The authors analyzed synaptic strength from functionally relevant brain areas to diverse neuronal types in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1). Long-range projections from different areas preferentially engage specific sets of GABAergic neurons in S1.
Scientists found that loss of Fgf9 in olig1 progenitor cells induced epilepsy in mice, with pathological changes in the cortex. Then depleting Fgf9 in different neural populations revealed that epilepsy was associated with GABAergic neurons.
[Cell Death & Disease]
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Researchers showed that combinatorial T-box 3, orthopedia homeobox (OTP), and distal-less homeobox (DLX) expression delineated all arcuate nucleus neurons and defined four distinct subpopulations, whereas combinatorial NKX2.1/SF1 and OTP/DLX expression identified ventromedial hypothalamus and tuberal nucleus neuronal subpopulations, respectively.
Adaptive thermogenesis is essential for survival, and therefore is tightly regulated by a central neural circuit. Investigators showed that miR-33 in the brain was indispensable for adaptive thermogenesis.
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Horie, T., Nakao, T., Miyasaka, Y., Nishino, T., Matsumura, S., Nakazeki, F., Ide, Y., Kimura, M., Tsuji, S., Rodriguez, R. R., Watanabe, T., Yamasaki, T., Xu, S., Otani, C., Miyagawa, S., Matsushita, K., Sowa, N., Omori, A., Tanaka, J., … Ono, K. (2021). microRNA-33 maintains adaptive thermogenesis via enhanced sympathetic nerve activity. Nature Communications, 12(1), 843. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-21107-5 Cite
Investigators showed that misexpression of Dlx2 alone in postnatal mouse oligodendrocyte precursor cells caused them to switch their fate to GABAergic neurons within two days by downregulating Olig2 and upregulating a network of inhibitory neuron transcripts.
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Boshans, L. L., Soh, H., Wood, W. M., Nolan, T. M., Mandoiu, I. I., Yanagawa, Y., Tzingounis, A. V., & Nishiyama, A. (2021). Direct reprogramming of oligodendrocyte precursor cells into GABAergic inhibitory neurons by a single homeodomain transcription factor Dlx2. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 3552. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-82931-9 Cite
The authors conducted a comprehensive activity-dependent transcriptional and epigenetic profiling of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived GABAergic neurons similar to those of the early developing striatum.
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Boulting, G. L., Durresi, E., Ataman, B., Sherman, M. A., Mei, K., Harmin, D. A., Carter, A. C., Hochbaum, D. R., Granger, A. J., Engreitz, J. M., Hrvatin, S., Blanchard, M. R., Yang, M. G., Griffith, E. C., & Greenberg, M. E. (2021). Activity-dependent regulome of human GABAergic neurons reveals new patterns of gene regulation and neurological disease heritability. Nature Neuroscience, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41593-020-00786-1 Cite
The authors showed that Lhx6 was necessary for the survival of hypothalamic neurons. Dlx1/2, Nkx2-2, and Nkx2-1 were each required for specification of spatially distinct subsets of hypothalamic Lhx6 neurons, and that Nkx2-2+/Lhx6+ neurons of the zona incerta were responsive to sleep pressure.
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Kim, D. W., Liu, K., Wang, Z. Q., Zhang, Y. S., Bathini, A., Brown, M. P., Lin, S. H., Washington, P. W., Sun, C., Lindtner, S., Lee, B., Wang, H., Shimogori, T., Rubenstein, J. L. R., & Blackshaw, S. (2021). Gene regulatory networks controlling differentiation, survival, and diversification of hypothalamic Lhx6-expressing GABAergic neurons. Communications Biology, 4(1), 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1038/s42003-020-01616-7 Cite
Scientists found that chromatin accessibility varied greatly by cell type and, more moderately, by brain region, with glutamatergic neurons showing the largest regional variability.
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Hauberg, M. E., Creus-Muncunill, J., Bendl, J., Kozlenkov, A., Zeng, B., Corwin, C., Chowdhury, S., Kranz, H., Hurd, Y. L., Wegner, M., Børglum, A. D., Dracheva, S., Ehrlich, M. E., Fullard, J. F., & Roussos, P. (2020). Common schizophrenia risk variants are enriched in open chromatin regions of human glutamatergic neurons. Nature Communications, 11(1), 5581. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-19319-2 Cite
Investigators used a human iPSC-derived striatal GABA neuron system to investigate the effects of ketamine on histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) and the morphological development of medium spiny neurons.
[Acta Pharmacologica Sinica]
Researchers assessed the feasibility of intranasal delivery of mesenchymal stem cell-derived-extracellular vesicles to alleviate schizophrenia-like behaviors in a phencylidine model of schizophrenia.
Scientists transplanted human embryonic stem cell-derived human GABAergic interneuron progenitors into the mouse hippocampus, and then characterized their electrophysiological properties and dendritic arborizations after transplantation by means of ex vivo whole-cell patch clamp recording, followed by biocytin staining, confocal imaging and neuron reconstruction software.
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