Recruitment and Inhibitory Action of Hippocampal Axo-Axonic Cells during Behavior

Scientists achieved cell-type-specific genetic access to axo-axonic cells (AACs) in mice and showed that AACs in the hippocampal area CA1 were synchronously activated by episodes of locomotion or whisking during rest.
[Neuron]
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Kainate Receptors Regulate the Functional Properties of Young Adult-Born Dentate Granule Cells

Researchers demonstrated that glutamate receptors of the kainate receptor subfamily were expressed in adult-born dentate granule cells and that, through their interaction with GABAergic signaling mechanisms, they altered the functional properties of adult-born cells during a critical period of their development.
[Cell Reports]
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Cend1 and Neurog2 Efficiently Reprogram Human Cortical Astrocytes to Neural Precursor Cells and Induced-Neurons

Scientists investigated the neuronal reprogramming capacity of CEND1 and/or Neurogenin-2 (NEUROG2) upon their overexpression on primary human adult cortical astrocytes.
[International Journal of Developmental Biology]
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Astrocyte-Derived Neurons Provide Excitatory Input to the Adult Striatal Circuitry

Researchers showed that most striatal astrocyte-derived neurons were confined to the anterior medial striatum, did not express established striatal neuronal markers, and exhibited dendritic spines, which were atypical for striatal interneurons.
[Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America]
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BDNF Controls GABAAR Trafficking and Related Cognitive Processes via Autophagic Regulation of p62

Researchers show that reduced BDNF and GABA also co-occur with attenuated autophagy in human depression.
[Neuropsychopharmacology]
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Medulloblastoma Uses GABA Transaminase to Survive in the Cerebrospinal Fluid Microenvironment and Promote Leptomeningeal Dissemination

Scientists found primary medulloblastoma tumors globally displayed decreased expression of GABA transaminase, the protein responsible for GABA metabolism, compared with normal cerebellum.
[Cell Reports]
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Neuronal and Glial 3D Chromatin Architecture Informs the Cellular Etiology of Brain Disorders

Scientists integrated genome-wide chromosome conformation data from purified neurons and glia with transcriptomic and enhancer profiles, to characterize the gene regulatory landscape of two major cell classes in the human brain.
[Nature Communications]
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Leptin Increases GABAergic Synaptogenesis through the Rho Guanine Exchange Factor β-PIX in Developing Hippocampal Neurons

Using molecular and electrophysiological techniques, researchers found that leptin increased the surface localization of GABAA receptors and the number of functional GABAergic synapses in hippocampal cultures from male and female rat pups.
[Science Signaling]
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Novel Fragile X Syndrome 2D and 3D Brain Models Based on Human Isogenic FMRP-KO iPSCs

Scientists generated 2D and 3D in vitro human FXS model systems based on isogenic fragile X mental retardation protein knock-out mutant and wild-type human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) lines.
[Cell Death & Disease]
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Cadherin-13 Is a Critical Regulator of GABAergic Modulation in Human Stem-Cell-Derived Neuronal Networks

Scientists identified functional network parameters that are most reliably affected by GABAergic modulation as such, and through alterations of excitation/inhibition balance by reduced expression of Cadherin – 13 in GABAergic neurons.
[Molecular Psychiatry]
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A Neural Basis for Brain Leptin Action on Reducing Type 1 Diabetic Hyperglycemia

Researchers showed that leptin receptor (LepR)-expressing neurons in arcuate (LepRArc) are selectively activated in type-1 diabetes.
[Nature Communications]
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