Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Neurological Disorders: Exploring Mitochondrial Transplantation

The authors summarize mitochondrial pathways that contribute to disease progression. They also discuss pathological states that damaged mitochondria impose on normal nervous system processes and explore new therapeutic approaches to mitochondrial diseases.
[npj Regenerative Medicine]
Norat, P., Soldozy, S., Sokolowski, J. D., Gorick, C. M., Kumar, J. S., Chae, Y., Yağmurlu, K., Prada, F., Walker, M., Levitt, M. R., Price, R. J., Tvrdik, P., & Kalani, M. Y. S. (2020). Mitochondrial dysfunction in neurological disorders: Exploring mitochondrial transplantation. Npj Regenerative Medicine, 5(1), 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41536-020-00107-x Cite
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Upregulation of Acid Sensing Ion Channel 1a (ASIC1a) by Hydrogen Peroxide through the JNK Pathway

Researchers examined the effect of hydrogen peroxide, a major reactive oxygen species, on ASIC1a protein expression and channel function in NS20Y cells and primary cultured mouse cortical neurons.
[Acta Pharmacologica Sinica]
Wu, B., Bargaineer, J., Zhang, L., Yang, T., Xiong, Z., & Leng, T. (2020). Upregulation of acid sensing ion channel 1a (ASIC1a) by hydrogen peroxide through the JNK pathway. Acta Pharmacologica Sinica, 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41401-020-00559-3 Cite
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Flow-Mediated Susceptibility and Molecular Response of Cerebral Endothelia to SARS-CoV-2 Infection

Endothelial cells were isolated from human brain and analyzed by RNA sequencing. Human umbilical vein and human brain microvascular cells were used in both monolayer culture and endothelialized within a 3-dimensional printed vascular model of the middle cerebral artery.
[Stroke]
Kaneko Naoki, Satta Sandro, Komuro Yutaro, Muthukrishnan Sree Deepthi, Kakarla Visesha, Guo Lea, An Jennifer, Elahi Fanny, Kornblum Harley I., Liebeskind David S., Hsiai Tzung, & Hinman Jason D. (n.d.). Flow-Mediated Susceptibility and Molecular Response of Cerebral Endothelia to SARS-CoV-2 Infection. Stroke, 0(0), STROKEAHA.120.032764. https://doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.120.032764 Cite
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tPA Mobilizes Immune Cells that Exacerbate Hemorrhagic Transformation in Stroke

Scientists determined the impact of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) on immune cells and investigated the association between observed immune alteration with hemorrhagic transformation in ischemic stroke patients and in a rat model of embolic stroke.
[Circulation Research]
Shi Kaibin, Zou Ming, Jia Dong-mei, Shi Samuel, Yang Xiaoxia, Liu Qiang, Dong Jingfei, Sheth Kevin N, Wang Xiaoying, & Shi Fu-Dong. (n.d.). tPA Mobilizes Immune Cells that Exacerbate Hemorrhagic Transformation in Stroke. Circulation Research, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.120.317596 Cite
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Pharmacological and Cardiovascular Perspectives on the Treatment of COVID-19 with Chloroquine Derivatives

While respiratory symptoms are the major clinical manifestations, cardiovascular abnormalities, including arrhythmias, myocarditis, heart failure, and ischemic stroke, have been reported in a significant number of COVID-19 patients.
[Acta Pharmacologica Sinica]
Zhang, X., Li, Z., Ye, J., Lu, J., Ye, L. L., Zhang, C., Liu, P., & Duan, D. D. (2020). Pharmacological and cardiovascular perspectives on the treatment of COVID-19 with chloroquine derivatives. Acta Pharmacologica Sinica, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41401-020-00519-x Cite
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Preventive Triple Gene Therapy Reduces the Negative Consequences of Ischemia-Induced Brain Injury after Modelling Stroke in a Rat

Adenoviral vectors carrying genes encoding vascular endothelial growth factor, glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor and neural cell adhesion molecule or gene engineered umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells overexpressing recombinant vascular endothelial growth factor, glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor, and neural cell adhesion molecule were intrathecally injected before distal occlusion of the middle cerebral artery in rats.
[International Journal of Molecular Sciences]
Markosyan, V., Safiullov, Z., Izmailov, A., Fadeev, F., Sokolov, M., Kuznetsov, M., Trofimov, D., Kim, E., Kundakchyan, G., Gibadullin, A., Salafutdinov, I., Nurullin, L., Bashirov, F., & Islamov, R. (2020). Preventive Triple Gene Therapy Reduces the Negative Consequences of Ischemia-Induced Brain Injury after Modelling Stroke in a Rat. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 21(18), 6858. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21186858 Cite
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Mannitol Augments the Effects of Systemical Stem Cell Transplantation without Increasing Cell Migration in a Stroke Animal Model

Researchers elucidated the neuroprotective effects of a combination of mannitol pretreatment and stem cell transplantation on stroke-induced neural injury.
[Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine]
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Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapy for Ischemic Stroke: A Look into Treatment Mechanism and Therapeutic Potential

Researchers show the transplantation protocol for mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), discuss the potential therapeutic mechanisms, and summarize clinical trials on MSCs for treating ischemic stroke.
[Journal of Neurology]
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The Conditioned Medium of Human Embryonic Stem Cell‐Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Alleviates Neurological Deficits and Improves Synaptic Recovery in Experimental Stroke

Researchers investigated the effect of CM derived from human embryonic MSCs on experimental ischemic stroke.
[Journal of Cellular Physiology]
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Sovateltide (IRL-1620) Activates Neuronal Differentiation and Prevents Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Adult Mammalian Brains Following Stroke

Investigators showed a novel role of endothelin B receptors in neuronal progenitor cells and mitochondrial fate determination in cerebral ischemia, and in improving neurological deficit after stroke.
[Scientific Reports]
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