|Cancer Stem Cell News 6.35 September 6, 2017|
The authors explored the use of oncolytic virus therapy against glioblastoma with Zika virus (ZIKV), a flavivirus that induces cell death and differentiation of neural precursor cells in the developing fetus. ZIKV preferentially infected and killed glioblastoma stem cells relative to differentiated tumor progeny or normal neuronal cells. [J Exp Med]
Scientists report a novel linkage between genomic instability and phagocytosis evasion, which is coordinated by the blebbishield emergency program. Blebbishield emergency program evaded genomic instability checkpoint, expressed genomic instability associated genes at distinct phases of cellular transformation, exhibited chromosomal instability, and promoted increase in nuclear size. [Cancer Res]
The authors showed that glioma associated-human mesenchymal stem cells, a newly identified stromal component of glioblastoma, release exosomes that increase the proliferation and clonogenicity of tumor-initiating glioma stem-like cells (GSCs). This event lead to a significantly greater tumor burden and decreased host survival compared with untreated GSCs in orthotopic xenografts. [Cancer Res]
The hypothesis that pancreatic cancer stem cells (PCSCs) can be effectively targeted by incorporating disulfiram/copper into the standard chemoradiation regimen consisting of 5-fluorouracil and fractionated radiation was investigated and found to be effective in vitro in targeting PCSCs, identified as either ALDHbright, CD24+/CD44+/ESA+ or sphere-forming cells, as well as nonstem pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cells. [Cancer Lett]
Researchers report the relationship between hypoxia and cancer stem cells-like properties in human ovarian cancer cell lines SKOV3 and HO8910. They found that hypoxia induced cancer stem cells-like properties in ovarian cancer cells. [Sci Rep]
The MDA-MB-231 embedded spheroid tumor model exhibited the most robust response to chemotherapeutic treatment, and possessed the greatest CSC content. CSC-related genes were elevated across all MDA-MB-231 in vitro models following paclitaxel treatment, indicating that paclitaxel enrichment of chemoresistant CSCs was less dependent on microenvironmental tumor structure, while cisplatin showed a more context-dependent response. [Sci Rep]
Researchers demonstrated that YAP1 and ∆Np63α are important sulforaphane cancer prevention targets. They showed that sulforaphane treatment increases YAP1 phosphorylation and proteolytic degradation. The loss of YAP1 was associated with a reduction in ∆Np63α level and a reduction in epidermal squamous cell carcinoma cancer stem cell survival, spheroid formation, invasion and migration. [Oncotarget]
Based on in silico and molecular approaches, it was discovered that FOXD3 potently inhibits the transcriptional activity of the (β)-promoter. FOXD3 became methylated in human colon cancer cells (hCCCs), with loss of FOXD3 expression, allowing expression of the doublecortin-like kinase 1 short(S)-isoform2 (DCLK1-S) variant in hCCCs/human colon adenocarcinomas. [Mol Cancer Res]
Investigators identified a novel immune target, CXorf48, expressed in leukemic stem cells of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients. Cytotoxic T cells induced by the epitope peptide derived from CXorf48 recognized CD34+CD38− cells obtained from the bone marrow of CML patients. [Blood Cancer J]
Combination treatment with a selective Janus kinase (JAK)1/JAK2 inhibitor (ruxolitinib) and nilotinib more effectively eliminated leukemia-propagating cells than either therapy alone or both in vitro and in humanized Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) mice by reducing phospho-CrKL and phospho-JAK2 activities at the molecular level. [J Transl Med]
Scientists assessed the impact of all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) combined with radiotherapy on head and neck cancers and analyzed the interplay between these agents and cell recruitment. The model showed that ATRA exhibits a powerful effect on CSCs when combined with radiotherapy. [Cell Prolif]
The authors discuss lncRNA-mediated regulation of CSCs following radiotherapy, their association with tumor metastasis and significance in radioresistance of cancer. [Int J Mol Sci]
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The Independent Citizens Oversight Committee of the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine unanimously approved an $18.29 million grant to University of California San Diego School of Medicine researchers to fund a Phase Ib/IIa clinical trial of a novel combination drug therapy for B-cell cancers [University of California, San Diego]
Regen BioPharma Inc., in conjunction with its medicinal chemistry partner, ChemDiv, Inc., believes it has made a fundamental discovery in developing small molecule drugs that activate NR2F6. The company reports that recently identified novel chemical compounds that activate NR2F6 have key structural elements that make them active and specific. [Regen BioPharma Inc. (PR Newswire Association LLC.)]
Scientists in the United States are nervously watching from the sidelines as the annual budget skirmish heats up in Congress. Competing spending priorities in the House of Representative and Senate could push funding negotiations into December. [Nature News]
A 27-year-old is one of an untold number of scientists and engineers who are undocumented immigrants, and have been able to get jobs and degrees thanks to a federal initiative that President Donald Trump has threatened to end. [ScienceInsider]
Scientists studying human behavior and cognitive brain function are up in arms over a plan by the US National Institutes of Health (NIH) to classify most studies involving human participants as clinical trials. [Nature News]
NEW EACR: A Matter of Life or Death: From Basic Cell Death Mechanisms to Novel Cancer Treatments
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