Coordinated Interactions between Endothelial Cells and Macrophages in the Islet Microenvironment Promote β Cell Regeneration

The authors showed that proliferative endothelial cells modulated macrophage (MΦ) infiltration and phenotype during β cell loss, and recruited MΦs were essential for β cell recovery.
[npj Regenerative Medicine]
Saunders, D. C., Aamodt, K. I., Richardson, T. M., Hopkirk, A. J., Aramandla, R., Poffenberger, G., Jenkins, R., Flaherty, D. K., Prasad, N., Levy, S. E., Powers, A. C., & Brissova, M. (2021). Coordinated interactions between endothelial cells and macrophages in the islet microenvironment promote β cell regeneration. Npj Regenerative Medicine, 6(1), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41536-021-00129-z Cite
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Insulin and Insulin Analogs as Antidiabetic Therapy: A Perspective from Clinical Trials

The authors discuss the development of the most widely available insulin preparations and provide evidence-based insight into their use in clinical practice.
[Cell Metabolism]
Kramer, C. K., Retnakaran, R., & Zinman, B. (2021). Insulin and insulin analogs as antidiabetic therapy: A perspective from clinical trials. Cell Metabolism, 33(4), 740–747. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cmet.2021.03.014 Cite
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Core–Shell Hydrogel Microcapsules Enable Formation of Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Spheroids and Their Cultivation in a Stirred Bioreactor

Investigators demonstrated successful encapsulation, spheroid formation and high viability for three different hPSC lines. Using one of the hPSC lines they demonstrated maintenance of pluripotency and successful differentiation of stem cell spheroids into β-cells.
[Scientific Reports]
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Bitter Melon Fruit Extract Enhances Intracellular ATP Production and Insulin Secretion from Rat Pancreatic β-Cells

Scientists showed that hydrophobic components of bitter melon fruit extract increased ATP production and augmented insulin secretion from β-cells, consequently decreasing blood glucose levels.
[British Journal of Nutrition]
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Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: Much Progress, Many Opportunities

While much has been learned about type 1 diabetes (T1D), it is now clear that there is considerable heterogeneity in T1D with regards to genetics, pathology, response to immune-based therapies, clinical course, and susceptibility to diabetes-related complications. This review highlights knowledge gaps and opportunities to improve the understanding of T1D pathogenesis and outlines emerging therapies to treat or prevent T1D and reduce the burden of T1D.
[Journal of Clinical Investigation]
Powers, A. C. (2021). Type 1 diabetes mellitus: much progress, many opportunities. The Journal of Clinical Investigation. https://doi.org/10.1172/JCI142242 Cite
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Vitamin B6 Deficiency Disrupts Serotonin Signaling in Pancreatic Islets and Induces Gestational Diabetes in Mice

Investigators showed that gestational vitamin B6 deficiency decreased serotonin levels in maternal pancreatic islets and reduced β-cell proliferation in an serotonin receptor 2B-dependent manner.
[Communications Biology]
Fields, A. M., Welle, K., Ho, E. S., Mesaros, C., & Susiarjo, M. (2021). Vitamin B6 deficiency disrupts serotonin signaling in pancreatic islets and induces gestational diabetes in mice. Communications Biology, 4(1), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1038/s42003-021-01900-0 Cite
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Reversion of Early- and Late-Stage β-Cell Dedifferentiation by Human Umbilical Cord-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Type 2 Diabetic Mice

Investigators observed β-cell dedifferentiation in type 2 diabetes mellitus and investigated the reversal effect of umbilical cord-derived MSCs on early- and late-stage β-cell dedifferentiation.
[Cytotherapy]
Li, B., Cheng, Y., Yin, Y., Xue, J., Yu, S., Gao, J., Liu, J., Zang, L., & Mu, Y. (2021). Reversion of early- and late-stage β-cell dedifferentiation by human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells in type 2 diabetic mice. Cytotherapy, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcyt.2021.01.005 Cite
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Stem Cell Treatment Improves Post Stroke Neurological Outcomes: A Comparative Study in Male and Female Rats

Researchers hypothesised that MSC treatment would effectively promote the recovery of sensory and motor function in both males and females, despite any apparent sex differences in post-stroke brain injury.
[Stroke and Vascular Neurology]
Nalamolu, K. R., Chelluboina, B., Fornal, C. A., Challa, S. R., Pinson, D. M., Wang, D. Z., Klopfenstein, J. D., & Veeravalli, K. K. (2021). Stem cell treatment improves post stroke neurological outcomes: a comparative study in male and female rats. Stroke and Vascular Neurology, svn. https://doi.org/10.1136/svn-2020-000834 Cite
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Dimethyl Sulfoxide Acutely Enhances Regulated Insulin Secretion in the MIN6-K8 Mouse Insulinoma Cell Line

Investigators evaluated the effects of short-term exposure to dimethyl sulfoxide, a polar aprotic solvent commonly used in drug screening, on physiological characteristics of MIN6-K8 cells
[Histochemistry and Cell Biology]
Dimethyl sulfoxide acutely enhances regulated insulin secretion in the MIN6-K8 mouse insulinoma cell line | SpringerLink. (n.d.). Retrieved March 23, 2021, from https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00418-021-01984-z Cite
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Nifuroxazide Improves Insulin Secretion and Attenuates High Glucose-Induced Inflammation and Apoptosis in INS-1 Cells

The authors used high concentration glucose-induced INS-1 cells to examine the effects of Nifuroxazide on high glucose-induced cell function by glucose-stimulated insulin secretion.
[European Journal of Pharmacology]
Liu, J.-Y., Zhang, Y.-C., Xie, R.-R., Song, L.-N., Yang, W.-L., Xin, Z., Cao, X., & Yang, J.-K. (2021). Nifuroxazide improves insulin secretion and attenuates high glucose-induced inflammation and apoptosis in INS-1 cells. European Journal of Pharmacology, 174042. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2021.174042 Cite
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Combined Therapy of Mesenchymal Stem Cells with a GLP-1 Receptor Agonist, Liraglutide, on an Inflammatory-Mediated Diabetic Non-Human Primate Model

The authors assessed the therapeutic potential of co-administration of human clonal mesenchymal stem cells and liraglutide as a glucagon-like peptide-1 agonist in a non-human primate model with streptozotocin-induced diabetes.
[Life Sciences]
Navabi, R., Negahdari, B., Hajizadeh-Saffar, E., Hajinasrollah, M., Jenab, Y., Rabbani, S., Pakzad, M., Hassani, S.-N., Hezavehei, M., Jafari-Atrabi, M., Tahamtani, Y., & Baharvand, H. (2021). Combined therapy of mesenchymal stem cells with a GLP-1 receptor agonist, liraglutide, on an inflammatory-mediated diabetic non-human primate model. Life Sciences, 119374. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2021.119374 Cite
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