Immunometabolism and HIV-1 Pathogenesis: Food for Thought

The authors summarize current knowledge of the links between HIV-1 infection and immunometabolism, and they discuss the potential opportunities and challenges for therapeutic interventions.
[Nature Reviews Immunology]
Sáez-Cirión, A., & Sereti, I. (2020). Immunometabolism and HIV-1 pathogenesis: food for thought. Nature Reviews Immunology, 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41577-020-0381-7 Cite
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Single-Cell Analysis of Two Severe COVID-19 Patients Reveals a Monocyte-Associated and Tocilizumab-Responding Cytokine Storm

By employing single-cell analysis of the immune cell composition of two severe-stage COVID-19 patients prior to and following tocilizumab-induced remission, investigators identified a monocyte subpopulation that contributes to the inflammatory cytokine storms.
[Nature Communications]
Guo, C., Li, B., Ma, H., Wang, X., Cai, P., Yu, Q., Zhu, L., Jin, L., Jiang, C., Fang, J., Liu, Q., Zong, D., Zhang, W., Lu, Y., Li, K., Gao, X., Fu, B., Liu, L., Ma, X., … Qu, K. (2020). Single-cell analysis of two severe COVID-19 patients reveals a monocyte-associated and tocilizumab-responding cytokine storm. Nature Communications, 11(1), 3924. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-17834-w Cite
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Elevation in the Counts of IL-35-Producing B Cells Infiltrating into Lung Tissue in Mycobacterial Infection Is Associated with the Downregulation of Th1/Th17 and Upregulation of Foxp3+Treg

Purified B cells from such patients generated more IL-35 after stimulation by antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and secreted more IL-10.
[Scientific Reports]
Chen, C., Xu, H., Peng, Y., Luo, H., Huang, G.-X., Wu, X.-J., Dai, Y.-C., Luo, H.-L., Zhang, J.-A., Zheng, B.-Y., Zhang, X.-N., Chen, Z. W., & Xu, J.-F. (2020). Elevation in the counts of IL-35-producing B cells infiltrating into lung tissue in mycobacterial infection is associated with the downregulation of Th1/Th17 and upregulation of Foxp3 + Treg. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 13212. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-69984-y Cite
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Pharmacological Activation of the Circadian Component REV-ERB Inhibits HIV-1 Replication

Researchers investigated whether REV-ERB activity regulates HIV-1 replication and found REV-ERB agonists inhibited HIV-1 promoter activity in cell lines, primary human CD4 T cells and macrophages, whilst antagonism or genetic disruption of REV-ERB increased promoter activity.
[Scientific Reports]
Borrmann, H., Davies, R., Dickinson, M., Pedroza-Pacheco, I., Schilling, M., Vaughan-Jackson, A., Magri, A., James, W., Balfe, P., Borrow, P., McKeating, J. A., & Zhuang, X. (2020). Pharmacological activation of the circadian component REV-ERB inhibits HIV-1 replication. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 13271. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-70170-3 Cite
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How the Pandemic Might Play Out in 2021 and Beyond

Although the forecasts and timelines vary, modellers agree on two things: COVID-19 is here to stay, and the future depends on a lot of unknowns, including whether people develop lasting immunity to the virus, whether seasonality affects its spread, and – perhaps most importantly – the choices made by governments and individuals.
[Nature News]
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Once Praised for Taming the Pandemic, Asian-Pacific Nations Worry about New Onslaught

Many Asian-Pacific countries have weathered the COVID-19 pandemic remarkably well so far, recording some of the lowest case numbers anywhere and earning praise as models of how to handle the virus. But the sheen is coming off their performance
[ScienceInsider]
Press Release

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Calidi Biotherapeutics Announces FDA Approval for COVID-19 Treatment Manufactured by Partner: Personalized Stem Cells

Calidi Biotherapeutics, Inc., announced that the Investigational New Drug application submitted by its partner, Personalized Stem Cells, Inc. They have received FDA approval for the treatment of COVID-19 and pneumonia patients using stem cell therapy.
[Calidi Biotherapeutics, Inc.]
Press Release

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Interplay between SARS-CoV-2 and the Type I Interferon Response

Scientists describe our current knowledge of the complex interplay between SARS-CoV-2 infection and the IFN system, highlighting some of the gaps that need to be filled for a better understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms.
[PLoS Pathogens]
Ribero, M. S., Jouvenet, N., Dreux, M., & Nisole, S. (2020). Interplay between SARS-CoV-2 and the type I interferon response. PLOS Pathogens, 16(7), e1008737. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1008737 Cite
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Targeting HIV Env Immunogens to B Cell Follicles in Nonhuman Primates through Immune Complex or Protein Nanoparticle Formulations

Investigators demonstrated two strategies to concentrate HIV envelope immunogens in follicles, via the formation of immune complexes or by employing self-assembling protein nanoparticles for multivalent display of envelope antigens.
[NPJ Vaccines]
Martin, J. T., Cottrell, C. A., Antanasijevic, A., Carnathan, D. G., Cossette, B. J., Enemuo, C. A., Gebru, E. H., Choe, Y., Viviano, F., Fischinger, S., Tokatlian, T., Cirelli, K. M., Ueda, G., Copps, J., Schiffner, T., Menis, S., Alter, G., Schief, W. R., Crotty, S., … Irvine, D. J. (2020). Targeting HIV Env immunogens to B cell follicles in nonhuman primates through immune complex or protein nanoparticle formulations. Npj Vaccines, 5(1), 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41541-020-00223-1 Cite
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COVID-19 Vaccine Guidelines

With multiple COVID-19 vaccines in and approaching Phase III trials, the FDA has released development and licensure guidelines for these products. The 21-page guidelines detail agency recommendations on everything from manufacturing and preclinical data considerations to trial design, efficacy considerations and post-licensure safety.
[Nature Reviews Drug Discovery]
Mullard, A. (2020). COVID-19 vaccine guidelines. Nature Reviews Drug Discovery. https://doi.org/10.1038/d41573-020-00142-9 Cite
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Safety and COVID-19 Symptoms in Individuals Recently Vaccinated with BCG: A Retrospective Cohort Study

To investigate the safety of Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination, scientists retrospectively assessed COVID-19 and related symptoms in three cohorts of healthy volunteers who either received BCG in the last five years or not.
[Cell Reports Medicine]
Moorlag, S. J. C. F. M., Deuren, R. C. van, Werkhoven, C. H. van, Jaeger, M., Debisarun, P., Taks, E., Mourits, V. P., Koeken, V. A. C. M., Bree, L. C. J. de, Doesschate, T. ten, Cleophas, M. C., Smeekens, S., Oosting, M., Veerdonk, F. L. van de, Joosten, L. A. B., Oever, J. ten, Meer, J. W. M. van der, Curtis, N., Aaby, P., … Netea, M. G. (2020). Safety and COVID-19 symptoms in individuals recently vaccinated with BCG: a retrospective cohort study. Cell Reports Medicine, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.xcrm.2020.100073 Cite
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Systems-Level Immunomonitoring from Acute to Recovery Phase of Severe COVID-19

Scientists report on a systems-level blood immunomonitoring study of 37 adult patients diagnosed with COVID-19 and followed with up to 14 blood samples from acute to recovery phases of the disease.
[Cell Reports Medicine]
Rodriguez, L., Pekkarinen, P. T., Lakshmikanth, T., Tan, Z., Consiglio, C. R., Pou, C., Chen, Y., Mugabo, C. H., Nguyen, N. A., Nowlan, K., Strandin, T., Levanov, L., Mikes, J., Wang, J., Kantele, A., Hepojoki, J., Vapalahti, O., Heinonen, S., Kekäläinen, E., & Brodin, P. (2020). Systems-level immunomonitoring from acute to recovery phase of severe COVID-19. Cell Reports Medicine, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.xcrm.2020.100078 Cite
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