Increased Circulation Time of Plasmodium Falciparum Underlies Persistent Asymptomatic Infection in the Dry Season

Scientists showed that low levels of P. falciparum parasites persist in the blood of asymptomatic Malian individuals during the five to six month dry season, rarely causing symptoms and minimally affecting the host immune response.
[Nature Medicine]
Andrade, C. M., Fleckenstein, H., Thomson-Luque, R., Doumbo, S., Lima, N. F., Anderson, C., Hibbert, J., Hopp, C. S., Tran, T. M., Li, S., Niangaly, M., Cisse, H., Doumtabe, D., Skinner, J., Sturdevant, D., Ricklefs, S., Virtaneva, K., Asghar, M., Homann, M. V., … Portugal, S. (2020). Increased circulation time of Plasmodium falciparum underlies persistent asymptomatic infection in the dry season. Nature Medicine, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41591-020-1084-0 Cite
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Transcriptome Dynamics of CD4+ T Cells during Malaria Maps Gradual Transit from Effector to Memory

In malaria-endemic regions, antimalarial chemoprevention protects long after its cessation and associates with effects on CD4+ T cells. Scientists applied single-cell RNA sequencing and computational modelling to track memory development during Plasmodium infection and treatment.
[Nature Immunology]
Transcriptome dynamics of CD4 + T cells during malaria maps gradual transit from effector to memory | Nature Immunology. (n.d.). Retrieved October 14, 2020, from https://www.nature.com/articles/s41590-020-0800-8 Cite
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Discovery of Four New B-Cell Protective Epitopes for Malaria Using Q Beta Virus-Like Particle As Platform

Scientists exploited the potential of Virus-Like Particles (VLP) to enhance immune responses to antigens, the ease of coupling peptides to the Q beta VLP and the existing murine malaria challenge to screen B-cell epitopes for protective efficacy.
[npj Vaccines]
Discovery of four new B-cell protective epitopes for malaria using Q beta virus-like particle as platform | npj Vaccines. (n.d.). Retrieved October 9, 2020, from https://www.nature.com/articles/s41541-020-00242-y Cite
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Pharmacological and Cardiovascular Perspectives on the Treatment of COVID-19 with Chloroquine Derivatives

While respiratory symptoms are the major clinical manifestations, cardiovascular abnormalities, including arrhythmias, myocarditis, heart failure, and ischemic stroke, have been reported in a significant number of COVID-19 patients.
[Acta Pharmacologica Sinica]
Zhang, X., Li, Z., Ye, J., Lu, J., Ye, L. L., Zhang, C., Liu, P., & Duan, D. D. (2020). Pharmacological and cardiovascular perspectives on the treatment of COVID-19 with chloroquine derivatives. Acta Pharmacologica Sinica, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41401-020-00519-x Cite
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A Potent Anti-Malarial Human Monoclonal Antibody Targets Circumsporozoite Protein Minor Repeats and Neutralizes Sporozoites in the Liver

Isothermal titration calorimetry and multiphoton microscopy showed that L9 and the other most protective mAbs bound PfCSP with two binding events and mediated protection by killing SPZ in the liver and by preventing their egress from sinusoids and traversal of hepatocytes.
[Immunity]
Wang, L. T., Pereira, L. S., Flores-Garcia, Y., O’Connor, J., Flynn, B. J., Schön, A., Hurlburt, N. K., Dillon, M., Yang, A. S. P., Fabra-García, A., Idris, A. H., Mayer, B. T., Gerber, M. W., Gottardo, R., Mason, R. D., Cavett, N., Ballard, R. B., Kisalu, N. K., Molina-Cruz, A., … Seder, R. A. (2020). A Potent Anti-Malarial Human Monoclonal Antibody Targets Circumsporozoite Protein Minor Repeats and Neutralizes Sporozoites in the Liver. Immunity, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.immuni.2020.08.014 Cite
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JNK Signaling Regulates Oviposition in the Malaria Vector Anopheles gambiae

Scientists showed that 20-hydroxyecdysone-triggered oviposition in mosquitoes was regulated by the stress- and immune-responsive c-Jun N-terminal kinase
[Scientific Reports]
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Mosquito Cellular Immunity at Single-Cell Resolution

Investigators revealed the functional diversity of hemocytes, with different subtypes of granulocytes expressing distinct and evolutionarily conserved subsets of effector genes.
[Science]
Raddi, G., Barletta, A. B. F., Efremova, M., Ramirez, J. L., Cantera, R., Teichmann, S. A., Barillas-Mury, C., & Billker, O. (2020). Mosquito cellular immunity at single-cell resolution. Science, 369(6507), 1128–1132. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.abc0322 Cite
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Molecular Determinants of SR-B1-Dependent Plasmodium sporozoite Entry into Hepatocytes

Investigators showed that mouse scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SR-B1) was less functional as compared to human SR-B1 during P. berghei infection. They took advantage of this functional difference to investigate the structural determinants of SR-B1 required for infection.
[Scientific Reports]
Langlois, A.-C., Manzoni, G., Vincensini, L., Coppée, R., Marinach, C., Guérin, M., Huby, T., Carrière, V., Cosset, F.-L., Dreux, M., Rubinstein, E., & Silvie, O. (2020). Molecular determinants of SR-B1-dependent Plasmodium sporozoite entry into hepatocytes. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 13509. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-70468-2 Cite
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Chloroquine Does Not Inhibit Infection of Human Lung Cells with SARS-CoV-2

Researchers showed that engineered expression of TMPRSS2, a cellular protease that activates SARS-CoV-2 for entry into lung cells, rendered SARS-CoV-2 infection of Vero cells insensitive to chloroquine.
[Nature]
Hoffmann, M., Mösbauer, K., Hofmann-Winkler, H., Kaul, A., Kleine-Weber, H., Krüger, N., Gassen, N. C., Müller, M. A., Drosten, C., & Pöhlmann, S. (2020). Chloroquine does not inhibit infection of human lung cells with SARS-CoV-2. Nature, 1–5. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2575-3 Cite
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Antimalarial Agent Artesunate Induces G0/G1 Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis via Increasing Intracellular ROS Levels in Normal Liver Cells

Researchers investigated the possible cytotoxic effects using normal BRL-3A and AML12 liver cells.
[Human & Experimental Toxicology]
Yin, S., Yang, H., Zhao, X., Wei, S., Tao, Y., Liu, M., Bo, R., & Li, J. (2020). Antimalarial agent artesunate induces G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis via increasing intracellular ROS levels in normal liver cells: Human & Experimental Toxicology. https://doi.org/10.1177/0960327120937331 Cite
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The E3 Ubiquitin Ligase MARCH1 Regulates Antimalaria Immunity through Interferon Signaling and T Cell Activation

March1 inhibits MAVS/STING/TRIF-induced type I IFN (IFN-I) signaling in vitro and in vivo. However, in malaria-infected hosts, deficiency of March1 reduces IFN-I production by activating inhibitors such as SOCS1, USP18, and TRIM24 and by altering immune cell populations.
[Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America]
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