PM014 Attenuates Radiation-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis via Regulating NF-kB and TGF-b1/NOX4 Pathways

Scientists investigated the radioprotective effects and the underlying mechanism of the standardized herbal extract PM014 on radiation-induced lung fibrosis.
[Scientific Reports]
Park, S.-H., Kim, J.-Y., Kim, J.-M., Yoo, B. R., Han, S. Y., Jung, Y. J., Bae, H., & Cho, J. (2020). PM014 attenuates radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis via regulating NF-kB and TGF-b1/NOX4 pathways. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 16112. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-72629-9 Cite
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MicroRNA-130b Functions as an Oncogene and Is a Predictive Marker of Poor Prognosis in Lung Adenocarcinoma

Researchers investigated the clinicopathologic significance of microRNA-130b in lung adenocarcinoma and analyzed its cancer-specific functions.
[Laboratory Investigation]
Kim, Y., Kim, H., Bang, S., Jee, S., & Jang, K. (2020). MicroRNA-130b functions as an oncogene and is a predictive marker of poor prognosis in lung adenocarcinoma. Laboratory Investigation, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41374-020-00496-z Cite
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Multilineage Murine Stem Cells Generate Complex Organoids to Model Distal Lung Development and Disease

The authors established a three‐dimensional murine bronchioalveolar lung organoid model that allows clonal expansion and self‐organization of FACS‐sorted bronchioalveolar stem cells upon co‐culture with lung‐resident mesenchymal cells.
[EMBO Journal]
Vazquez-Armendariz, A. I., Heiner, M., El Agha, E., Salwig, I., Hoek, A., Hessler, M. C., Shalashova, I., Shrestha, A., Carraro, G., Mengel, J. P., Günther, A., Morty, R. E., Vadász, I., Schwemmle, M., Kummer, W., Hain, T., Goesmann, A., Bellusci, S., Seeger, W., … Herold, S. (2020). Multilineage murine stem cells generate complex organoids to model distal lung development and disease. The EMBO Journal, n/a(n/a), e103476. https://doi.org/10.15252/embj.2019103476 Cite
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The Cross-Talk between Methylation and Phosphorylation in Lymphoid-Specific Helicase Drives Cancer Stem-Like Properties

The arginine methyltransferase PRMT5 can methylate lymphoid-specific helicase (LSH) at R309 residue, meanwhile, LSH could as well be phosphorylated by MAPK1 kinase at S503 residue.
[Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy]
Liu, N., Yang, R., Shi, Y., Chen, L., Liu, Y., Wang, Z., Liu, S., Ouyang, L., Wang, H., Lai, W., Mao, C., Wang, M., Cheng, Y., Liu, S., Wang, X., Zhou, H., Cao, Y., Xiao, D., & Tao, Y. (2020). The cross-talk between methylation and phosphorylation in lymphoid-specific helicase drives cancer stem-like properties. Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy, 5(1), 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41392-020-00249-w Cite
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Proteome-Wide Effects of Naphthalene-Derived Secondary Organic Aerosol in BEAS-2B Cells Are Caused by Short-Lived Unsaturated Carbonyls

The authors investigated the dynamic toxicities of naphthalene-derived secondary organic aerosol in a human bronchial epithelial cell line and identified the chemical components responsible for toxicities.
[Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America]
Han, J., Wang, S., Yeung, K., Yang, D., Gu, W., Ma, Z., Sun, J., Wang, X., Chow, C.-W., Chan, A. W. H., & Peng, H. (2020). Proteome-wide effects of naphthalene-derived secondary organic aerosol in BEAS-2B cells are caused by short-lived unsaturated carbonyls. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2001378117 Cite
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FDA Approves KALYDECO® (Ivacaftor) as First and Only CFTR Modulator to Treat Eligible Infants with CF as Early as Four Months of Age

Vertex Pharmaceuticals Incorporated announced the FDA approved KALYDECO® for use in children with cystic fibrosis ages four months to less than six months old who have at least one mutation in their cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene that is responsive to KALYDECO based on clinical and/or in vitro assay data.
[Vertex Pharmaceuticals Incorporated]
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miR-184 Targets TP63 to Block Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis by Inhibiting Proliferation and Epithelial–Mesenchymal Transition of Airway Epithelial Cells

Investigators showed abnormal upregulation of tumor protein p63 (TP63) and downregulation of miR-184 in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Transforming growth factor beta 1 stimulation of BEAS-2B and A549 cell lines significantly increased the protein levels of Tp63, alpha-smooth muscle actin, and vimentin, but decreased EpCAM protein levels, and promoted viability of both BEAS-2B and A549 cell lines.
[Laboratory Investigation]
Li, J., Pan, C., Tang, C., Tan, W., Zhang, W., & Guan, J. (2020). miR-184 targets TP63 to block idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis by inhibiting proliferation and epithelial–mesenchymal transition of airway epithelial cells. Laboratory Investigation, 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41374-020-00487-0 Cite
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MicroRNA-3613-5p Promotes Lung Adenocarcinoma Cell Proliferation through a RELA and AKT/MAPK Positive Feedback Loop

Researchers determined that microRNA-3613-5p plays a crucial role in RELA-mediated post-transcriptional regulation of lung adenocarcinoma cell proliferation.
[Molecular Therapy-Nucleic Acids]
He, T., Shen, H., Wang, S., Wang, Y., He, Z., Zhu, L., Du, X., Wang, D., Li, J., Zhong, S., Huang, W., & Yang, H. (2020). MicroRNA-3613-5p promotes lung adenocarcinoma cell proliferation through a RELA and AKT/MAPK positive feedback loop. Molecular Therapy - Nucleic Acids, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.omtn.2020.09.024 Cite
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STAT3–BDNF–TrkB Signaling Promotes Alveolar Epithelial Regeneration after Lung Injury

Single-cell transcriptome analysis identified brain-derived neurotrophic factor as a STAT3 target gene with newly accessible chromatin in a unique population of regenerating AT2 cells.
[Nature Cell Biology]
Paris, A. J., Hayer, K. E., Oved, J. H., Avgousti, D. C., Toulmin, S. A., Zepp, J. A., Zacharias, W. J., Katzen, J. B., Basil, M. C., Kremp, M. M., Slamowitz, A. R., Jayachandran, S., Sivakumar, A., Dai, N., Wang, P., Frank, D. B., Eisenlohr, L. C., Cantu, E., Beers, M. F., … Worthen, G. S. (2020). STAT3–BDNF–TrkB signalling promotes alveolar epithelial regeneration after lung injury. Nature Cell Biology, 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41556-020-0569-x Cite
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Heterogeneous Ozone Effects on the DNA Methylome of Bronchial Cells Observed in a Crossover Study

Researchers used a randomized crossover experiment to estimate the effects of ozone exposure on genome-wide DNA methylation of target bronchial epithelial cells, using 17 volunteers, each randomly exposed on two separated occasions to clean air or 0.3-ppm ozone for two hours.
[Scientific Reports]
Bind, M. -a. C., Rubin, D. B., Cardenas, A., Dhingra, R., Ward-Caviness, C., Liu, Z., Mirowsky, J., Schwartz, J. D., Diaz-Sanchez, D., & Devlin, R. B. (2020). Heterogeneous ozone effects on the DNA methylome of bronchial cells observed in a crossover study. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 15739. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-72068-6 Cite
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Exploring the Action of RGDV-Gemcitabine on Tumor Metastasis, Tumor Growth and Possible Action Pathway

Thereby Arg-Gly-Asp-Val-gemcitabine was able to inhibit the invasion, migration and adhesion of serum-starved A549 cells in vitro.
[Scientific Reports]
Exploring the action of RGDV-gemcitabine on tumor metastasis, tumor growth and possible action pathway | Scientific Reports. (n.d.). Retrieved September 25, 2020, from https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-020-72824-8 Cite
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