Scientists showed that low levels of P. falciparum parasites persist in the blood of asymptomatic Malian individuals during the five to six month dry season, rarely causing symptoms and minimally affecting the host immune response.
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Andrade, C. M., Fleckenstein, H., Thomson-Luque, R., Doumbo, S., Lima, N. F., Anderson, C., Hibbert, J., Hopp, C. S., Tran, T. M., Li, S., Niangaly, M., Cisse, H., Doumtabe, D., Skinner, J., Sturdevant, D., Ricklefs, S., Virtaneva, K., Asghar, M., Homann, M. V., … Portugal, S. (2020). Increased circulation time of Plasmodium falciparum underlies persistent asymptomatic infection in the dry season. Nature Medicine, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41591-020-1084-0 Cite
In malaria-endemic regions, antimalarial chemoprevention protects long after its cessation and associates with effects on CD4+ T cells. Scientists applied single-cell RNA sequencing and computational modelling to track memory development during Plasmodium infection and treatment.
Scientists exploited the potential of Virus-Like Particles (VLP) to enhance immune responses to antigens, the ease of coupling peptides to the Q beta VLP and the existing murine malaria challenge to screen B-cell epitopes for protective efficacy.
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Discovery of four new B-cell protective epitopes for malaria using Q beta virus-like particle as platform | npj Vaccines. (n.d.). Retrieved October 9, 2020, from https://www.nature.com/articles/s41541-020-00242-y Cite
While respiratory symptoms are the major clinical manifestations, cardiovascular abnormalities, including arrhythmias, myocarditis, heart failure, and ischemic stroke, have been reported in a significant number of COVID-19 patients.
[Acta Pharmacologica Sinica]
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Isothermal titration calorimetry and multiphoton microscopy showed that L9 and the other most protective mAbs bound PfCSP with two binding events and mediated protection by killing SPZ in the liver and by preventing their egress from sinusoids and traversal of hepatocytes.
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Wang, L. T., Pereira, L. S., Flores-Garcia, Y., O’Connor, J., Flynn, B. J., Schön, A., Hurlburt, N. K., Dillon, M., Yang, A. S. P., Fabra-García, A., Idris, A. H., Mayer, B. T., Gerber, M. W., Gottardo, R., Mason, R. D., Cavett, N., Ballard, R. B., Kisalu, N. K., Molina-Cruz, A., … Seder, R. A. (2020). A Potent Anti-Malarial Human Monoclonal Antibody Targets Circumsporozoite Protein Minor Repeats and Neutralizes Sporozoites in the Liver. Immunity, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.immuni.2020.08.014 Cite
Scientists showed that 20-hydroxyecdysone-triggered oviposition in mosquitoes was regulated by the stress- and immune-responsive c-Jun N-terminal kinase
Investigators revealed the functional diversity of hemocytes, with different subtypes of granulocytes expressing distinct and evolutionarily conserved subsets of effector genes.
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Investigators showed that mouse scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SR-B1) was less functional as compared to human SR-B1 during P. berghei infection. They took advantage of this functional difference to investigate the structural determinants of SR-B1 required for infection.
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Langlois, A.-C., Manzoni, G., Vincensini, L., Coppée, R., Marinach, C., Guérin, M., Huby, T., Carrière, V., Cosset, F.-L., Dreux, M., Rubinstein, E., & Silvie, O. (2020). Molecular determinants of SR-B1-dependent Plasmodium sporozoite entry into hepatocytes. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 13509. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-70468-2 Cite
Researchers showed that engineered expression of TMPRSS2, a cellular protease that activates SARS-CoV-2 for entry into lung cells, rendered SARS-CoV-2 infection of Vero cells insensitive to chloroquine.
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Researchers investigated the possible cytotoxic effects using normal BRL-3A and AML12 liver cells.
[Human & Experimental Toxicology]
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March1 inhibits MAVS/STING/TRIF-induced type I IFN (IFN-I) signaling in vitro and in vivo. However, in malaria-infected hosts, deficiency of March1 reduces IFN-I production by activating inhibitors such as SOCS1, USP18, and TRIM24 and by altering immune cell populations.
[Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America]
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