Cancer Stem Cell News Volume 3.34 | Sep 3 2014

Cancer Stem Cell News 3.34 September 3, 2014

Cancer Stem Cell News

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Tumor-Associated Macrophages Produce Interleukin 6 and Signal via STAT3 to Promote Expansion of Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Stem Cells
Scientists investigated whether tumor-associated macrophages affect the activities of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in the microenvironment of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCCs). CD44+ cells from human HCCs and cell lines formed more spheres in culture and more xenograft tumors in mice than CD44 cells, indicating that CD44+ cells are CSCs. [Gastroenterology] Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Niche Displacement of Human Leukemic Stem Cells Uniquely Allows Their Competitive Replacement with Healthy HSPCs
Scientists provide functional evidence that the spatial localization of phenotypically primitive human acute myeloid leukemia cells is restricted to niche elements shared with their normal counterparts, and that their intrinsic ability to initiate and retain occupancy of these niches can be rivaled by healthy hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). [J Exp Med] Abstract

Arachidonate 15-Lipoxygenase Is Required for Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Stem Cell Survival
Researchers determined that the gene encoding arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase (Alox15/15-LO) is essential for the survival of leukemia stem cells in a murine model of BCR-ABL-induced chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). In the absence of Alox15, BCR-ABL was unable to induce CML in mice. [J Clin Invest] Full Article

Metastatic Consequences of Immune Escape from NK Cell Cytotoxicity by Human Breast Cancer Stem Cells
Scientists report that tumor-infiltrating natural killer (NK) cells failed to limit metastasis and were not associated with improved therapeutic outcome of breast cancer stem-like cell-rich breast cancer. [Cancer Res] Abstract

Involvement of Autophagy in Melatonin-Induced Cytotoxicity in Glioma-Initiating Cells
Researchers evaluated the effect of the indolamine alone in glioblastoma initiating cells (GICs) and found that melatonin treatment reduces GICs proliferation and induces a decrease in self-renewal and clonogenic ability accompanied by a reduction in the expression of stem cell markers. [J Pineal Res] Abstract

Luminal Cells Are Favored as the Cell of Origin for Prostate Cancer
Scientists used a novel lineage-tracing strategy to assess the cell of origin in a diverse range of mouse models as well as a hormonal carcinogenesis model. Their results show that luminal cells are consistently the observed cell of origin for each model in situ; however, explanted basal cells from these mice can generate tumors in grafts. [Cell Rep] Full Article | Graphical Abstract

Lipid Droplets: A New Player in Colorectal Cancer Stem Cells Unveiled by Spectroscopic Imaging
Researchers show that high levels of lipid droplets are a distinctive mark of cancer stem cell (CSCs) in colorectal (CR) cancer. This increased lipid content was clearly revealed by label free Raman spectroscopy and it directly correlates with well-accepted CR-CSCs markers as CD133 and Wnt pathway activity. [Stem Cells] Abstract

Targeting the SMO Oncogene by miR-326 Inhibits Glioma Biological Behaviors and Stemness
Researchers investigated whether targeting smoothened (SMO) with microRNA (miR)-326 would affect glioma biological behavior and stemness. [Neuro Oncol] Abstract

Ovarian Tumor-Initiating Cells Display a Flexible Metabolism
The metabolic phenotype of cancer stem or tumor-initiating cells, small tumor cell populations that are able to recapitulate the original tumor, has not been well characterized. Scientists compared the metabolic phenotype of the stem cell enriched cell variant, MOSE-LFFLv, derived from mouse ovarian surface epithelial cells, to their parental and benign precursor cells. [Exp Cell Res] Abstract

EGCG Inhibits Properties of Glioma Stem-Like Cells and Synergizes with Temozolomide through Downregulation of P-Glycoprotein Inhibition
Researchers examined the molecular mechanisms by which epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a bioactive polyphenol in green tea, inhibits the stem cell characteristics of glioma stem-like cells and synergizes with temozolomide, a DNA-methylating agent commonly used as first-line chemotherapy in gliomas. [J Neurooncol] Abstract

MicroRNA-29b-1 Impairs In Vitro Cell Proliferation, Self-Renewal and Chemoresistance of Human Osteosarcoma 3AB-OS Cancer Stem Cells
After stable transfection of 3AB-OS cells with microRNA (miR)-29b-1, scientists investigated the role of miR-29b-1 in regulating cell proliferation, sarcosphere-forming ability, clonogenic growth, chemosensitivity, migration and invasive ability of 3AB-OS cells, in vitro. [Int J Oncol] Abstract

Neural Stem Cells Preferentially Migrate to Glioma Stem Cells and Reduce Their Stemness Phenotypes
Researchers show that glioma stem cells (GSCs) exhibited enhanced chemotaxis for neural stem cell (NSC) tropism compared with their differentiated cells. Chemokines secreted by GSCs contributed to the targeted migration of NSCs. [Int J Oncol] Abstract

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Cancer Stem Cells; Important Players in Tumor Therapy Resistance
The authors discuss briefly cancer stem cells (CSCs) in cancers, give an overview of the role of CSCs in therapy resistance, and discuss the potential means of targeting these therapy resistant tumor cells. [FEBS J] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the cancer stem cell research field.

Actinium Files Orphan Drug Application for Use of Actimab-A in the Treatment of Newly Diagnosed Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Elderly Patients
Actinium Pharmaceuticals, Inc. announced it has filed an application for orphan drug designation with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for Actimab-A, a radiolabeled antibody being developed for newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia in patients over 60, and is currently in a multicenter Phase I/II clinical trial. [Actinium Pharmaceuticals, Inc.] Press Release

Ludwig Cancer Research and Cancer Research Institute Collaborate on Evaluation of Ventirx’s Investigational Immunotherapy
The nonprofits Ludwig Cancer Research (Ludwig) and the Cancer Research Institute (CRI) announced an agreement with VentiRx Pharmaceuticals Inc. to conduct a clinical trial with motolimod combined with other immunotherapy agents available to Ludwig and CRI through other industry partnerships. [Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research Ltd.] Press Release

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National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)

NEW Clinical Applications of Stem Cells (CASC) 2015
February 26-27, 2015
Singapore, Singapore

NEW BIT’s 8th Annual World Cancer Congress (WCC-2015)
May 15-17, 2015
Beijing, China

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the cancer stem cell community.

NEW Postdoctoral Position – Cancer Biology (IRCAN)

NEW Assistant Professor – Cell, Developmental & Cancer Biology (Oregon Health & Science University)

NEW Postdoctoral Position – Cancer Biology (Yale University School of Medicine)

PhD Position – Breast Cancer Stem Cells (University of Copenhagen)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Cancer Cell Survival and Proliferation (Washington State University)

Postdoctoral Research Fellow – Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Based Therapeutics (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center)

Tenure Track Positions – Cancer Biology (Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center)

Postdoctoral Position – Molecular Properties of Leukemic Stem Cells (BC Cancer Agency)

Scientist – Pluripotent Stem Cell Media Development, High Throughput Screening (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Cell Culture Support Products (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Immunology/Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

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