkB signalling promotes alveolar epithelial regeneration after lung injury. Nature Cell Biology, 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41556-020-0569-x Cite
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Multiplexed Analysis of Neural Cytokine Signaling by a Novel Neural Cell–Cell Interaction Microchip

The authors generated a neural cell-cell interaction microchip as an in vitro platform to simultaneously track an informed panel of cytokines and co-evaluate cell morphology and biomarker expression coupled to a sandwich ELISA platform.
[Lab on a Chip]
Abdullah, M. A. A., Amini, N., Yang, L., Paluh, J. L., & Wang, J. (2020). Multiplexed analysis of neural cytokine signaling by a novel neural cell–cell interaction microchip. Lab on a Chip. https://doi.org/10.1039/D0LC00401D Cite
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The Effects of Microglia‐ and Astrocyte‐Derived Factors on Neurogenesis in Health and Disease

The authors describe how glial cells play a role in adult hippocampal neurogenesis in both health and disease, especially focusing on glia‐derived factors.
[European Journal of Neuroscience]
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Reversal of Pre-Existing NGFR-Driven Tumor and Immune Therapy Resistance

Researchers chronically exposed patient-derived melanoma cell lines to differentiation antigen-specific cytotoxic T cells and observed strong enrichment of a pre-existing NGFRhi population.
[Nature Communications]
Boshuizen, J., Vredevoogd, D. W., Krijgsman, O., Ligtenberg, M. A., Blankenstein, S., de Bruijn, B., Frederick, D. T., Kenski, J. C. N., Parren, M., Brüggemann, M., Madu, M. F., Rozeman, E. A., Song, J.-Y., Horlings, H. M., Blank, C. U., van Akkooi, A. C. J., Flaherty, K. T., Boland, G. M., & Peeper, D. S. (2020). Reversal of pre-existing NGFR-driven tumor and immune therapy resistance. Nature Communications, 11(1), 3946. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-17739-8 Cite
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Astrocytic BDNF and TrkB Regulate Severity and Neuronal Activity in Mouse Models of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

Specific genetic deletion of BDNF in astrocytes prevented the increase in the number of firing neurons and the global firing rate in an in vitro model of temporal lobe epilepsy.
[Cell Death & Disease]
Astrocytic BDNF and TrkB regulate severity and neuronal activity in mouse models of temporal lobe epilepsy | Cell Death & Disease. (n.d.). Retrieved June 4, 2020, from https://www.nature.com/articles/s41419-020-2615-9 Cite
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