To mark the end of Diabetes Awareness Month, Sonia Sidhu, Member of Parliament for Brampton South, on behalf of the Honourable Patty Hajdu, Minister of Health, announced an investment of $6 million through the CIHR-JDRF Partnership to Defeat Diabetes for two Canadian research teams to accelerate the development of stem cell-based therapies for the treatment of type 1 diabetes.
[Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation]
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Mitophagy-deficient β-cells were sensitized to inflammatory stress, leading to the accumulation of fragmented dysfunctional mitochondria, increased β-cell death, and hyperglycemia.
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Sidarala, V., Pearson, G. L., Parekh, V. S., Thompson, B., Christen, L., Gingerich, M. A., Zhu, J., Stromer, T., Ren, J., Reck, E. C., Chai, B., Corbett, J. A., Mandrup-Poulsen, T., Satin, L. S., & Soleimanpour, S. A. (2020). Mitophagy protects beta cells from inflammatory damage in diabetes. JCI Insight. https://doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.141138 Cite
Scientists investigated the mechanism of diabetes remission in non-obese diabetic mice following butyrate administration.
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Jacob, N., Jaiswal, S., Maheshwari, D., Nallabelli, N., Khatri, N., Bhatia, A., Bal, A., Malik, V., Verma, S., Kumar, R., & Sachdeva, N. (2020). Butyrate induced Tregs are capable of migration from the GALT to the pancreas to restore immunological tolerance during type-1 diabetes. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 19120. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-76109-y Cite
Coculturing CD19-expressing β-like cells and CD19 CAR-T cells resulted in T cell-mediated β-like cell death with release of activated T cell cytokines.
[Cell Reports Medicine]
Based on the anti‐inflammatory effects of alpha‐1 antitrypsin (AAT), scientists generated human AAT engineered MSCs by infecting human bone marrow‐derived MSCs with the pHAGE CMV‐a1aT‐UBC‐GFP‐W lentiviral vector.
[Stem Cells Translational Medicine]
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Song, L., Gou, W., Wang, J., Wei, H., Lee, J., Strange, C., & Wang, H. (n.d.). Overexpression of alpha-1 antitrypsin in mesenchymal stromal cells improves their intrinsic biological properties and therapeutic effects in nonobese diabetic mice. STEM CELLS Translational Medicine, n/a(n/a). https://doi.org/10.1002/sctm.20-0122 Cite
This review discusses the various scaffold platforms and design parameters that have been identified for the manufacture of hPSC-derived β-cells, and the transplantation of islets/β-cells to maintain normal blood glucose levels
The authors identified the CHTOP gene as a candidate whose CpGs show a greater frequency of unmethylation in human islets. A digital PCR strategy was used to determine the methylation pattern of CHTOP and INS CpG sites in primary human tissues.
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Circulating unmethylated CHTOP and INS DNA fragments provide evidence of possible islet cell death in youth with obesity and diabetes | Clinical Epigenetics | Full Text. (n.d.). Retrieved August 11, 2020, from https://clinicalepigeneticsjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13148-020-00906-5 Cite
Unbiased bioinformatics analysis identified that inducible costimulatory molecule (ICOS)+ folliular helper T cells and other ICOS+ populations, including peripheral helper T cells, were highly sensitive to costimulation blockade.
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Edner, N. M., Heuts, F., Thomas, N., Wang, C. J., Petersone, L., Kenefeck, R., Kogimtzis, A., Ovcinnikovs, V., Ross, E. M., Ntavli, E., Elfaki, Y., Eichmann, M., Baptista, R., Ambery, P., Jermutus, L., Peakman, M., Rosenthal, M., & Walker, L. S. K. (2020). Follicular helper T cell profiles predict response to costimulation blockade in type 1 diabetes. Nature Immunology, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41590-020-0744-z Cite
Using a genome-scale CRISPR screen in a mouse model for type 1 diabetes (T1D), researchers showed that deleting RNLS, a genome-wide association study candidate gene for T1D, made beta cells resistant to autoimmune killing.
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Cai, E. P., Ishikawa, Y., Zhang, W., Leite, N. C., Li, J., Hou, S., Kiaf, B., Hollister-Lock, J., Yilmaz, N. K., Schiffer, C. A., Melton, D. A., Kissler, S., & Yi, P. (2020). Genome-scale in vivo CRISPR screen identifies RNLS as a target for beta cell protection in type 1 diabetes. Nature Metabolism, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1038/s42255-020-0254-1 Cite
Investigators describe an in vitro platform that modeled features of human type 1 diabetes using stress-induced patient-derived endocrine cells and autologous immune cells.
Researchers discuss the current research advances in strategies to obtain insulin-producing cells from different precursor cells and in stem cell-based therapies for diabetes.
[Stem Cell Research & Therapy]