Researchers found that decreased tyrosine-protein phosphatase nonreceptor type 13 (PTPN13) expression was associated with hepatitis B virus/hepatitis B x protein. Patients with low PTPN13 expression showed a poor prognosis. Functional assays revealed that PTPN13 inhibited proliferation and tumorigenesis in vitro and in vivo.
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Yan, Y., Huang, P., Mao, K., He, C., Xu, Q., Zhang, M., Liu, H., Zhou, Z., Zhou, Q., Zhou, Q., Ou, B., Liu, Q., Lin, J., Chen, R., Wang, J., Zhang, J., & Xiao, Z. (2020). Anti-oncogene PTPN13 inactivation by hepatitis B virus X protein counteracts IGF2BP1 to promote hepatocellular carcinoma progression. Oncogene, 1–18. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41388-020-01498-3 Cite
In malaria-endemic regions, antimalarial chemoprevention protects long after its cessation and associates with effects on CD4+ T cells. Scientists applied single-cell RNA sequencing and computational modelling to track memory development during Plasmodium infection and treatment.
Scientists review the current evidences and explore the potential therapeutic use of allogenic umbilical cord (UC) and/or Wharton’s jelly (WJ)-derived MSCs for the treatment of COVID-19. Although preliminary preclinical and clinical studies indicate that their use is safe and potentially effective, more multi-center, randomized, controlled trials are needed to adequately assess the safety and efficacy of UC and/or WJ-derived MSCs for the treatment of COVID-19.
HIV-unexposed (HU) and HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infant cord blood monocytes were treated with Bacillus Calmette-Guerín (BCG) and transcriptionally profiled with the Nanostring nCounter platform. Differential expression and pathway enrichment analyses were performed, and transcripts were identified with enhanced or dampened BCG responses.
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Scientists discuss the possibility of using various approved drugs, or drugs currently in clinical development, to treat COVID-19. They suggest to enhance STAT1 activity and/or inhibit STAT3 functions for COVID-19 treatment.
[Cell Death & Differentiation]
The authors discuss recent advancements regarding the signals and transcription factors regulating germinal centre-derived memory B cells development and function.
[Nature Reviews Immunology]
Johnson & Johnson’s Janssen subsidiary, one of several companies in Phase III testing of vaccines to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection, has temporarily suspended enrollment and dosing in all of its clinical trials after a patient experienced an adverse reaction during its Phase III ENSEMBLE trial.
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Scientists suggested that the patient was infected by SARS-CoV-2 on two separate occasions by a genetically distinct virus. Thus, previous exposure to SARS-CoV-2 might not guarantee total immunity in all cases.
[Lancet Infectious Diseases]
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Tillett, R. L., Sevinsky, J. R., Hartley, P. D., Kerwin, H., Crawford, N., Gorzalski, A., Laverdure, C., Verma, S. C., Rossetto, C. C., Jackson, D., Farrell, M. J., Hooser, S. V., & Pandori, M. (2020). Genomic evidence for reinfection with SARS-CoV-2: a case study. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30764-7 Cite
Researchers used human pluripotent stem cell-derived brain organoids to examine SARS-CoV-2 neurotropism. They found expression of viral receptor ACE2 in mature choroid plexus cells expressing abundant lipoproteins, but not in neurons or other cell types.
[Cell Stem Cell]
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Pellegrini, L., Albecka, A., Mallery, D. L., Kellner, M. J., Paul, D., Carter, A. P., James, L. C., & Lancaster, M. A. (2020). SARS-CoV-2 infects the brain choroid plexus and disrupts the blood-CSF-barrier in human brain organoids. Cell Stem Cell, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stem.2020.10.001 Cite
The authors reflect on the immunological and epidemiological aspects and implications of pre-existing cross-reactive immune memory to SARS-CoV-2, which largely originates from previous exposure to circulating common cold coronaviruses.
[Nature Reviews Immunology]
The effects of systemic administration of Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide on gene expression were comprehensively explored in mouse pancreas that did not demonstrate any signs of inflammation.
[International Journal of Molecular Sciences]
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Hiraki, D., Uehara, O., Kuramitsu, Y., Morikawa, T., Harada, F., Yoshida, K., Akino, K., Chiba, I., Asaka, M., & Abiko, Y. (2020). P. gingivalis Lipopolysaccharide Stimulates the Upregulated Expression of the Pancreatic Cancer-Related Genes Regenerating Islet-Derived 3 A/G in Mouse Pancreas. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 21(19), 7351. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21197351 Cite