Fusion Proteins in Lung Cancer: Addressing Diagnostic Problems for Deciding Therapy

The authors explore current diagnostic problems of gene fusion detection relative to the technologies available, in order to clarify future standardization of analyses which determine therapeutic choices.
[Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy]
Marino, F. Z., Alì, G., Facchinetti, F., Righi, L., Fontanini, G., Rossi, G., & Franco, R. (2021). Fusion proteins in lung cancer: addressing diagnostic problems for deciding therapy. Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy, 0(0), 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1080/14737140.2021.1903875 Cite
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Loss of the Abasic Site Sensor HMCES Is Synthetic Lethal with the Activity of the APOBEC3A Cytosine Deaminase in Cancer Cells

The authors report the implementation of CRISPR/Cas-9 genetic screening to identify susceptibilities of multiple A3A-expressing lung adenocarcinoma cell lines.
[PLoS Biology]
Biayna, J., Garcia-Cao, I., Álvarez, M. M., Salvadores, M., Espinosa-Carrasco, J., McCullough, M., Supek, F., & Stracker, T. H. (2021). Loss of the abasic site sensor HMCES is synthetic lethal with the activity of the APOBEC3A cytosine deaminase in cancer cells. PLOS Biology, 19(3), e3001176. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3001176 Cite
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Roche Receives Positive CHMP Opinion for Tecentriq as a First-Line Monotherapy Treatment for People with a Type of Metastatic Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

Roche announced that the European Medicines Agency’s Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use has recommended the approval of Tecentriq® as a first-line treatment for adults with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer whose tumors have high PD-L1 expression, with no epidermal growth factor receptor or anaplastic lymphoma kinase genomic tumor aberrations.
[Roche]
Press Release
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Incense Smoke-Induced Oxidative Stress Disrupts Tight Junctions and Bronchial Epithelial Barrier Integrity and Induces Airway Hyperresponsiveness in Mouse Lungs

Using mouse and cell culture models, the authors evaluated the effects of incense smoke exposure on airway hyperresponsiveness, expression of multiple epithelial tight junction- and adherens junction-associated mRNAs and proteins in the lungs, and the barrier function of bronchial epithelial cells assessed by transepithelial electronic resistance.
[Scientific Reports]
Yamamoto, N., Kan-o, K., Tatsuta, M., Ishii, Y., Ogawa, T., Shinozaki, S., Fukuyama, S., Nakanishi, Y., & Matsumoto, K. (2021). Incense smoke-induced oxidative stress disrupts tight junctions and bronchial epithelial barrier integrity and induces airway hyperresponsiveness in mouse lungs. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 7222. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-86745-7 Cite
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Targeted Replacement of Full-Length CFTR in Human Airway Stem Cells by CRISPR/Cas9 for Pan-Mutation Correction in the Endogenous Locus

Scientists used CRISPR/Cas9 and two adeno-associated viruses carrying the two halves of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) cDNA to sequentially insert the full CFTR cDNA along with a truncated CD19 enrichment tag in upper airway basal stem cells and human bronchial basal stem cells.
[Molecular Therapy]
Vaidyanathan, S., Baik, R., Chen, L., Bravo, D. T., Suarez, C. J., Abazari, S. M., Salahudeen, A. A., Dudek, A. M., Teran, C. A., Davis, T. H., Lee, C. M., Bao, G., Randell, S. H., Artandi, S. E., Wine, J. J., Kuo, C. J., Desai, T. J., Nayak, J. V., Sellers, Z. M., & Porteus, M. H. (2021). Targeted replacement of full-length CFTR in human airway stem cells by CRISPR/Cas9 for pan-mutation correction in the endogenous locus. Molecular Therapy, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ymthe.2021.03.023 Cite
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CD148 Deficiency in Fibroblasts Promotes the Development of Pulmonary Fibrosis

Scientists investigated the role of CD148 in the profibrotic phenotype of fibroblasts in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Conditional CD148 fibroblast-specific knockout mice were generated and exposed to bleomycin, and then assessed for pulmonary fibrosis.
[American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine]
Tsoyi, K., Liang, X., De Rossi, G., Ryter, S. W., Xiong, K., Chu, S. G., Liu, X., Ith, B., Celada, L. J., Romero, F., Robertson, M. J., Esposito, A. J., Poli, S., El-Chemaly, S., Perrella, M. A., Shi, Y., Whiteford, J., & Rosas, I. O. (2021). CD148 Deficiency in Fibroblasts Promotes the Development of Pulmonary Fibrosis. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. https://doi.org/10.1164/rccm.202008-3100OC Cite
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Long Noncoding RNA McF2l-AS1 Promotes the Cancer Stem Cell-Like Traits in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells through Regulating miR-873-5p Level

Functional experiments showed that MCF2L‐AS1 knockdown suppressed the cancer stem cell‐like traits of non-small cell lung cancer cells through qRT‐PCR, western blot, tumor‐sphere formation, and ALDH activity detection.
[Environmental Toxicology]
Li, S., & Lin, L. (n.d.). Long noncoding RNA MCF2L-AS1 promotes the cancer stem cell-like traits in non-small cell lung cancer cells through regulating miR-873-5p level. Environmental Toxicology, n/a(n/a). https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1002/tox.23142 Cite
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Disparate Temperature-Dependent Virus–Host Dynamics for SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV in the Human Respiratory Epithelium

Since different temperatures encountered in the human upper and lower respiratory tract have been shown to affect the replication kinetics of several respiratory viruses, as well as host immune response dynamics, scientists investigated the impact of temperatures during SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV infection using the primary human airway epithelial cell culture model.
[PLoS Biology]
V’kovski, P., Gultom, M., Kelly, J. N., Steiner, S., Russeil, J., Mangeat, B., Cora, E., Pezoldt, J., Holwerda, M., Kratzel, A., Laloli, L., Wider, M., Portmann, J., Tran, T., Ebert, N., Stalder, H., Hartmann, R., Gardeux, V., Alpern, D., … Dijkman, R. (2021). Disparate temperature-dependent virus–host dynamics for SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV in the human respiratory epithelium. PLOS Biology, 19(3), e3001158. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3001158 Cite
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Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts Activated by miR-196a Promote the Migration and Invasion of Lung Cancer Cells

miR-196a-overexpressed lung fibroblasts (LF-196a) promoted the migration and invasion of lung cancer cells in co-culture systems. ANXA1 was confirmed as a direct target of miR-196a, and adding back ANXA1 to LF-196a restored the cancer cell invasion promoted by miR-196a.
[Cancer Letters]
Lee, S., Hong, J. H., Kim, J. S., Yoon, J. S., Chun, S. H., Hong, S. A., Kim, E. J., Kang, K., Lee Kang, J., Ko, Y. H., & Ahn, Y.-H. (2021). Cancer-associated fibroblasts activated by miR-196a promote the migration and invasion of lung cancer cells. Cancer Letters. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.canlet.2021.03.021 Cite
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Zinc‐Finger E‐Box‐Binding Homeobox 1 (ZEB1) Plays a Crucial Role in the Maintenance of Lung Cancer Stem Cells Resistant to Gefitinib

PC9 and HCC827 non‐small cell lung cancer cell lines were treated with high concentrations of gefitinib, and surviving cells were referred to as “gefitinib‐resistant persisters” (GRPs). Zinc‐finger E‐box‐binding homeobox 1 (ZEB1) knockdown or overexpression was performed to determine the biological significance of ZEB1 in the cancer stem cell features of GRPs, and animal models were studied for in vivo validation.
[Thoracic Cancer]
Nurwidya, F., Takahashi, F., Winardi, W., Tajima, K., Mitsuishi, Y., Murakami, A., Kobayashi, I., Nara, T., Hashimoto, M., Kato, M., Hidayat, M., Suina, K., Hayakawa, D., Asao, T., Ko, R., Shukuya, T., Yae, T., Shimada, N., Yoshioka, Y., … Takahashi, K. (n.d.). Zinc-finger E-box-binding homeobox 1 (ZEB1) plays a crucial role in the maintenance of lung cancer stem cells resistant to gefitinib. Thoracic Cancer, n/a(n/a). https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1111/1759-7714.13937 Cite
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Genomic, Epigenomic, and Biophysical Cues Controlling the Emergence of the Lung Alveolus

Scientists showed that the alignment of cell fates, mediated by biophysical and alveolar type 1-derived paracrine signals, drove the extensive tissue remodeling required for postnatal respiration.
[Science]
Genomic, epigenomic, and biophysical cues controlling the emergence of the lung alveolus | Science. (n.d.). Retrieved March 25, 2021, from https://science.sciencemag.org/content/371/6534/eabc3172 Cite
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