MX2-Mediated Innate Immunity against HIV-1 Is Regulated by Serine Phosphorylation

Investigators demonstrated that serine phosphorylation of the N-terminal domain at positions 14, 17 and 18 suppressec MX2 antiviral function, prevented interactions with the HIV-1 capsid and nuclear transport factors, and was reversed by MLCP.
[Nature Microbiology]
Betancor, G., Jimenez-Guardeño, J. M., Lynham, S., Antrobus, R., Khan, H., Sobala, A., Dicks, M. D. J., & Malim, M. H. (2021). MX2-mediated innate immunity against HIV-1 is regulated by serine phosphorylation. Nature Microbiology, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41564-021-00937-5 Cite
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MARCH8 Inhibits Influenza a Virus Infection by Targeting Viral M2 Protein for Ubiquitination-Dependent Degradation in Lysosomes

Scientists demonstrated that MARCH8 profoundly inhibited influenza A virus replication both in vitro and in mice.
[Nature Communications]
Liu, X., Xu, F., Ren, L., Zhao, F., Huang, Y., Wei, L., Wang, Y., Wang, C., Fan, Z., Mei, S., Song, J., Zhao, Z., Cen, S., Liang, C., Wang, J., & Guo, F. (2021). MARCH8 inhibits influenza A virus infection by targeting viral M2 protein for ubiquitination-dependent degradation in lysosomes. Nature Communications, 12(1), 4427. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-24724-2 Cite
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Three Epitope-Distinct Human Antibodies from RenMab Mice Neutralize SARS-CoV-2 and Cooperatively Minimize the Escape of Mutants

Investigators utilized RenMab, a novel mouse carrying the entire human antibody variable region, for neutralizing antibody discovery.
[Cell Discovery]
Nie, J., Xie, J., Liu, S., Wu, J., Liu, C., Li, J., Liu, Y., Wang, M., Zhao, H., Zhang, Y., Yao, J., Chen, L., Shen, Y., Yang, Y., Wang, H.-W., Wang, Y., & Huang, W. (2021). Three epitope-distinct human antibodies from RenMab mice neutralize SARS-CoV-2 and cooperatively minimize the escape of mutants. Cell Discovery, 7(1), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41421-021-00292-z Cite
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Corvus Pharmaceuticals Discontinues Phase III Study of Mupadolimab (Anti-CD73) for COVID-19 Due to Vaccine Effectiveness in Reducing Hospitalizations

Corvus Pharmaceuticals, Inc. announced that it has discontinued its Phase III study of mupadolimab for COVID-19 due to positive trends exhibited by COVID-19 vaccines in lowering serious infection and hospitalizations.
[Corvus Pharmaceuticals, Inc.]
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Vir Biotechnology Initiates Phase 2 Clinical Trial Evaluating the Combination of VIR-2218 and VIR-3434 as a Functional Cure Regimen for Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection

Vir Biotechnology, Inc. announced that the first patient has been dosed in the Phase II MARCH trial evaluating VIR-2218 together with VIR-3434 for the treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection- a combination designed to achieve a functional cure.
[Vir Biotechnology, Inc.]
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The US Is Boosting Funding for Research Monkeys in the Wake of COVID

The US government is investing heavily to breed more monkeys at the national facilities that house primates for biomedical research, Nature has learnt. The goal is to offset an ongoing shortage of these animals, which grew worse in 2020 as scientists tested scores of COVID-19 vaccines and treatments on primates before trials began in people.
[Nature News]
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The Success of SARS-CoV-2 Vaccines and Challenges Ahead

The rapid and remarkably successful development, manufacture, and deployment of several effective SARS-CoV-2 vaccines is now tempered by three key challenges.
[Cell Host & Microbe]
Subbarao, K. (2021). The success of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and challenges ahead. Cell Host & Microbe, 29(7), 1111–1123. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chom.2021.06.016 Cite
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Danshensu Alleviates Pseudo-Typed SARS-CoV-2 Induced Mouse Acute Lung Inflammation

The authors investigated the antiviral effects of a Salvia miltiorrhiza compound, Danshensu, in vitro and in vivo, including the mechanism of S protein-mediated virus attachment and entry into target cells.
[Acta Pharmacologica Sinica]
Wang, W., Li, S., Xu, X., Yang, C., Niu, X., Yin, S., Pan, X., Xu, W., Hu, G., Wang, C., & Liu, S. (2021). Danshensu alleviates pseudo-typed SARS-CoV-2 induced mouse acute lung inflammation. Acta Pharmacologica Sinica, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41401-021-00714-4 Cite
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Interferon-Armed RBD Dimer Enhances the Immunogenicity of RBD for Sterilizing Immunity against SARS-CoV-2

To enhance antigen processing and cross-presentation in draining lymph nodes, scientists developed an interferon-armed receptor-binding domain dimerized by an immunoglobulin fragment.
[Cell Research]
Sun, S., Cai, Y., Song, T.-Z., Pu, Y., Cheng, L., Xu, H., Sun, J., Meng, C., Lin, Y., Huang, H., Zhao, F., Zhang, S., Gao, Y., Han, J.-B., Feng, X.-L., Yu, D.-D., Zhu, Y., Gao, P., Tang, H., … Peng, H. (2021). Interferon-armed RBD dimer enhances the immunogenicity of RBD for sterilizing immunity against SARS-CoV-2. Cell Research, 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41422-021-00531-8 Cite
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Probiotic Supplementation Reduces Inflammatory Profiles but Does Not Prevent Oral Immune Perturbations during SIV Infection

Researchers revealed that similar to the GI mucosae, oral CD4+ T cells were rapidly depleted, and as one of the first comprehensive analyses of the oral microflora in SIV infection, they also observed significant modulation among two genera, Porphyromonas and Actinobacillus, early after infection.
[Scientific Reports]
Jones, R., Kroll, K., Broedlow, C., Schifanella, L., Smith, S., Hueber, B., Shah, S. V., Ram, D. R., Manickam, C., Varner, V., Klatt, N. R., & Reeves, R. K. (2021). Probiotic supplementation reduces inflammatory profiles but does not prevent oral immune perturbations during SIV infection. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 14507. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-93918-x Cite
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ETV7 Limits Antiviral Gene Expression and Control of Influenza Viruses

Scientists performed a CRISPR activation screen to identify previously unknown regulators of the type I Iinterferon (FN) response. They identified the strongly induced ISG encoding ETS variant transcription factor 7 (ETV7) as a negative regulator of the type I IFN response.
[Science Signaling]
Froggatt, H. M., Harding, A. T., Chaparian, R. R., & Heaton, N. S. (2021). ETV7 limits antiviral gene expression and control of influenza viruses. Science Signaling, 14(691). https://doi.org/10.1126/scisignal.abe1194 Cite
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