Anti-Oncogene PTPN13 Inactivation by Hepatitis B Virus X Protein Counteracts IGF2BP1 to Promote Hepatocellular Carcinoma Progression

Researchers found that decreased tyrosine-protein phosphatase nonreceptor type 13 (PTPN13) expression was associated with hepatitis B virus/hepatitis B x protein. Patients with low PTPN13 expression showed a poor prognosis. Functional assays revealed that PTPN13 inhibited proliferation and tumorigenesis in vitro and in vivo.
[Oncogene]
Yan, Y., Huang, P., Mao, K., He, C., Xu, Q., Zhang, M., Liu, H., Zhou, Z., Zhou, Q., Zhou, Q., Ou, B., Liu, Q., Lin, J., Chen, R., Wang, J., Zhang, J., & Xiao, Z. (2020). Anti-oncogene PTPN13 inactivation by hepatitis B virus X protein counteracts IGF2BP1 to promote hepatocellular carcinoma progression. Oncogene, 1–18. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41388-020-01498-3 Cite
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Transcriptome Dynamics of CD4+ T Cells during Malaria Maps Gradual Transit from Effector to Memory

In malaria-endemic regions, antimalarial chemoprevention protects long after its cessation and associates with effects on CD4+ T cells. Scientists applied single-cell RNA sequencing and computational modelling to track memory development during Plasmodium infection and treatment.
[Nature Immunology]
Transcriptome dynamics of CD4 + T cells during malaria maps gradual transit from effector to memory | Nature Immunology. (n.d.). Retrieved October 14, 2020, from https://www.nature.com/articles/s41590-020-0800-8 Cite
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Umbilical Cord: An Allogenic Tissue for Potential Treatment of COVID-19

Scientists review the current evidences and explore the potential therapeutic use of allogenic umbilical cord (UC) and/or Wharton’s jelly (WJ)-derived MSCs for the treatment of COVID-19. Although preliminary preclinical and clinical studies indicate that their use is safe and potentially effective, more multi-center, randomized, controlled trials are needed to adequately assess the safety and efficacy of UC and/or WJ-derived MSCs for the treatment of COVID-19.
[Human Cell]
Rodriguez, H. C., Gupta, M., Cavazos-Escobar, E., El-Amin, S. F., & Gupta, A. (2020). Umbilical cord: an allogenic tissue for potential treatment of COVID-19. Human Cell. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13577-020-00444-5 Cite
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Maternal HIV Status Skews Transcriptomic Response in Infant Cord Blood Monocytes Exposed to BCG

HIV-unexposed (HU) and HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infant cord blood monocytes were treated with Bacillus Calmette-Guerín (BCG) and transcriptionally profiled with the Nanostring nCounter platform. Differential expression and pathway enrichment analyses were performed, and transcripts were identified with enhanced or dampened BCG responses.
[AIDS]
Jones, C. I., Rose, S. L., Shutt, A., Cairo, C., Bourgeois, N. M., Charurat, M., Sodora, D. L., & Wood, M. P. (2020). Maternal HIV status skews transcriptomic response in infant cord blood monocytes exposed to BCG. AIDS, Publish Ahead of Print. https://doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0000000000002706 Cite
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An Aberrant STAT Pathway Is Central to COVID-19

Scientists discuss the possibility of using various approved drugs, or drugs currently in clinical development, to treat COVID-19. They suggest to enhance STAT1 activity and/or inhibit STAT3 functions for COVID-19 treatment.
[Cell Death & Differentiation]
Matsuyama, T., Kubli, S. P., Yoshinaga, S. K., Pfeffer, K., & Mak, T. W. (2020). An aberrant STAT pathway is central to COVID-19. Cell Death & Differentiation, 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41418-020-00633-7 Cite
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Transcriptional Regulation of Memory B Cell Differentiation

The authors discuss recent advancements regarding the signals and transcription factors regulating germinal centre-derived memory B cells development and function.
[Nature Reviews Immunology]
Laidlaw, B. J., & Cyster, J. G. (2020). Transcriptional regulation of memory B cell differentiation. Nature Reviews Immunology, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41577-020-00446-2 Cite
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Johnson & Johnson Pauses COVID-19 Vaccine Trials

Johnson & Johnson’s Janssen subsidiary, one of several companies in Phase III testing of vaccines to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection, has temporarily suspended enrollment and dosing in all of its clinical trials after a patient experienced an adverse reaction during its Phase III ENSEMBLE trial.
[The Scientist]
Press Release
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Genomic Evidence for Reinfection With SARS-CoV-2: A Case Study

Scientists suggested that the patient was infected by SARS-CoV-2 on two separate occasions by a genetically distinct virus. Thus, previous exposure to SARS-CoV-2 might not guarantee total immunity in all cases.
[Lancet Infectious Diseases]
Tillett, R. L., Sevinsky, J. R., Hartley, P. D., Kerwin, H., Crawford, N., Gorzalski, A., Laverdure, C., Verma, S. C., Rossetto, C. C., Jackson, D., Farrell, M. J., Hooser, S. V., & Pandori, M. (2020). Genomic evidence for reinfection with SARS-CoV-2: a case study. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30764-7 Cite
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SARS-CoV-2 Infects the Brain Choroid Plexus and Disrupts the Blood-CSF-Barrier in Human Brain Organoids

Researchers used human pluripotent stem cell-derived brain organoids to examine SARS-CoV-2 neurotropism. They found expression of viral receptor ACE2 in mature choroid plexus cells expressing abundant lipoproteins, but not in neurons or other cell types.
[Cell Stem Cell]
Pellegrini, L., Albecka, A., Mallery, D. L., Kellner, M. J., Paul, D., Carter, A. P., James, L. C., & Lancaster, M. A. (2020). SARS-CoV-2 infects the brain choroid plexus and disrupts the blood-CSF-barrier in human brain organoids. Cell Stem Cell, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stem.2020.10.001 Cite
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Cross-Reactive Memory T Cells and Herd Immunity to SARS-CoV-2

The authors reflect on the immunological and epidemiological aspects and implications of pre-existing cross-reactive immune memory to SARS-CoV-2, which largely originates from previous exposure to circulating common cold coronaviruses.
[Nature Reviews Immunology]
Lipsitch, M., Grad, Y. H., Sette, A., & Crotty, S. (2020). Cross-reactive memory T cells and herd immunity to SARS-CoV-2. Nature Reviews Immunology, 1–5. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41577-020-00460-4 Cite
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P. gingivalis Lipopolysaccharide Stimulates the Upregulated Expression of the Pancreatic Cancer-Related Genes Regenerating Islet-Derived 3 A/G in Mouse Pancreas

The effects of systemic administration of Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide on gene expression were comprehensively explored in mouse pancreas that did not demonstrate any signs of inflammation.
[International Journal of Molecular Sciences]
Hiraki, D., Uehara, O., Kuramitsu, Y., Morikawa, T., Harada, F., Yoshida, K., Akino, K., Chiba, I., Asaka, M., & Abiko, Y. (2020). P. gingivalis Lipopolysaccharide Stimulates the Upregulated Expression of the Pancreatic Cancer-Related Genes Regenerating Islet-Derived 3 A/G in Mouse Pancreas. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 21(19), 7351. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21197351 Cite
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