Brain organoids derived from iPSCs of patients are a powerful avenue to investigate the pathophysiological processes. Scientists generated iPSC-derived cerebral organoids from monozygotic twins discordant for psychosis.
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Sawada, T., Chater, T. E., Sasagawa, Y., Yoshimura, M., Fujimori-Tonou, N., Tanaka, K., Benjamin, K. J. M., Paquola, A. C. M., Erwin, J. A., Goda, Y., Nikaido, I., & Kato, T. (2020). Developmental excitation-inhibition imbalance underlying psychoses revealed by single-cell analyses of discordant twins-derived cerebral organoids. Molecular Psychiatry, 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41380-020-0844-z Cite
Scientists present an experimental system based on 3D scaffold-based cortical neuron cultures in which they expressed the genetically encoded calcium indicator GCaMP6f to record neuronal activity at the millimeter-scale.
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Functional characterization of three-dimensional cortical cultures for in vitro modeling of brain networks: iScience. (n.d.). Retrieved August 6, 2020, from https://www.cell.com/iscience/fulltext/S2589-0042(20)30624-6 Cite
Research conducted over the past 10 years has revealed that cortical GABAergic projection neurons are highly diverse in terms of molecular marker expression, synaptic targeting, activity pattern during distinct behavioural states and precise temporal recruitment relative to ongoing neuronal network oscillations.
[Nature Reviews Neuroscience]
Investigators demonstrated that human midbrain organoids showed essential neuronal functional properties as spontaneous electrophysiological activity of different neuronal subtypes, including dopaminergic, GABAergic, glutamatergic and serotonergic neurons.
[Cell and Tissue Research]
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Smits, L. M., Magni, S., Kinugawa, K., Grzyb, K., Luginbühl, J., Sabate-Soler, S., Bolognin, S., Shin, J. W., Mori, E., Skupin, A., & Schwamborn, J. C. (2020). Single-cell transcriptomics reveals multiple neuronal cell types in human midbrain-specific organoids. Cell and Tissue Research. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00441-020-03249-y Cite
The authors investigated the therapeutic potential of neural precursor cells derived from human HLA‐homozygous induced pluripotent stem cells following intracerebral transplantation into a rodent model of middle cerebral artery occlusion.
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Noh, J.-E., Oh, S.-H., Lee, S., Lee, S., Kim, Y. H., Park, H. J., Ju, J. H., Kim, H. S., Huh, J. Y., & Song, J. (n.d.). Intracerebral transplantation of HLA-homozygous human iPSC-derived neural precursors ameliorates the behavioural and pathological deficits in a rodent model of ischaemic stroke. Cell Proliferation, n/a(n/a), e12884. https://doi.org/10.1111/cpr.12884 Cite
The authors discuss recent progress in understanding how interneuron subtypes are generated in vivo, and how that progress is being applied to the generation of rodent and human cortical interneurons in vitro.
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