Characterization of Mitochondrial Health from Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells to Cerebral Organoids Derived from Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

Scientists developed cerebral organoids from induced pluripotent stem cells derived from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and monitored mitochondrial health from the primary, reprogrammed and differentiated stages.
[Scientific Reports]
Duong, A., Evstratova, A., Sivitilli, A., Hernandez, J. J., Gosio, J., Wahedi, A., Sondheimer, N., Wrana, J. L., Beaulieu, J.-M., Attisano, L., & Andreazza, A. C. (2021). Characterization of mitochondrial health from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells to cerebral organoids derived from induced pluripotent stem cells. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 4523. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-84071-6 Cite
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Heterogeneous Glioma Cell Invasion under Interstitial Flow Depending on Their Differentiation Status

Researchers investigated how glioma initiating cells invaded 3D hydrogels in response to an interstitial flow with respect to their differentiation status. Microfluidic culture systems were used to apply an interstitial flow to the cells migrating from the cell aggregates into the 3D hydrogel.
[Tissue Engineering Part A]
Namba, N., Chonan, Y., Nunokawa, T., Sampetrean, O., Saya, H., & Sudo, R. (2021). Heterogeneous Glioma Cell Invasion Under Interstitial Flow Depending on Their Differentiation Status. Tissue Engineering Part A. https://doi.org/10.1089/ten.tea.2020.0280 Cite
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Loss of NPC1 Enhances Phagocytic Uptake and Impairs Lipid Trafficking in Microglia

Loss of NPC1 triggered enhanced phagocytic uptake and impaired myelin turnover in microglia that precede neuronal death.
[Nature Communications]
Colombo, A., Dinkel, L., Müller, S. A., Sebastian Monasor, L., Schifferer, M., Cantuti-Castelvetri, L., König, J., Vidatic, L., Bremova-Ertl, T., Lieberman, A. P., Hecimovic, S., Simons, M., Lichtenthaler, S. F., Strupp, M., Schneider, S. A., & Tahirovic, S. (2021). Loss of NPC1 enhances phagocytic uptake and impairs lipid trafficking in microglia. Nature Communications, 12(1), 1158. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-21428-5 Cite
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βA1-Crystallin Regulates Glucose Metabolism and Mitochondrial Function in Mouse Retinal Astrocytes by Modulating PTP1B Activity

Scientists explored possible roles of βA3/A1-crystallin in metabolism of retinal astrocytes. They found that βA1-crystallin acted as an uncompetitive inhibitor of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), but βA3-crystallin did not.
[Communications Biology]
Ghosh, S., Liu, H., Yazdankhah, M., Stepicheva, N., Shang, P., Vaidya, T., Hose, S., Gupta, U., Calderon, M. J., Hu, M.-W., Nair, A. P., Weiss, J., Fitting, C. S., Bhutto, I. A., Gadde, S. G. K., Naik, N. K., Jaydev, C., Lutty, G. A., Handa, J. T., … Sinha, D. (2021). βA1-crystallin regulates glucose metabolism and mitochondrial function in mouse retinal astrocytes by modulating PTP1B activity. Communications Biology, 4(1), 1–19. https://doi.org/10.1038/s42003-021-01763-5 Cite
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Declining Lamin B1 Expression Mediates Age-Dependent Decreases of Hippocampal Stem Cell Activity

Researchers showed that the nuclear lamina protein lamin B1 (LB1) was downregulated with age in mouse hippocampal neural stem cells, whereas protein levels of SUN-domain containing protein 1, previously implicated in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome, increased.
[Cell Stem Cell]
Imtiaz, M. K. bin, Jaeger, B. N., Bottes, S., Machado, R. A. C., Vidmar, M., Moore, D. L., & Jessberger, S. (2021). Declining lamin B1 expression mediates age-dependent decreases of hippocampal stem cell activity. Cell Stem Cell, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stem.2021.01.015 Cite
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Regional Identity of Human Neural Stem Cells Determines Oncogenic Responses to Histone H3.3 Mutants

By engineering human fetal neural stem cell cultures from distinct brain regions, investigators demonstrated that cell-intrinsic regional identity provided differential responsiveness to each mutant that mirrored the origins of pediatric high-grade gliomas.
[Cell Stem Cell]
Bressan, R. B., Southgate, B., Ferguson, K. M., Blin, C., Grant, V., Alfazema, N., Wills, J. C., Marques-Torrejon, M. A., Morrison, G. M., Ashmore, J., Robertson, F., Williams, C. A. C., Bradley, L., Kriegsheim, A. von, Anderson, R. A., Tomlinson, S. R., & Pollard, S. M. (2021). Regional identity of human neural stem cells determines oncogenic responses to histone H3.3 mutants. Cell Stem Cell, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stem.2021.01.016 Cite
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Dissecting the Impact of Regional Identity and the Oncogenic Role of Human-Specific NOTCH2NL in an hESC Model of H3.3G34R-Mutant Glioma

The authors developed a human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-based model of H3.3G34R-mutant glioma that recapitulated the key features of the tumors with cell-type specificity to forebrain interneuronal progenitors but not hindbrain precursors.
[Cell Stem Cell]
Funato, K., Smith, R. C., Saito, Y., & Tabar, V. (2021). Dissecting the impact of regional identity and the oncogenic role of human-specific NOTCH2NL in an hESC model of H3.3G34R-mutant glioma. Cell Stem Cell, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stem.2021.02.003 Cite
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Evan Snyder Named Fellow of the American Institute for Medical and Biological Engineering

The American Institute for Medical and Biological Engineering has elected to its College of Fellows Evan Snyder, professor and founding director of the Center for Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine at Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute.
[Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute]
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Florica Therapeutics, Inc. Awarded Competitive Grant from the National Science Foundation to Study Brain-Immune Axis in COVID-19

Florica Therapeutics, Inc. has been awarded a National Science Foundation Small Business Innovation Research grant for $255,678 to work on the Hypothalamus Stem Cell Exosomes for Treatment of COVID-19 project.
[Florica Therapeutics, Inc. (Businesswire, Inc)]
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Metabolic Labeling with an Alkyne Probe Reveals Similarities and Differences in the Prenylomes of Several Brain-Derived Cell Lines and Primary Cells

Applying the method to three brain-related cell lines including neurons, microglia, and astrocytes showed substantial overlap in the prenylated proteins identified.
[Scientific Reports]
Suazo, K. F., Jeong, A., Ahmadi, M., Brown, C., Qu, W., Li, L., & Distefano, M. D. (2021). Metabolic labeling with an alkyne probe reveals similarities and differences in the prenylomes of several brain-derived cell lines and primary cells. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 4367. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-83666-3 Cite
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Oviposition-Promoting Pars Intercerebralis Neurons Show Period-Dependent Photoperiodic Changes in Their Firing Activity in the Bean Bug

The authors analyzed the role of the photoperiodic neuronal response and its relationship with clock genes, focusing on pars intercerebralis neurons.
[Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America]
Hasebe, M., & Shiga, S. (2021). Oviposition-promoting pars intercerebralis neurons show period-dependent photoperiodic changes in their firing activity in the bean bug. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 118(9). https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2018823118 Cite
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