Researchers evaluated the potential role of macrophage-derived small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) in biomimetic mineralized collagen-mediated endogenous bone regeneration in vivo and in vitro. Macrophage-derived sEVs were involved in intrafibrillarly mineralized collagen (IMC)-mediated endogenous bone regeneration in vivo, and IMC-sEVs facilitated MSC osteogenesis through the Smad/1/5/9 pathway.
[International Journal of Oral Science]
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Liu, A., Jin, S., Fu, C., Cui, S., Zhang, T., Zhu, L., Wang, Y., Shen, S. G. F., Jiang, N., & Liu, Y. (2020). Macrophage-derived small extracellular vesicles promote biomimetic mineralized collagen-mediated endogenous bone regeneration. International Journal of Oral Science, 12(1), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41368-020-00100-6 Cite
The intrinsic properties of MSCs make them ideal candidates for tissue engineering applications. Efforts have been made to control MSC behavior by using material systems to engineer synthetic ECMs and/or include soluble factors in the media. Scientists propose a simple approach based on ion transporter stimulation to determine stem cell fate that avoids the use of growth factors.
Scientists profiled lysyl hydroxylase-mediated and lysyl oxidase-mediated collagen crosslinks and quantified the greatest abundance of total and complex collagen crosslinks in aggressive human breast cancer subtypes with the stiffest stroma.
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Maller, O., Drain, A. P., Barrett, A. S., Borgquist, S., Ruffell, B., Zakharevich, I., Pham, T. T., Gruosso, T., Kuasne, H., Lakins, J. N., Acerbi, I., Barnes, J. M., Nemkov, T., Chauhan, A., Gruenberg, J., Nasir, A., Bjarnadottir, O., Werb, Z., Kabos, P., … Weaver, V. M. (2020). Tumour-associated macrophages drive stromal cell-dependent collagen crosslinking and stiffening to promote breast cancer aggression. Nature Materials, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41563-020-00849-5 Cite
The proliferation and fate decisions of basal stem cells are highly regulated by their microenvironment, including the basement membrane and underlying mesenchymal cells. Basal progenitors give rise to differentiated progeny that generate the epidermal barrier. The authors present data that differentiated progeny also regulate the proliferation, differentiation, and migration of basal progenitor cells.
[Cell Stem Cell]
To mimic an ECM, scientists used a matrix formed by different collagen concentrations and analyzed migration trajectories of primary human cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Different migration patterns were observed and could be grouped into three motility types: slow, fast, and mixed.
Hepatic progenitor cells either derived in microfluidics or exposed to exogenous ECM stimuli showed a significantly higher potential of forming hepatic organoids that could be rapidly expanded for several passages and further differentiated into functional hepatocytes.
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Michielin, F., Giobbe, G. G., Luni, C., Hu, Q., Maroni, I., Orford, M. R., Manfredi, A., Filippo, L. D., David, A. L., Cacchiarelli, D., Coppi, P. D., Eaton, S., & Elvassore, N. (2020). The Microfluidic Environment Reveals a Hidden Role of Self-Organizing Extracellular Matrix in Hepatic Commitment and Organoid Formation of hiPSCs. Cell Reports, 33(9). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.108453 Cite
Scientists retrospectively analyzed the efficacy and safety of first-line eribulin therapy for patients with advanced soft tissue sarcoma, unable to receive doxorubicin. Six of 28 patients who received eribulin as any line treatment received eribulin as a first-line treatment.
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Tsuchihashi, K., Kusaba, H., Yoshihiro, T., Fujiwara, T., Setsu, N., Endo, M., Matsumoto, Y., Imajima, T., Shinohara, Y., Ito, M., Yamaga, S., Tanoue, K., Arimizu, K., Ohmura, H., Hanamura, F., Yamaguchi, K., Isobe, T., Ariyama, H., Nakashima, Y., … Baba, E. (2020). Eribulin as a first-line treatment for soft tissue sarcoma patients with contraindications for doxorubicin. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 20896. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-77898-y Cite
While both acute low-intensity vibrations and lysophosphohaditic acid treatments increased nuclear YAP entry by 50 and 87% over the basal levels in simulated microgravity(SMG)-treated MSCs, nuclear YAP levels of all SMG groups were significantly lower than non-SMG controls.
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Investigators reprogrammed human synovial fluid‐derived MSCs into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) using six reprogramming factors and reverted the iPSCs back to MSCs, as an approach to cell rejuvenation.
In overexpression and CRISPR/Cas9 knockout experiments in prostate cancer cell lines, FRMD6 inhibited viability, proliferation, cell cycle progression, colony formation, 3D spheroid growth, and tumor xenograft growth in mice.
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Haldrup, J., Strand, S. H., Cieza-Borrella, C., Jakobsson, M. E., Riedel, M., Norgaard, M., Hedensted, S., Dagnaes-Hansen, F., Ulhoi, B. P., Eeles, R., Borre, M., Olsen, J. V., Thomsen, M., Kote-Jarai, Z., & Sorensen, K. D. (2020). FRMD6 has tumor suppressor functions in prostate cancer. Oncogene, 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41388-020-01548-w Cite
Researchers investigated the mobilization efficacy of repeated AMD3100 dosages in the non-human primate and humanized mouse models. In non-human primates we demonstrate effective mobilization after the first AMD3100 administration but significantly poorer response in CD34+ and hematopoietic stem cell-enriched CD90+ cells with subsequent doses of the drug.
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