Cell-Type-Specific Recruitment of GABAergic Interneurons in the Primary Somatosensory Cortex by Long-Range Inputs

The authors analyzed synaptic strength from functionally relevant brain areas to diverse neuronal types in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1). Long-range projections from different areas preferentially engage specific sets of GABAergic neurons in S1.
[Cell Reports]
Naskar, S., Qi, J., Pereira, F., Gerfen, C. R., & Lee, S. (2021). Cell-type-specific recruitment of GABAergic interneurons in the primary somatosensory cortex by long-range inputs. Cell Reports, 34(8). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2021.108774 Cite
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Deletion of FGF9 in GABAergic Neurons Causes Epilepsy

Scientists found that loss of Fgf9 in olig1 progenitor cells induced epilepsy in mice, with pathological changes in the cortex. Then depleting Fgf9 in different neural populations revealed that epilepsy was associated with GABAergic neurons.
[Cell Death & Disease]
Guo, M., Cui, C., Song, X., Jia, L., Li, D., Wang, X., Dong, H., Ma, Y., Liu, Y., Cui, Z., Yi, L., Li, Z., Bi, Y., Li, Y., Liu, Y., Duan, W., & Li, C. (2021). Deletion of FGF9 in GABAergic neurons causes epilepsy. Cell Death & Disease, 12(2), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41419-021-03478-1 Cite
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Decoding Neuronal Composition and Ontogeny of Individual Hypothalamic Nuclei

Researchers showed that combinatorial T-box 3, orthopedia homeobox (OTP), and distal-less homeobox (DLX) expression delineated all arcuate nucleus neurons and defined four distinct subpopulations, whereas combinatorial NKX2.1/SF1 and OTP/DLX expression identified ventromedial hypothalamus and tuberal nucleus neuronal subpopulations, respectively.
[Neuron]
Ma, T., Wong, S. Z. H., Lee, B., Ming, G., & Song, H. (2021). Decoding neuronal composition and ontogeny of individual hypothalamic nuclei. Neuron, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2021.01.026 Cite
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MicroRNA-33 Maintains Adaptive Thermogenesis via Enhanced Sympathetic Nerve Activity

Adaptive thermogenesis is essential for survival, and therefore is tightly regulated by a central neural circuit. Investigators showed that miR-33 in the brain was indispensable for adaptive thermogenesis.
[Nature Communications]
Horie, T., Nakao, T., Miyasaka, Y., Nishino, T., Matsumura, S., Nakazeki, F., Ide, Y., Kimura, M., Tsuji, S., Rodriguez, R. R., Watanabe, T., Yamasaki, T., Xu, S., Otani, C., Miyagawa, S., Matsushita, K., Sowa, N., Omori, A., Tanaka, J., … Ono, K. (2021). microRNA-33 maintains adaptive thermogenesis via enhanced sympathetic nerve activity. Nature Communications, 12(1), 843. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-21107-5 Cite
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Direct Reprogramming of Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cells Into GABAergic Inhibitory Neurons by a Single Homeodomain Transcription Factor Dlx2

Investigators showed that misexpression of Dlx2 alone in postnatal mouse oligodendrocyte precursor cells caused them to switch their fate to GABAergic neurons within two days by downregulating Olig2 and upregulating a network of inhibitory neuron transcripts.
[Scientific Reports]
Boshans, L. L., Soh, H., Wood, W. M., Nolan, T. M., Mandoiu, I. I., Yanagawa, Y., Tzingounis, A. V., & Nishiyama, A. (2021). Direct reprogramming of oligodendrocyte precursor cells into GABAergic inhibitory neurons by a single homeodomain transcription factor Dlx2. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 3552. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-82931-9 Cite
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Activity-Dependent Regulome of Human GABAergic Neurons Reveals New Patterns of Gene Regulation and Neurological Disease Heritability

The authors conducted a comprehensive activity-dependent transcriptional and epigenetic profiling of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived GABAergic neurons similar to those of the early developing striatum.
[Nature Neuroscience]
Boulting, G. L., Durresi, E., Ataman, B., Sherman, M. A., Mei, K., Harmin, D. A., Carter, A. C., Hochbaum, D. R., Granger, A. J., Engreitz, J. M., Hrvatin, S., Blanchard, M. R., Yang, M. G., Griffith, E. C., & Greenberg, M. E. (2021). Activity-dependent regulome of human GABAergic neurons reveals new patterns of gene regulation and neurological disease heritability. Nature Neuroscience, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41593-020-00786-1 Cite
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Gene Regulatory Networks Controlling Differentiation, Survival, and Diversification of Hypothalamic Lhx6-Expressing GABAergic Neurons

The authors showed that Lhx6 was necessary for the survival of hypothalamic neurons. Dlx1/2, Nkx2-2, and Nkx2-1 were each required for specification of spatially distinct subsets of hypothalamic Lhx6 neurons, and that Nkx2-2+/Lhx6+ neurons of the zona incerta were responsive to sleep pressure.
[Communications Biology]
Kim, D. W., Liu, K., Wang, Z. Q., Zhang, Y. S., Bathini, A., Brown, M. P., Lin, S. H., Washington, P. W., Sun, C., Lindtner, S., Lee, B., Wang, H., Shimogori, T., Rubenstein, J. L. R., & Blackshaw, S. (2021). Gene regulatory networks controlling differentiation, survival, and diversification of hypothalamic Lhx6-expressing GABAergic neurons. Communications Biology, 4(1), 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1038/s42003-020-01616-7 Cite
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Common Schizophrenia Risk Variants Are Enriched in Open Chromatin Regions of Human Glutamatergic Neurons

Scientists found that chromatin accessibility varied greatly by cell type and, more moderately, by brain region, with glutamatergic neurons showing the largest regional variability.
[Nature Communications]
Hauberg, M. E., Creus-Muncunill, J., Bendl, J., Kozlenkov, A., Zeng, B., Corwin, C., Chowdhury, S., Kranz, H., Hurd, Y. L., Wegner, M., Børglum, A. D., Dracheva, S., Ehrlich, M. E., Fullard, J. F., & Roussos, P. (2020). Common schizophrenia risk variants are enriched in open chromatin regions of human glutamatergic neurons. Nature Communications, 11(1), 5581. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-19319-2 Cite
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HDAC6 Is Critical for Ketamine-Induced Impairment of Dendritic and Spine growth in GABAergic projection neurons

Investigators used a human iPSC-derived striatal GABA neuron system to investigate the effects of ketamine on histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) and the morphological development of medium spiny neurons.
[Acta Pharmacologica Sinica]
Li, X., Saiyin, H., Zhou, J., Yu, Q., & Liang, W. (2020). HDAC6 is critical for ketamine-induced impairment of dendritic and spine growth in GABAergic projection neurons. Acta Pharmacologica Sinica, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41401-020-00521-3 Cite
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Mesenchymal Stem Cells Derived Extracellular Vesicles Improve Behavioral and Biochemical Deficits in a Phencyclidine Model of Schizophrenia

Researchers assessed the feasibility of intranasal delivery of mesenchymal stem cell-derived-extracellular vesicles to alleviate schizophrenia-like behaviors in a phencylidine model of schizophrenia.
[Translational Psychiatry]
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Development of Electrophysiological and Morphological Properties of Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived GABAergic Interneurons at Different Times after Transplantation into the Mouse Hippocampus

Scientists transplanted human embryonic stem cell-derived human GABAergic interneuron progenitors into the mouse hippocampus, and then characterized their electrophysiological properties and dendritic arborizations after transplantation by means of ex vivo whole-cell patch clamp recording, followed by biocytin staining, confocal imaging and neuron reconstruction software.
[PLoS One]
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