Scientists investigated the role of Type 2 inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R2) in the differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) to cardiomyocytes and in the hESC-derived cardiomyocytes.
[Acta Pharmacologica Sinica]
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Researchers generated an immortalized erythroid cell line from peripheral blood stem cells of a HbE/β-thalassemia patient. Morphological analysis showed the cells are proerythroblasts with some early basophilic erythroblasts, with no change in morphology over time in culture.
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Trakarnsanga, K., Tipgomut, C., Metheetrairut, C., Wattanapanitch, M., Khuhapinant, A., Poldee, S., Kurita, R., Nakamura, Y., Srisawat, C., & Frayne, J. (2020). Generation of an immortalised erythroid cell line from haematopoietic stem cells of a haemoglobin E/β-thalassemia patient. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 16798. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-73991-4 Cite
Researchers created human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) from different MSC sources to evaluate the capacity of MSC-derived iPSCs to differentiate into any cell type of the human body and to serve as an alternative source for iPSC generation.
[Journal of Materials Chemistry B]
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Ababneh, N. A., Al-Kurdi, B., Barham, R., Ali, D., Sharar, N., Abuarqoub, D., Jafar, H., Salah, B., & Awidi, A. (2020). Derivation of three human induced pluripotent stem cell lines (JUCTCi014-A, JUCTCi015-A, JUCTCi016-A) from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from bone marrow, adipose tissue and Wharton’s jelly samples. Stem Cell Research, 49, 102000. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scr.2020.102000 Cite
Investigators provide a high-resolution lineage map for an organoid model of embryogenesis, insights into epigenetic determinants of fate specification, and a strategy for lineage mapping of rapid differentiation processes.
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Kim, I. S., Wu, J., Rahme, G. J., Battaglia, S., Dixit, A., Gaskell, E., Chen, H., Pinello, L., & Bernstein, B. E. (2020). Parallel Single-Cell RNA-Seq and Genetic Recording Reveals Lineage Decisions in Developing Embryoid Bodies. Cell Reports, 33(1). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.108222 Cite
In iPSC-derived human astrocytes, increasing expression of PICALM reversed endocytic disruptions. The authors identified a functional interaction between two Alzheimer’s disease genetic risk factors—APOE4 and PICALM—centered on the conserved biological process of endocytosis.
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Narayan, P., Sienski, G., Bonner, J. M., Lin, Y.-T., Seo, J., Baru, V., Haque, A., Milo, B., Akay, L. A., Graziosi, A., Freyzon, Y., Landgraf, D., Hesse, W. R., Valastyan, J., Barrasa, M. I., Tsai, L.-H., & Lindquist, S. (2020). PICALM Rescues Endocytic Defects Caused by the Alzheimer’s Disease Risk Factor APOE4. Cell Reports, 33(1). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.108224 Cite
Allele Biotechnology and Pharmaceuticals, Inc. has been using mRNA as its core technology for creating cGMP-grade iPSC lines for regenerative medicine and oncology for over a decade. The have recently shown that mRNAs encoding the SARS-CoV-2 antigen proteins could be packaged in iPSCs and delivered in extracellular vesicles, potentially together with the viral proteins these mRNAs encode—a dual mRNA and protein vaccine, all naturally packaged in cells.
[Allele Biotechnology and Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (Businesswire, Inc.)]
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The authors report that a brain‐enriched long non‐coding RNA, NDIME, is located near the MEF2C locus and is required for normal neural differentiation of mouse ESCs.
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Both induced pluripotent stem cells derived from a Marfan syndrome (MFS)-patient and the line with the corrected fibrillin-1 mutation were differentiated to cardiomyocytes. Several functional analyses were performed on this model to study MFS related cardiomyopathy.
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Aalders, J., Léger, L., Van der Meeren, L., Van den Vreken, N., Skirtach, A. G., Sinha, S., De Backer, J., & van Hengel, J. (2020). Effects of fibrillin mutations on the behavior of heart muscle cells in Marfan syndrome. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 16756. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-73802-w Cite
Researchers indicated that hippocampal-neural stem cells (NSCs) senescence caused cellular exhaustion, neurogenesis reduction and cognitive impairment during aging, which can be reversed by ESC-small extracellular vesicles (sEVs).
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Investigators proposed that RNA cytosine 5-hydroxymethylation by Tets is a mark of transcriptome flexibility, inextricably linked to the balance between pluripotency and lineage commitment.
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Lan, J., Rajan, N., Bizet, M., Penning, A., Singh, N. K., Guallar, D., Calonne, E., Li Greci, A., Bonvin, E., Deplus, R., Hsu, P. J., Nachtergaele, S., Ma, C., Song, R., Fuentes-Iglesias, A., Hassabi, B., Putmans, P., Mies, F., Menschaert, G., … Fuks, F. (2020). Functional role of Tet-mediated RNA hydroxymethylcytosine in mouse ES cells and during differentiation. Nature Communications, 11(1), 4956. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-18729-6 Cite
Scientists used 3D cortical spheroids derived from human iPSCs to replicate the neurodevelopmental window. Their results demonstrated that hyaluronan preferentially surrounds nascent excitatory synapses.