DsbA-L Deficiency in T Cells Promotes Diet-Induced Thermogenesis through Suppressing IFN-γ Production

Researchers showed that high-fat diet feeding greatly suppressed the expression of disulfide-bond A oxidoreductase-like protein (DsbA-L), a mitochondria-localized chaperone protein, in adipose-resident T cells, which correlated with reduced T cell mitochondrial function.
[Nature Communications]
Zhou, H., Peng, X., Hu, J., Wang, L., Luo, H., Zhang, J., Zhang, Y., Li, G., Ji, Y., Zhang, J., Bai, J., Liu, M., Zhou, Z., & Liu, F. (2021). DsbA-L deficiency in T cells promotes diet-induced thermogenesis through suppressing IFN-γ production. Nature Communications, 12(1), 326. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20665-4 Cite
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Tumor-Infiltrating Mast Cells Are Associated With Resistance to Anti-PD-1 Therapy

Researchers generated a humanized-mouse melanoma model by injecting fetal liver-derived CD34+ cells and implanting autologous thymus in immune-deficient NOD-scid IL2Rγnull mice.
[Nature Communications]
Somasundaram, R., Connelly, T., Choi, R., Choi, H., Samarkina, A., Li, L., Gregorio, E., Chen, Y., Thakur, R., Abdel-Mohsen, M., Beqiri, M., Kiernan, M., Perego, M., Wang, F., Xiao, M., Brafford, P., Yang, X., Xu, X., Secreto, A., … Herlyn, M. (2021). Tumor-infiltrating mast cells are associated with resistance to anti-PD-1 therapy. Nature Communications, 12(1), 346. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20600-7 Cite
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The Thymus and the Science of Self

The authors discuss the evidence that the thymus serves as a unique lymphoid organ able to instruct T cells to recognize and be tolerant to harmless self before adopting the capacity to defend the body against potentially injurious non-self-antigens presented in the context of different challenges from infections to exposure to malignant cells.
[Seminars in Immunopathology]
Geenen, V. (2021). The thymus and the science of self. Seminars in Immunopathology. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00281-020-00831-y Cite
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Immune-Tolerance to Human iPS-Derived Neural Progenitors Xenografted Into the Immature Cerebellum Is Overridden by Species-Specific Differences in Differentiation Timing

Scientists found that the slower pace of differentiation of human neural precursors compared to that of rodents restricted induction of immune-tolerance to human antigens expressed before completion of maturation of the immune system.
[Scientific Reports]
Nato, G., Corti, A., Parmigiani, E., Jachetti, E., Lecis, D., Colombo, M. P., Delia, D., Buffo, A., & Magrassi, L. (2021). Immune-tolerance to human iPS-derived neural progenitors xenografted into the immature cerebellum is overridden by species-specific differences in differentiation timing. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 651. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-79502-9 Cite
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E-Cigarettes Compromise the Gut Barrier and Trigger Inflammation

Using murine models of acute and chronic e-cigarette aerosol inhalation, murine colon transcriptomics and murine and human gut-derived organoids in co-culture models, researchers assessed the effects of e-cigarette use on the gut barrier.
[iScience]
E-cigarettes compromise the gut barrier and trigger inflammation: iScience. (n.d.). Retrieved January 11, 2021, from https://www.cell.com/iscience/fulltext/S2589-0042(21)00003-1 Cite
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Toll-Like Receptor 7 Deficiency Suppresses Type 1 Diabetes Development by Modulating B-Cell Differentiation and Function

Scientists discovered that Tlr7-deficient (Tlr7−/−) nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice, a model of human type 1 diabetes, exhibited a significantly delayed onset and reduced incidence of type 1 diabetes compared with Tlr7-sufficient (Tlr7+/+) NOD mice. Mechanistic investigations showed that Tlr7 deficiency significantly altered B-cell differentiation and immunoglobulin production.
[Cellular & Molecular Immunology]
Huang, J., Peng, J., Pearson, J. A., Efthimiou, G., Hu, Y., Tai, N., Xing, Y., Zhang, L., Gu, J., Jiang, J., Zhao, H., Zhou, Z., Wong, F. S., & Wen, L. (2021). Toll-like receptor 7 deficiency suppresses type 1 diabetes development by modulating B-cell differentiation and function. Cellular & Molecular Immunology, 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41423-020-00590-8 Cite
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Enhanced BCR Signaling Inflicts Early Plasmablast and Germinal Centre B Cell Death

Although immunisation with T-dependent antigens increased B-cell receptor signaling, it led to plasma cells reduction and increased apoptosis. Dependent on the antigen, the early germinal centre B cell response was equally reduced and apoptosis increased.
[iScience]
Enhanced BCR signalling inflicts early plasmablast and germinal centre B cell death: iScience. (n.d.). Retrieved January 11, 2021, from https://www.cell.com/iscience/fulltext/S2589-0042(21)00006-7 Cite
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Critical Role of Synovial Tissue–Resident Macrophage Niche in Joint Homeostasis and Suppression of Chronic Inflammation

During synovial tissue homeostasis, both monocyte-derived F4/80int and self-renewing F4/80hi tissue–resident, macrophage populations were identified.
[Science Advances]
Huang, Q.-Q., Doyle, R., Chen, S.-Y., Sheng, Q., Misharin, A. V., Mao, Q., Winter, D. R., & Pope, R. M. (2021). Critical role of synovial tissue–resident macrophage niche in joint homeostasis and suppression of chronic inflammation. Science Advances, 7(2), eabd0515. https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abd0515 Cite
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Efficient IL-2R Signaling Differentially affects the Stability, Function, and Composition of the Regulatory T-Cell Pool

Investigators characterized a spontaneous mutant mouse strain endowed with a hypomorphic Tyr129His variant of CD25, the α-chain of IL-2R, which resulted in diminished receptor expression and reduced IL-2R signaling.
[Cellular & Molecular Immunology]
Permanyer, M., Bošnjak, B., Glage, S., Friedrichsen, M., Floess, S., Huehn, J., Patzer, G. E., Odak, I., Eckert, N., Zargari, R., Ospina-Quintero, L., Georgiev, H., & Förster, R. (2021). Efficient IL-2R signaling differentially affects the stability, function, and composition of the regulatory T-cell pool. Cellular & Molecular Immunology, 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41423-020-00599-z Cite
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A Noninflammatory mRNA Vaccine for Treatment of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

Scientists showed that systemic delivery of nanoparticle-formulated 1 methylpseudouridine-modified messenger RNA coding for disease-related autoantigens results in antigen presentation on splenic CD11c+ antigen-presenting cells in the absence of costimulatory signals.
[Science]
Krienke, C., Kolb, L., Diken, E., Streuber, M., Kirchhoff, S., Bukur, T., Akilli-Öztürk, Ö., Kranz, L. M., Berger, H., Petschenka, J., Diken, M., Kreiter, S., Yogev, N., Waisman, A., Karikó, K., Türeci, Ö., & Sahin, U. (2021). A noninflammatory mRNA vaccine for treatment of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Science, 371(6525), 145–153. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aay3638 Cite
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Intestinal-Derived ILCs Migrating in Lymph Increase IFNγ Production in Response to Salmonella typhimurium Infection

Researchers enumerated the intestinal lymph innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) that traffic from the intestine to the mesenteric lymph nodes. They provide a detailed characterisation of these lymph-migratory ILCs.
[Mucosal Immunology]
Kästele, V., Mayer, J., Lee, E. S., Papazian, N., Cole, J. J., Cerovic, V., Belz, G., Tomura, M., Eberl, G., Goodyear, C., Maciewicz, R. A., Wall, D., Cupedo, T., Withers, D. R., & Milling, S. (2021). Intestinal-derived ILCs migrating in lymph increase IFNγ production in response to Salmonella Typhimurium infection. Mucosal Immunology, 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41385-020-00366-3 Cite
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