Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Attenuate Post-Stroke Infection by Preventing Caspase-1-Dependent Splenic Marginal Zone B Cell Death

Scientists showed that intravenously administered MSCs preferentially migrate to the marginal zone (MZ) of the spleen, preserving injured MZ B cells and ameliorating post-stroke infection and mortality in the mouse middle cerebral artery occlusion model of acute ischemic stroke.
[Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy]
Huang, Y., Wang, J., Lai, X., Qiu, Y., Cai, J., Ma, Y., Liu, Y., Qiu, W., Lu, Z., & Xiang, A. P. (2021). Mesenchymal stromal cells attenuate post-stroke infection by preventing caspase-1-dependent splenic marginal zone B cell death. Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy, 6(1), 1–3. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41392-020-00415-0 Cite
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Notch Signaling-Modified Mesenchymal Stem Cells Improve Tissue Perfusion by Induction of Arteriogenesis in a Rat Hindlimb Ischemia Model

In Sprague–Dawley rats, hindlimb ischemia was generated by femoral artery removal, then seven days after ischemic induction 1 × 105 SB623 cells or PBS was injected into the ischemic adductor muscle.
[Scientific Reports]
Maeda, S., Miyagawa, S., Kawamura, T., Shibuya, T., Watanabe, K., Nakagawa, T., Harada, A., Chida, D., & Sawa, Y. (2021). Notch signaling-modified mesenchymal stem cells improve tissue perfusion by induction of arteriogenesis in a rat hindlimb ischemia model. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 2543. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-82284-3 Cite
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Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Exosomal miR-146a-5p Reduces Microglial-Mediated Neuroinflammation via Suppression of the IRAK1/TRAF6 Signaling Pathway after Ischemic Stroke

The authors found that injected human umbilcal cord-derived exosomes were able to access the site of ischemic damage and could be internalized by cells both in vivo and in vitro.
[Aging-Us]
Aging | Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomal miR-146a-5p reduces microglial-mediated neuroinflammation via suppression of the IRAK1/TRAF6 signaling pathway after ischemic stroke - Full Text. (n.d.). Retrieved January 27, 2021, from https://www.aging-us.com/article/202466/text Cite
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Reparative System Arising from CCR2(+) Monocyte Conversion Attenuates Neuroinflammation following Ischemic Stroke

Scientists found that CCR2highCX3CR1low monocytes recruited to the injured brain were cytokine-dependently converted into CCR2lowCX3CR1high macrophages, especially under the influence of IL-4 and IL-13, thereby attenuating the neuroinflammation following sterile ischemic stroke.
[Translational Stroke Research]
Park, J., Kim, J. Y., Kim, Y. R., Huang, M., Chang, J. Y., Sim, A. Y., Jung, H., Lee, W. T., Hyun, Y.-M., & Lee, J. E. (2021). Reparative System Arising from CCR2(+) Monocyte Conversion Attenuates Neuroinflammation Following Ischemic Stroke. Translational Stroke Research. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12975-020-00878-x Cite
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Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Neurological Disorders: Exploring Mitochondrial Transplantation

The authors summarize mitochondrial pathways that contribute to disease progression. They also discuss pathological states that damaged mitochondria impose on normal nervous system processes and explore new therapeutic approaches to mitochondrial diseases.
[npj Regenerative Medicine]
Norat, P., Soldozy, S., Sokolowski, J. D., Gorick, C. M., Kumar, J. S., Chae, Y., Yağmurlu, K., Prada, F., Walker, M., Levitt, M. R., Price, R. J., Tvrdik, P., & Kalani, M. Y. S. (2020). Mitochondrial dysfunction in neurological disorders: Exploring mitochondrial transplantation. Npj Regenerative Medicine, 5(1), 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41536-020-00107-x Cite
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Upregulation of Acid Sensing Ion Channel 1a (ASIC1a) by Hydrogen Peroxide through the JNK Pathway

Researchers examined the effect of hydrogen peroxide, a major reactive oxygen species, on ASIC1a protein expression and channel function in NS20Y cells and primary cultured mouse cortical neurons.
[Acta Pharmacologica Sinica]
Wu, B., Bargaineer, J., Zhang, L., Yang, T., Xiong, Z., & Leng, T. (2020). Upregulation of acid sensing ion channel 1a (ASIC1a) by hydrogen peroxide through the JNK pathway. Acta Pharmacologica Sinica, 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41401-020-00559-3 Cite
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Flow-Mediated Susceptibility and Molecular Response of Cerebral Endothelia to SARS-CoV-2 Infection

Endothelial cells were isolated from human brain and analyzed by RNA sequencing. Human umbilical vein and human brain microvascular cells were used in both monolayer culture and endothelialized within a 3-dimensional printed vascular model of the middle cerebral artery.
[Stroke]
Kaneko Naoki, Satta Sandro, Komuro Yutaro, Muthukrishnan Sree Deepthi, Kakarla Visesha, Guo Lea, An Jennifer, Elahi Fanny, Kornblum Harley I., Liebeskind David S., Hsiai Tzung, & Hinman Jason D. (n.d.). Flow-Mediated Susceptibility and Molecular Response of Cerebral Endothelia to SARS-CoV-2 Infection. Stroke, 0(0), STROKEAHA.120.032764. https://doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.120.032764 Cite
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tPA Mobilizes Immune Cells that Exacerbate Hemorrhagic Transformation in Stroke

Scientists determined the impact of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) on immune cells and investigated the association between observed immune alteration with hemorrhagic transformation in ischemic stroke patients and in a rat model of embolic stroke.
[Circulation Research]
Shi Kaibin, Zou Ming, Jia Dong-mei, Shi Samuel, Yang Xiaoxia, Liu Qiang, Dong Jingfei, Sheth Kevin N, Wang Xiaoying, & Shi Fu-Dong. (n.d.). tPA Mobilizes Immune Cells that Exacerbate Hemorrhagic Transformation in Stroke. Circulation Research, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.120.317596 Cite
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Pharmacological and Cardiovascular Perspectives on the Treatment of COVID-19 with Chloroquine Derivatives

While respiratory symptoms are the major clinical manifestations, cardiovascular abnormalities, including arrhythmias, myocarditis, heart failure, and ischemic stroke, have been reported in a significant number of COVID-19 patients.
[Acta Pharmacologica Sinica]
Zhang, X., Li, Z., Ye, J., Lu, J., Ye, L. L., Zhang, C., Liu, P., & Duan, D. D. (2020). Pharmacological and cardiovascular perspectives on the treatment of COVID-19 with chloroquine derivatives. Acta Pharmacologica Sinica, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41401-020-00519-x Cite
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Preventive Triple Gene Therapy Reduces the Negative Consequences of Ischemia-Induced Brain Injury after Modelling Stroke in a Rat

Adenoviral vectors carrying genes encoding vascular endothelial growth factor, glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor and neural cell adhesion molecule or gene engineered umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells overexpressing recombinant vascular endothelial growth factor, glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor, and neural cell adhesion molecule were intrathecally injected before distal occlusion of the middle cerebral artery in rats.
[International Journal of Molecular Sciences]
Markosyan, V., Safiullov, Z., Izmailov, A., Fadeev, F., Sokolov, M., Kuznetsov, M., Trofimov, D., Kim, E., Kundakchyan, G., Gibadullin, A., Salafutdinov, I., Nurullin, L., Bashirov, F., & Islamov, R. (2020). Preventive Triple Gene Therapy Reduces the Negative Consequences of Ischemia-Induced Brain Injury after Modelling Stroke in a Rat. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 21(18), 6858. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21186858 Cite
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Mannitol Augments the Effects of Systemical Stem Cell Transplantation without Increasing Cell Migration in a Stroke Animal Model

Researchers elucidated the neuroprotective effects of a combination of mannitol pretreatment and stem cell transplantation on stroke-induced neural injury.
[Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine]
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