|Cancer Stem Cell News 6.08 March 1, 2017|
By generating genetically defined liver tumor-initiating cells (TICs), the authors demonstrated that TICs actively recruit type II macrophages from as early as the single-cell stage. Elimination of TIC-associated macrophages abolished tumorigenesis in a manner dependent on the immune system. [Genes Dev]
Researchers describe a radiation resistance phenotype conferred by a stem-like subpopulation characterized by mitosis-like condensed chromatin, high CD133 expression, invasive potential, and tumor-initiating properties. Mechanistic investigations defined a pathway involving osteopontin and the EGFR in promoting this phenotype. [Cancer Res]
The authors demonstrated how microvesicles (MVs) derived from cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) transfer miR-221 to promote hormonal therapy resistance in models of luminal breast cancer. They determined that CAF-derived MVs horizontally transferred miR-221 to tumor cells and, in combination with hormone therapy activated an ERlo/Notchhi feed-forward loop responsible for the generation of CD133hi cancer stem cell. [Cancer Res]
Scientists provided evidence showing that all-trans retinoic acid induces the interaction and chromatin recruitment of a novel RARβ-TET2 complex to epigenetically activate a specific cohort of gene targets, including MiR-200c. [Oncogene]
Investigators performed two microRNA (miRNA) gain- and loss-of-function screens to identify miRNAs that regulate the choice between breast cancer stem cell (bCSC) self-renewal and differentiation. They found that miR-600 silencing results in bCSC expansion, while its overexpression reduces bCSC self-renewal, leading to decreased in vivo tumorigenicity. [Cell Rep]
It has been shown previously that natural killer (NK) cells recognize human glioma, melanoma, colon and prostate cancer stem cells (CSCs) in vitro. Researchers showed that human and mouse breast CSCs are also susceptible to NK cytotoxic activity in vitro. [Oncoimmunology]
The authors examined the combination of taxanes with a breast cancer stem cell (CSC)-targeting agent sulforaphane for use against triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). They demonstrated that paclitaxel or docetaxel treatment induces IL-6 secretion and results in expansion of CSCs in TNBC cell lines. [Cancer Lett]
Scientists identified ZEB1 binding sites within the LIF promoter region, and demonstrated LIF repression by ZEB1. ZEB1 knockdown in glioma cancer stem cells (GCSCs) caused LIF induction commensurate with GCSC self-renewal and inhibition of differentiation. [Sci Rep]
The authors used the targeting microbubbles conjugated with anti-ABCG2 monoclonal antibody for ultrasound mediated epirubicin delivery to evaluate the therapeutic effectiveness of the novel agent in multiple myeloma (MM) cancer stem cell xenograft model. All treated mice showed inhibited tumor sizes or bone lesions, decreased renal damages and anemia, and increased MM bearing mice’ survival. [Biochem Pharmacol]
Researchers isolated CD133 positive population of a gastric cancer cell line, BGC823 cells, and cultured with NK cells. They found that CD133 could efficiently active NK cells in an NKG2D-dependent manner. [Mol Carcinog]
The aim of current study was to investigate the effect of A3 adenosine receptor (A3AR) agonist on breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs). XTT assay showed antiproliferative effect of A3AR agonist on BCSCs. [J Cell Biochem]
Emerging therapies aimed at the tumor microenvironment (TME) offer a promising new tool in breaking through this shield to target the cancer stem cells (CSCs), yet definitive treatments remain unrealized. Scientists summarize the mechanisms by which CSCs are protected by the TME and current efforts to overcome these barriers. [Stem Cells]
The authors argue that modern clinical strategies should appreciate that the cancer stem cell (CSC) hierarchy is a dynamic target that contains sensitive and resistant components and expresses a collection of therapy-resisting mechanisms. They propose that the CSC hierarchy at primary presentation changes in response to clinical intervention, resulting in a recurrent malignancy that should be targeted differently. [Mol Cancer]
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Creo Medical Group plc announced its participation in the Semiconductor-Based Ultrawideband Micromanipulation of Cancer Stem Cells (SUMCASTEC) H2020 FET OPEN research program, led by the XLIM Research Institute at the University of Limoges in France. [Creo Medical Group plc]
Advaxis, Inc. and SELLAS Life Sciences Group announced that Advaxis has granted SELLAS a license to develop a novel cancer immunotherapy agent using Advaxis’ proprietary Lm-based antigen delivery technology with SELLAS’ patented WT1 targeted heteroclitic peptide antigen mixture. [Advaxis, Inc.]
The chairman of a congressional spending panel that oversees a wide swath of U.S. science agencies has some unusual advice for scientists planning to march on 22 April: Don’t talk about research. Instead, demand that Congress find a way to cut mandatory spending programs. [ScienceInsider]
Amendments aim to protect autonomy and the independence of research funders from political interference. [Nature News]
The chunk of the federal budget that includes most of the U.S. government’s spending on basic science would shrink by 10.5% in 2018 under a plan outlined by President Donald Trump and administration officials. [ScienceInsider]
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