Epitope-Resolved Profiling of the SARS-CoV-2 Antibody Response Identifies Cross-Reactivity with Endemic Human Coronaviruses

Researchers studied cross-reactivity using a highly multiplexed peptide assay to generate an epitope-resolved view of IgG reactivity across all human coronaviruses in both COVID-19 convalescent and negative donors.
[Cell Reports Medicine]
Ladner, J. T., Henson, S. N., Boyle, A. S., Engelbrektson, A. L., Fink, Z. W., Rahee, F., D’ambrozio, J., Schaecher, K. E., Stone, M., Dong, W., Dadwal, S., Yu, J., Caligiuri, M. A., Cieplak, P., Bjørås, M., Fenstad, M. H., Nordbø, S. A., Kainov, D. E., Muranaka, N., … Altin, J. A. (2021). Epitope-resolved profiling of the SARS-CoV-2 antibody response identifies cross-reactivity with endemic human coronaviruses. Cell Reports Medicine, 2(1). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.xcrm.2020.100189 Cite
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Listeria monocytogenes Upregulates Mitochondrial Calcium Signaling To Inhibit LC3-Associated Phagocytosis as a Survival Strategy

Invasion of macrophages by L. monocytogenes induced mitochondrial Ca2+ (mtCa2+) uptake through the mtCa2+ uniporter, which in turn increased acetyl-coenzyme A production by pyruvate dehydrogenase.
[Nature Microbiology]
Li, T., Kong, L., Li, X., Wu, S., Attri, K. S., Li, Y., Gong, W., Zhao, B., Li, L., Herring, L. E., Asara, J. M., Xu, L., Luo, X., Lei, Y. L., Ma, Q., Seveau, S., Gunn, J. S., Cheng, X., Singh, P. K., … Wen, H. (2021). Listeria monocytogenes upregulates mitochondrial calcium signalling to inhibit LC3-associated phagocytosis as a survival strategy. Nature Microbiology, 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41564-020-00843-2 Cite
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Generation of HIV-Resistant Cells with a Single-Domain Antibody: Implications for HIV-1 Gene Therapy

GPI-anchored m36.4, a single-domain antibody targeting the coreceptor-binding site of gp120, was constructed with a lentiviral vector. Scientists verified that m36.4 was efficiently expressed on the plasma membrane of transduced TZM-bl cells and targeted lipid raft sites without affecting the expression of HIV receptors
[Cellular & Molecular Immunology]
Jin, H., Tang, X., Li, L., Chen, Y., Zhu, Y., Chong, H., & He, Y. (2021). Generation of HIV-resistant cells with a single-domain antibody: implications for HIV-1 gene therapy. Cellular & Molecular Immunology, 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41423-020-00627-y Cite
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Critical Role of Syk-Dependent STAT1 Activation in Innate Antiviral Immunity

Researchers identified that STAT1 activation is independent of cytokines and JAKs at the early infection stage of some viruses, including influenza A virus.
[Cell Reports]
Liu, S., Liao, Y., Chen, B., Chen, Y., Yu, Z., Wei, H., Zhang, L., Huang, S., Rothman, P. B., Gao, G. F., & Chen, J.-L. (2021). Critical role of Syk-dependent STAT1 activation in innate antiviral immunity. Cell Reports, 34(3). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.108627 Cite
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The Mitochondrial Protein ERAL1 Suppresses RNA Virus Infection by Facilitating RIG-I-Like Receptor Signaling

Investigators identified the mitochondrial protein ERA G-protein-like 1 as a mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein-interacting protein by using proximity-based labeling technology.
[Cell Reports]
Li, S., Kuang, M., Chen, L., Li, Y., Liu, S., Du, H., Cao, L., & You, F. (2021). The mitochondrial protein ERAL1 suppresses RNA virus infection by facilitating RIG-I-like receptor signaling. Cell Reports, 34(3). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.108631 Cite
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Heightened Resistance To Host Type 1 Interferons Characterizes HIV-1 at Transmission and After Antiretroviral Therapy Interruption

Researchers characterized the IFN-I sensitivity of 500 clonally derived HIV-1 isolates from the plasma and CD4+ T cells of 26 individuals sampled longitudinally after transmission or after antiretroviral therapy and analytical treatment interruption.
[Science Translational Medicine]
Gondim, M. V. P., Sherrill-Mix, S., Bibollet-Ruche, F., Russell, R. M., Trimboli, S., Smith, A. G., Li, Y., Liu, W., Avitto, A. N., DeVoto, J. C., Connell, J., Fenton-May, A. E., Pellegrino, P., Williams, I., Papasavvas, E., Lorenzi, J. C. C., Salantes, D. B., Mampe, F., Monroy, M. A., … Hahn, B. H. (2021). Heightened resistance to host type 1 interferons characterizes HIV-1 at transmission and after antiretroviral therapy interruption. Science Translational Medicine, 13(576). https://doi.org/10.1126/scitranslmed.abd8179 Cite
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Cytoplasmic Short Linear Motifs in ACE2 and Integrin β3 Link SARS-CoV-2 Host Cell Receptors to Mediators of Endocytosis and Autophagy

Researchers measured the binding affinity of predicted interactions between short linear motifs in the cytoplasmic tails of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 and integrin β3 with proteins that mediate endocytic trafficking and autophagy.
[Science Signaling]
Kliche, J., Kuss, H., Ali, M., & Ivarsson, Y. (2021). Cytoplasmic short linear motifs in ACE2 and integrin β3 link SARS-CoV-2 host cell receptors to mediators of endocytosis and autophagy. Science Signaling, 14(665). https://doi.org/10.1126/scisignal.abf1117 Cite
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A Class of Viral Inducer of Degradation of the Necroptosis Adaptor RIPK3 Regulates Virus-Induced Inflammation

Using a targeted small interfering RNA screen, scientists identified a viral inhibitor found in cowpox virus and other orthopoxviruses that bound to the host SKP1-Cullin1-F-box machinery and the essential necroptosis kinase receptor interacting protein kinase 3.
[Immunity]
Liu, Z., Nailwal, H., Rector, J., Rahman, M. M., Sam, R., McFadden, G., & Chan, F. K.-M. (2021). A class of viral inducer of degradation of the necroptosis adaptor RIPK3 regulates virus-induced inflammation. Immunity, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.immuni.2020.11.020 Cite
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Infection Trains the Host for Microbiota-Enhanced Resistance to Pathogens

Scientists showed that gut microbiota from previously infected hosts display enhanced resistance to infection. This long-term functional remodeling is associated with altered bile acid metabolism leading to the expansion of taxa that utilize the sulfonic acid taurine.
[Cell]
Stacy, A., Andrade-Oliveira, V., McCulloch, J. A., Hild, B., Oh, J. H., Perez-Chaparro, P. J., Sim, C. K., Lim, A. I., Link, V. M., Enamorado, M., Trinchieri, G., Segre, J. A., Rehermann, B., & Belkaid, Y. (2021). Infection trains the host for microbiota-enhanced resistance to pathogens. Cell, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2020.12.011 Cite
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Vaccination Induces Maturation in a Mouse Model of Diverse Unmutated VRC01-Class Precursors to HIV-Neutralizing Antibodies With >50% Breadth

Using sequential immunization of immunoglobulin-humanized mice expressing diverse unmutated VRC01-class antibody precursors, scientists elicited serum responses capable of neutralizing viruses bearing glycan276 and isolated multiple lineages of VRC01-class bnAbs, including two with >50% breadth on a 208-strain panel.
[Immunity]
Chen, X., Zhou, T., Schmidt, S. D., Duan, H., Cheng, C., Chuang, G.-Y., Gu, Y., Louder, M. K., Lin, B. C., Shen, C.-H., Sheng, Z., Zheng, M. X., Doria-Rose, N. A., Joyce, M. G., Shapiro, L., Tian, M., Alt, F. W., Kwong, P. D., & Mascola, J. R. (2021). Vaccination induces maturation in a mouse model of diverse unmutated VRC01-class precursors to HIV-neutralizing antibodies with >50% breadth. Immunity, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.immuni.2020.12.014 Cite
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Evolution of Antibody Immunity to SARS-CoV-2

Scientists report on the humoral memory response in a cohort of 87 individuals assessed at 1.3 and 6.2 months after infection. They find that IgM, and IgG anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike protein receptor binding domain antibody titres decrease significantly with IgA being less affected.
[Nature]
Gaebler, C., Wang, Z., Lorenzi, J. C. C., Muecksch, F., Finkin, S., Tokuyama, M., Cho, A., Jankovic, M., Schaefer-Babajew, D., Oliveira, T. Y., Cipolla, M., Viant, C., Barnes, C. O., Bram, Y., Breton, G., Hägglöf, T., Mendoza, P., Hurley, A., Turroja, M., … Nussenzweig, M. C. (2021). Evolution of antibody immunity to SARS-CoV-2. Nature, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-03207-w Cite
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