Follicular Helper T Cell Profiles Predict Response to Costimulation Blockade in Type 1 Diabetes

Unbiased bioinformatics analysis identified that inducible costimulatory molecule (ICOS)+ folliular helper T cells and other ICOS+ populations, including peripheral helper T cells, were highly sensitive to costimulation blockade.
[Nature Immunology]
Edner, N. M., Heuts, F., Thomas, N., Wang, C. J., Petersone, L., Kenefeck, R., Kogimtzis, A., Ovcinnikovs, V., Ross, E. M., Ntavli, E., Elfaki, Y., Eichmann, M., Baptista, R., Ambery, P., Jermutus, L., Peakman, M., Rosenthal, M., & Walker, L. S. K. (2020). Follicular helper T cell profiles predict response to costimulation blockade in type 1 diabetes. Nature Immunology, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41590-020-0744-z Cite
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Genome-Scale In Vivo CRISPR Screen Identifies RNLS as a Target for Beta Cell Protection in Type 1 Diabetes

Using a genome-scale CRISPR screen in a mouse model for type 1 diabetes (T1D), researchers showed that deleting RNLS, a genome-wide association study candidate gene for T1D, made beta cells resistant to autoimmune killing.
[Nature Metabolism]
Cai, E. P., Ishikawa, Y., Zhang, W., Leite, N. C., Li, J., Hou, S., Kiaf, B., Hollister-Lock, J., Yilmaz, N. K., Schiffer, C. A., Melton, D. A., Kissler, S., & Yi, P. (2020). Genome-scale in vivo CRISPR screen identifies RNLS as a target for beta cell protection in type 1 diabetes. Nature Metabolism, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1038/s42255-020-0254-1 Cite
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Modeling Type 1 Diabetes In Vitro Using Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

Investigators describe an in vitro platform that modeled features of human type 1 diabetes using stress-induced patient-derived endocrine cells and autologous immune cells.
[Cell Reports]
Leite, N. C., Sintov, E., Meissner, T. B., Brehm, M. A., Greiner, D. L., Harlan, D. M., & Melton, D. A. (2020). Modeling Type 1 Diabetes In Vitro Using Human Pluripotent Stem Cells. Cell Reports, 32(2). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.107894 Cite
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Current Progress in Stem Cell Therapy for Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

Researchers discuss the current research advances in strategies to obtain insulin-producing cells from different precursor cells and in stem cell-based therapies for diabetes.
[Stem Cell Research & Therapy]
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Localized Immunosuppression with Tannic Acid Encapsulation Delays Islet Allograft and Autoimmune-Mediated Rejection

Transplantation of poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone)/tannic acid (PVPON/TA)-encapsulated islets was immunomodulatory as gene expression and flow cytometric analysis revealed significantly decreased in immune cell infiltration, synthesis of ROS, inflammatory chemokines, cytokines, CD8 T cell effector responses, and concomitant increases in alternatively-activated M2 macrophage and dendritic cell phenotypes.
[Diabetes]
Barra, J. M., Kozlovskaya, V., Kharlampieva, E., & Tse, H. M. (2020). Localized Immunosuppression with Tannic Acid Encapsulation Delays Islet Allograft and Autoimmune-Mediated Rejection. Diabetes. https://doi.org/10.2337/db20-0248 Cite
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Mounting Clues Suggest the Coronavirus Might Trigger Diabetes

Evidence from tissue studies and some people with COVID-19 shows that the virus damages insulin-producing cells.
[Nature News]
Mallapaty, S. (2020). Mounting clues suggest the coronavirus might trigger diabetes. Nature, 583(7814), 16–17. https://doi.org/10.1038/d41586-020-01891-8 Cite
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IM Therapeutics Announces First Patient Dosed in Phase I Study of its Lead Drug IMT-002 for Type 1 Diabetes

ImmunoMolecular Therapeutics announced the dosing of the first patient in a Phase I study of IMT-002, an oral small molecule drug designed as a selective HLA-DQ8 blocker for the treatment of type 1 diabetes.
[IM Therapeutics]
June 24, 2020_PR. (n.d.). IM Therapeutics. Retrieved June 30, 2020, from https://www.imtherapeutics.com/june-24-2020_pr Cite
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Co‐Microencapsulation of Human Umbilical Cord‐Derived Mesenchymal Stem and Pancreatic Islet‐Derived Insulin Producing Cells: A New Experimental Approach for the Cell Therapy of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1D)

Investigators grafted microencapsulated umbilical cord Wharton Jelly‐derived adult mesenchymal stem cell/human pancreatic islet‐derived progenitor cell co‐aggregates into NOD/SCID mice, and observed an acquired ability of cells to produce and store hormones.
[Diabetes-Metabolism Research and Reviews]
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Multiplexing DNA Methylation Markers to Detect Circulating Cell-Free DNA Derived from Human Pancreatic Beta-Cells

Scientists describe an ultrasensitive assay for detection of a β-cell-specific DNA methylation signature, by simultaneous assessment of six DNA methylation markers, that identified β-cell DNA in mixtures containing as little as 0.03% β-cell DNA (less than one β-cell genome equivalent).
[JCI Insight]
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MicroRNA-181c-5p Promotes the Formation of Insulin-Producing Cells from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells by Targeting smad7 and TGIF2

Investigators differentiated human induced pluripotent stem cells into insulin-producing cells in a stepwise process that recapitulated pancreas organogenesis and observed that miR-181c-5p continuously accumulated throughout the entire differentiation process.
[Cell Death & Disease]
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NKG2D Signaling Within the Pancreatic Islets Reduces NOD Diabetes and Increases Protective Central Memory CD8+ T Cell Numbers

To directly assess the role of NKG2D in the pancreas, scientists generated NOD mice that expressed an NKG2D ligand in β-islet cells.
[Diabetes]
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NRP2 as an Emerging Angiogenic Player; Promoting Endothelial Cell Adhesion and Migration by Regulating Recycling of α5 Integrin

The authors demonstrated that neuropilin (NRP)2 promoted Rac-1 mediated endothelial cell adhesion and migration over fibronectin matrices in a mechanistically distinct fashion to NRP1, showing no dependence on β3 integrin expression, or VEGF stimulation
[Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology]
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