USP19 Suppresses Inflammation and Promotes M2-Like Macrophage Polarization by Manipulating NLRP3 Function via Autophagy

Scientists report that ubiquitin-specific protease 19 acted as an anti-inflammatory switch that inhibited inflammatory responses and promoted M2-like macrophage polarization.
[nan]
Liu, T., Wang, L., Liang, P., Wang, X., Liu, Y., Cai, J., She, Y., Wang, D., Wang, Z., Guo, Z., Bates, S., Xia, X., Huang, J., & Cui, J. (2020). USP19 suppresses inflammation and promotes M2-like macrophage polarization by manipulating NLRP3 function via autophagy. Cellular & Molecular Immunology, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41423-020-00567-7 Cite
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Hhex Directly Represses BIM-Dependent Apoptosis to Promote NK Cell Development and Maintenance

To determine if Hhex was intrinsically required throughout NK cell development or for NK cell function, scientists generated mice that specifically lacked Hhex in NK cells.
[Cell Reports]
Goh, W., Scheer, S., Jackson, J. T., Hediyeh-Zadeh, S., Delconte, R. B., Schuster, I. S., Andoniou, C. E., Rautela, J., Degli-Esposti, M. A., Davis, M. J., McCormack, M. P., Nutt, S. L., & Huntington, N. D. (2020). Hhex Directly Represses BIM-Dependent Apoptosis to Promote NK Cell Development and Maintenance. Cell Reports, 33(3). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.108285 Cite
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Detecting Tumor Antigen-Specific T Cells via Interaction-Dependent Fucosyl-Biotinylation

Through an interaction-dependent labeling approach, intratumoral TSA-reactive CD4 +, CD8 + T cells, and TSA-suppressive CD4 + T cells could be detected and separated from bystander T cells based on their cell-surface enzymatic fucosyl-biotinylation.
[Cell]
Liu, Z., Li, J. P., Chen, M., Wu, M., Shi, Y., Li, W., Teijaro, J. R., & Wu, P. (2020). Detecting Tumor Antigen-Specific T Cells via Interaction-Dependent Fucosyl-Biotinylation. Cell, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2020.09.048 Cite
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An Acquired and Endogenous Glycocalyx Forms a Bidirectional “Don’t Eat” and “Don’t Eat Me” Barrier to Phagocytosis

Researchers report that certain ligands could be obscured by the glycosaminoglycans and glycoproteins that coat pathogenic as well as malignant phagocytic targets.
[Current Biology]
Imbert, P. R. C., Saric, A., Pedram, K., Bertozzi, C. R., Grinstein, S., & Freeman, S. A. (2020). An Acquired and Endogenous Glycocalyx Forms a Bidirectional “Don’t Eat” and “Don’t Eat Me” Barrier to Phagocytosis. Current Biology, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2020.09.082 Cite
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TNF Receptor 1 Promotes Early-Life Immunity and Protects against Colitis in Mice

The single deletion of tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) 1 induced subclinical colonic epithelial dysfunction and mucosal immune abnormalities, including accumulation of neutrophils and depletion of B cells.
[Cell Reports]
Liu, C. Y., Tam, S. S., Huang, Y., Dubé, P. E., Alhosh, R., Girish, N., Punit, S., Nataneli, S., Li, F., Bender, J. M., Washington, M. K., & Polk, D. B. (2020). TNF Receptor 1 Promotes Early-Life Immunity and Protects against Colitis in Mice. Cell Reports, 33(3). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.108275 Cite
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Regulatory T Cell-Derived TGF-β1 Controls Multiple Checkpoints Governing Allergy and Autoimmunity

The mechanisms by which regulatory T (Treg) cells differentially control allergic and autoimmune responses remain unclear. Researchers showed that Treg cells in food allergy had decreased expression of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) because of interleukin-4- and signal transducer and activator of transciription-6-dependent inhibition of Tgfb1 transcription.
[Immunity]
Turner, J. A., Stephen-Victor, E., Wang, S., Rivas, M. N., Abdel-Gadir, A., Harb, H., Cui, Y., Fanny, M., Charbonnier, L.-M., Fong, J. J. H., Benamar, M., Wang, L., Burton, O. T., Bansal, K., Bry, L., Zhu, C., Li, Q.-Z., Clement, R. L., Oettgen, H. C., … Chatila, T. A. (2020). Regulatory T Cell-Derived TGF-β1 Controls Multiple Checkpoints Governing Allergy and Autoimmunity. Immunity, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.immuni.2020.10.002 Cite
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Selective SIRPα Blockade Reverses Tumor T Cell Exclusion and Overcomes Cancer Immunotherapy Resistance

Scientists report a potent synergy between selective SIRPα blockade and immune checkpoint blockade in increasing memory T cell responses and reverting exclusion in syngeneic and orthotopic tumor models.
[Journal of Clinical Investigation]
Gauttier, V., Pengam, S., Durand, J., Biteau, K., Mary, C., Morello, A., Néel, M., Porto, G., Teppaz, G., Thepenier, V., Danger, R., Vince, N., Wilhelm, E., Girault, I., Abes, R., Ruiz, C., Trilleaud, C., Ralph, K.-L., Trombetta, E. S., … Poirier, N. (2020). Selective SIRPα blockade reverses tumor T cell exclusion and overcomes cancer immunotherapy resistance. The Journal of Clinical Investigation, 130(11). https://doi.org/10.1172/JCI135528 Cite
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Regulatory T Cells for Minimising Immune Suppression in Kidney Transplantation: Phase I/IIa Clinical Trial

The assessment included incidence of biopsy confirmed acute rejection, assessment of nTreg infusion related adverse effects, and signs of over immunosuppression.
[British Medical Journal]
Roemhild, A., Otto, N. M., Moll, G., Abou-El-Enein, M., Kaiser, D., Bold, G., Schachtner, T., Choi, M., Oellinger, R., Landwehr-Kenzel, S., Juerchott, K., Sawitzki, B., Giesler, C., Sefrin, A., Beier, C., Wagner, D. L., Schlickeiser, S., Streitz, M., Schmueck-Henneresse, M., … Reinke, P. (2020). Regulatory T cells for minimising immune suppression in kidney transplantation: phase I/IIa clinical trial. BMJ, 371. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m3734 Cite
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HIV-1 Env Induces Pexophagy and an Oxidative Stress Leading to Uninfected CD4+ T Cell Death

Scientists demonstrated that envelope glycoproteins (Env)-induced oxidative stress was responsible for their death by apoptosis. Moreover, they report that peroxisomes, organelles involved in the control of oxidative stress, are targeted by Env-mediated autophagy.
[Autophagy]
Daussy, C. F., Galais, M., Pradel, B., Robert-Hebmann, V., Sagnier, S., Pattingre, S., Biard-Piechaczyk, M., & Espert, L. (2020). HIV-1 Env induces pexophagy and an oxidative stress leading to uninfected CD4+ T cell death. Autophagy, 0(0), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1080/15548627.2020.1831814 Cite
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TGF-β Suppresses Type 2 Immunity to Cancer

The authors showed that depletion of transforming growth factor-β receptor 2 (TGFβR2) in CD4+ T cells, but not CD8+ T cells, halts cancer progression as a result of tissue healing and remodeling of the blood vasculature, causing cancer cell hypoxia and death in distant avascular regions.
[Nature]
Liu, M., Kuo, F., Capistrano, K. J., Kang, D., Nixon, B. G., Shi, W., Chou, C., Do, M. H., Stamatiades, E. G., Gao, S., Li, S., Chen, Y., Hsieh, J. J., Hakimi, A. A., Taniuchi, I., Chan, T. A., & Li, M. O. (2020). TGF-β suppresses type 2 immunity to cancer. Nature, 1–6. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2836-1 Cite
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Anti-Inflammatory Signaling through G Protein-Coupled Receptors

The authors summarize what they have learned about GPCRs that transduce anti-inflammatory signals, their structures and signaling pathways and the prospect of targeting these receptors for novel anti-inflammatory therapies.
[Acta Pharmacologica Sinica]
Ge, Y., Liao, Q., Xu, Y., Zhao, Q., Wu, B., & Ye, R. D. (2020). Anti-inflammatory signaling through G protein-coupled receptors. Acta Pharmacologica Sinica, 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41401-020-00523-1 Cite
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