|Cancer Stem Cell News 6.02 January 18, 2017|
Scientists report that self-renewing cancer stem cells (CSCs) in glioblastoma have low TLR4 expression that allows them to survive by disregarding inflammatory signals. TLR4 signaling suppressed CSC properties by reducing retinoblastoma binding protein 5, which is elevated in CSCs. [Cell Stem Cell]
Combining metabolite measurements, genomic and pharmacological manipulations, in vivo experiments, bioinformatics analyses of independent glioblastoma datasets, and analysis of patients’ tumor tissues, the authors discovered that fluctuation in the levels of 4-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) suffices to switch malignant glioma cell from a proliferative and aggressive behavior to a more differentiated and less aggressive state. [Acta Neuropathol]
Investigators describe a chemical screening strategy to identify small molecules that enhance the effect of chemotherapeutic agents on tumor-initiating cells-enriched breast cancer cells. They identified proteins that interact with the lead compound C108, including the stress granule-associated protein, GTPase-activating protein (SH3 domain)-binding protein 2, G3BP2. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA]
Researchers used clinical samples and patient-derived glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs) to confirm that the double-strand break (DSB) repair protein RAD51 is highly expressed in GSCs, which are reliant on RAD51-dependent DSB repair after radiation. [Stem Cell Reports]
The authors propose a new strategy that allows isolation of CD44+/CD24− tumor initiating cells (TICs) by immunomagnetic separation involving both magnetic beads coated by anti-CD44 antibody and nonmagnetic beads coated by anti-CD24 antibody. Cells enriched with their approach showed significant enhancement in TIC marker expression and improved tumorsphere formation efficiency. [Sci Rep]
Researchers demonstrated that apoptosis inhibitor-5 (API5) confers cancer stem cell (CSC)-like properties, including NANOG expression, the frequency of CD44-positive cells and sphere-forming capacity. These CSC-like properties mediated by API5 are dependent on FGFR1 signaling, which is triggered by E2F1-dependent FGF2 expression. [Oncogenesis]
Scientists report that sulforaphane (SFN), a potent anti-cancer and well-tolerated dietary compound, inhibited cancer stem-like cell properties and enhanced therapeutic efficacy of cisplatin in human non-small cell lung cancer. SFN exerted these functions through upregulation of miR-214, which in turn targets the coding region of c-MYC. [Oncotarget]
The authors found that sinomenine hydrochloride (SH) suppressed the metastasis potential of breast cancer cells. The orthotopic mouse model of 4T1 and the experimental mouse model of MDA-MB-231 cell line expressing firefly luciferase demonstrated that SH treatment inhibited breast cancer metastasis by inhibiting epithelial–mesenchymal transition and cancer stem cell properties without obvious hepatotoxicity and renal toxicity. [Oncotarget]
Investigators analyzed the effects of Resveratrol exposure on cell viability, proliferation and motility in seven glioma stem cell (GSC) lines isolated from glioblastoma multiforme patients. They investigated Resveratrol impact on Wnt signaling pathway in GSCs, evaluating the expression of seven Wnt signaling pathway-related genes and the protein levels of c-Myc and β-catenin. [PLoS One]
Scientists showed that miR-375 inhibits cancer stem cell (CSC) traits in breast cancer MCF-7 cells. Overexpression of HOXB3 induced formation of CSC phenotypes, epithelial-mesenchymal transition and tamoxifen-resistance as well as enhanced ability of migration and invasion in MCF-7 cells. [Oncol Rep]
The plethora of reports ascribing melanoma progression both to CSCs and to tumor heterogeneity and plasticity (or “phenotypic switching”) has left the issue of CSCs in melanoma unsettled. The author discusses arguments both “for” and “against” the concept of CSCs in melanoma and suggests a possible path forward to help resolve these conflicting data. [J Cell Physiol]
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tebu-bio and StemTek Therapeutics announced their agreement for tebu-bio to provide Cell2Sphere™ to Life Sciences researchers throughout Europe. CELL2SPHERE™ is a unique, ready-to-use solution for 3D drug compound screening, composed of 96-well plates containing cancer stem cells and media for 3D spheroid generation, which are delivered frozen for long term storage and convenience making them ideal for flexible experimental planning. [being bio-reactive]
Xcovery announced their participation in the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Formulary, a public-private partnership between the NCI, part of the National Institutes of Health, and pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies to expedite the use of agents in clinical trials. The partnership, which launched with fifteen targeted agents from six pharmaceutical companies, will seek to alleviate the lengthy process to develop new therapies for patients, and respond to the call for greater collaboration within the industry made by Vice President Biden’s Cancer Moonshot Initiative. [Xcovery]
Federal officials have dropped a controversial plan to impose new rules that researchers say would have made it much harder to use patient blood and tissue samples in research. The final Common Rule omits these provisions, but leaves other changes intact. [ScienceInsider]
The first results of a high-profile effort to replicate influential papers in cancer biology are roiling the biomedical community. Of the five studies the project has tackled so far, some involving experimental treatments already in clinical trials, only two could be repeated; one could not, and technical problems stymied the remaining two replication efforts. [ScienceInsider]
NEW ESMO Symposium on Signaling Pathways in Cancer 2017
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