Immunological Distinctions between Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis and Hepatocellular Carcinoma

the liver is a central player in immunoregulation. Altered immune responses are tightly associated with the development of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma.
[Experimental and Molecular Medicine]
Koo, S.-Y., Park, E.-J., & Lee, C.-W. (2020). Immunological distinctions between nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Experimental & Molecular Medicine, 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1038/s12276-020-0480-3 Cite
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Immune Phenotyping of Diverse Syngeneic Murine Brain Tumors Identifies Immunologically Distinct Types

Researchers generated distinct imageable syngeneic mouse glioblastoma-tumor models and utilized RNA-sequencing, CyTOF and correlative immunohistochemistry to assess immune-profiles in these models.
[Nature Communications]
Khalsa, J. K., Cheng, N., Keegan, J., Chaudry, A., Driver, J., Bi, W. L., Lederer, J., & Shah, K. (2020). Immune phenotyping of diverse syngeneic murine brain tumors identifies immunologically distinct types. Nature Communications, 11(1), 3912. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-17704-5 Cite
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Dissection of α4β7 Integrin Regulation by Rap1 Using Novel Conformation-Specific Monoclonal Anti-β7 Antibodies

The small GTPase Rap1 deficiency, as well as chemokine stimulation and the introduction of the active form of Rap1, Rap1V12, enhanced the binding of NZ-1 to the PA-tagged mutant integrin, and increased the binding affinity to mucosal addressing cell adhesion molecule-1.
[Scientific Reports]
Sato, T., Ishihara, S., Marui, R., Takagi, J., & Katagiri, K. (2020). Dissection of α 4 β 7 integrin regulation by Rap1 using novel conformation-specific monoclonal anti-β 7 antibodies. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 13221. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-70111-0 Cite
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Corbus Pharmaceuticals Completes Enrollment in DETERMINE Phase III Study of Lenabasum for Treatment of Dermatomyositis

Corbus Pharmaceuticals Holdings, Inc. announced the completion of subject enrollment in DETERMINE, a Phase III study assessing the efficacy and safety of lenabasum for the treatment of dermatomyositis. The company expects to report topline results from this study in the fourth quarter of 2021.
[Corbus Pharmaceuticals Holdings, Inc.]
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Pleiotropic Roles of Platelets and Neutrophils in Cell Death and Recovery during Acetaminophen Hepatotoxicity

The role of platelets in liver biology and pathophysiology has attracted increased attention during the last decade.
[Hepatology]
Jaeschke, H., & Ramachandran, A. (n.d.). Pleiotropic Roles of Platelets and Neutrophils in Cell Death and Recovery during Acetaminophen Hepatotoxicity. Hepatology, n/a(n/a). https://doi.org/10.1002/hep.31490 Cite
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Immunostimulation with Chemotherapy in the Era of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors

Understanding the precise immunological mechanisms that underlie the efficacy of chemotherapy has the potential not only to enable the identification of superior biomarkers of response but also to accelerate the development of synergistic combination regimens that enhance the clinical effectiveness of immune checkpoint inhibitors relative to their effectiveness as monotherapies.
[Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology]
Galluzzi, L., Humeau, J., Buqué, A., Zitvogel, L., & Kroemer, G. (2020). Immunostimulation with chemotherapy in the era of immune checkpoint inhibitors. Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology, 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41571-020-0413-z Cite
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Clinical Value of DNA Methylation Markers in Autoimmune Rheumatic Diseases

Scientists provide an updated discussion on DNA methylation alterations in autoimmune rheumatic diseases and the advantages and disadvantages of using these markers in clinical practice.
[Nature Reviews Rheumatology]
Ballestar, E., Sawalha, A. H., & Lu, Q. (2020). Clinical value of DNA methylation markers in autoimmune rheumatic diseases. Nature Reviews Rheumatology, 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41584-020-0470-9 Cite
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Mucosal or Systemic Microbiota Exposures Shape the B Cell Repertoire

Microbial exposures at the intestinal mucosa generated oligoclonal responses that differed from those of germ-free mice, and from the diverse repertoire that was generated after intravenous systemic exposure to microbiota.
[Nature]
Li, H., Limenitakis, J. P., Greiff, V., Yilmaz, B., Schären, O., Urbaniak, C., Zünd, M., Lawson, M. A. E., Young, I. D., Rupp, S., Heikenwälder, M., McCoy, K. D., Hapfelmeier, S., Ganal-Vonarburg, S. C., & Macpherson, A. J. (2020). Mucosal or systemic microbiota exposures shape the B cell repertoire. Nature, 1–5. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2564-6 Cite
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The BXD21/TyJ Recombinant Inbred Strain as a Model for Innate Inflammatory Response in Distinct Brain Regions

Scientists determined whether BXD recombinant inbred mice strains were more suitable than C57BL/6J mice for the understanding of the relationship between antioxidant response and inflammatory responses.
[Scientific Reports]
López-Granero, C., Ferrer, B., dos Santos, A. A., Barrasa, A., & Aschner, M. (2020). The BXD21/TyJ recombinant inbred strain as a model for innate inflammatory response in distinct brain regions. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 13168. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-70213-9 Cite
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Lysophosphatidic Acid-Mediated GPR35 Signaling in CX3CR1+ Macrophages Regulates Intestinal Homeostasis

Investigators demonstrated that intestinal G protein-coupled receptor 35 (Gpr35) expression was microbiota dependent and enhanced upon inflammation. Moreover, murine GPR35+ colonic macrophages were characterized by enhanced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines.
[Cell Reports]
Kaya, B., Doñas, C., Wuggenig, P., Diaz, O. E., Morales, R. A., Melhem, H., Hernández, P. P., Kaymak, T., Das, S., Hruz, P., Franc, Y., Geier, F., Ayata, C. K., Villablanca, E. J., & Niess, J. H. (2020). Lysophosphatidic Acid-Mediated GPR35 Signaling in CX3CR1+ Macrophages Regulates Intestinal Homeostasis. Cell Reports, 32(5). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.107979 Cite
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Marginal Zone Formation Requires ACKR3 Expression on B Cells

The authors showed that expression of atypical chemokine receptor 3 defined two equal-sized populations of mouse marginal B cells
[Cell Reports]
Radice, E., Ameti, R., Melgrati, S., Foglierini, M., Antonello, P., Stahl, R. A. K., Thelen, S., Jarrossay, D., & Thelen, M. (2020). Marginal Zone Formation Requires ACKR3 Expression on B Cells. Cell Reports, 32(5). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.107951 Cite
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Twitter Account of Embattled #MeTooSTEM Founder Suspended

Twitter has suspended the account of MeTooSTEM founder BethAnn McLaughlin after allegations emerged that the former Vanderbilt University neuroscientist fabricated the Twitter account of an apparently nonexistent female Native American anthropologist at Arizona State University who had claimed to be an anonymous victim of sexual harassment by a Harvard professor.
[ScienceInsider]
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