Single-Cell RNA-Seq Reveals that CD9 Is a Negative Marker of Glucose-Responsive Pancreatic β-like Cells Derived from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

Scientists observed more CD9+C-PEPTIDE+ β cells in the fetal than in the adult cadaveric islets and more Ki67+ proliferating cells among CD9+ fetal β cells. Their experiments showed CD9 as a cell-surface marker for negative enrichment of glucose-responsive β-like cells differentiated from human PSCs.
[Stem Cell Reports]
Li, X., Yang, K. Y., Chan, V. W., Leung, K. T., Zhang, X.-B., Wong, A. S., Chong, C. C. N., Wang, C. C., Ku, M., & Lui, K. O. (2020). Single-Cell RNA-Seq Reveals that CD9 Is a Negative Marker of Glucose-Responsive Pancreatic β-like Cells Derived from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells. Stem Cell Reports, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stemcr.2020.09.009 Cite
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Single-Cell RNA-Seq Reveals that CD9 Is a Negative Marker of Glucose-Responsive Pancreatic β-like Cells Derived from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

Researchers purified β-like cells for spontaneous formation of islet-like organoids against CD9, and found significantly more NKX6.1+MAFA+C-PEPTIDE+ β-like cells in the CD9− than in the CD9+ population.
[Cell Stem Cell]
Li, X., Yang, K. Y., Chan, V. W., Leung, K. T., Zhang, X.-B., Wong, A. S., Chong, C. C. N., Wang, C. C., Ku, M., & Lui, K. O. (2020). Single-Cell RNA-Seq Reveals that CD9 Is a Negative Marker of Glucose-Responsive Pancreatic β-like Cells Derived from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells. Stem Cell Reports, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stemcr.2020.09.009 Cite
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Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis: The Role of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors

The authors summarize and discuss the current literature on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) as the liver manifestation of the systemic metabolic syndrome and focuses on the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors in the pathomechanisms as well as in the potential targeting of disease.
[Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology]
Francque, S., Szabo, G., Abdelmalek, M. F., Byrne, C. D., Cusi, K., Dufour, J.-F., Roden, M., Sacks, F., & Tacke, F. (2020). Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors. Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology, 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41575-020-00366-5 Cite
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The Efficiency of Insulin Production and Its Content in Insulin-Expressing Model β-Cells Correlate with Their Zn2+ Levels

Scientists systematically compared zinc and insulin contents in the permanent INS-1E and BRIN-BD11 β-cells and in the native rat pancreatic islets by flow cytometry, confocal microscopy, immunoblotting, specific messenger RNA and total insulin analysis.
[Open Biology]
Dzianová, P., Asai, S., Chrudinová, M., Kosinová, L., Potalitsyn, P., Šácha, P., Hadravová, R., Selicharová, I., Kříž, J., Turkenburg, J. P., Brzozowski, A. M., Jiráček, J., & Žáková, L. (n.d.). The efficiency of insulin production and its content in insulin-expressing model β-cells correlate with their Zn2+ levels. Open Biology, 10(10), 200137. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsob.200137 Cite
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SPARC Promotes Insulin Secretion through Down-Regulation of RGS4 Protein in Pancreatic β Cells

Researchers showed that SPARC enhanced the promoting effect of Muscarinic receptor agonist oxotremorine-M on insulin secretion in cultured mouse islets. Overexpression of SPARC down-regulated RGS4, a negative regulator of β-cell M3 muscarinic receptors.
[Scientific Reports]
Hu, L., He, F., Huang, M., Zhao, Q., Cheng, L., Said, N., Zhou, Z., Liu, F., & Dai, Y.-S. (2020). SPARC promotes insulin secretion through down-regulation of RGS4 protein in pancreatic β cells. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 17581. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-74593-w Cite
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Leptin Modulates Pancreatic β-Cell Membrane Potential through Src Kinase-Mediated Phosphorylation of NMDA Receptors

Scientists report that leptin augments NMDA subtype of glutamate receptors function via Src kinase-mediated phosphorylation of the GluN2A subunit.
[Journal of Biological Chemistry]
Cochrane, V. A., Wu, Y., Yang, Z., ElSheikh, A., Dunford, J., Kievit, P., Fortin, D. A., & Shyng, S.-L. (2020). Leptin modulates pancreatic β-cell membrane potential through Src kinase-mediated phosphorylation of NMDA receptors. Journal of Biological Chemistry, jbc.RA120.015489. https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.RA120.015489 Cite
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Topologically Selective Islet Vulnerability and Self-Sustained Downregulation of Markers for β-Cell Maturity in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes

Scientists showed that hyperglycemic Streptozotocin-treated mice still harbor a large pool of remaining β-cells but displayed pancreas-wide downregulation of glucose transporter type 2. Islet gene expression studies confirmed this downregulation and revealed impaired β-cell maturity.
[Communications Biology]
Hahn, M., van Krieken, P. P., Nord, C., Alanentalo, T., Morini, F., Xiong, Y., Eriksson, M., Mayer, J., Kostromina, E., Ruas, J. L., Sharpe, J., Pereira, T., Berggren, P.-O., Ilegems, E., & Ahlgren, U. (2020). Topologically selective islet vulnerability and self-sustained downregulation of markers for β-cell maturity in streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Communications Biology, 3(1), 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1038/s42003-020-01243-2 Cite
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Repositioning the Alpha Cell in Postprandial Metabolism

The authors discuss the recent advances in understanding of how α-cells regulate metabolism, with a particular focus on the postprandial state.
[Endocrinology]
El, K., Capozzi, M. E., & Campbell, J. E. (n.d.). Repositioning the alpha cell in postprandial metabolism. Endocrinology. https://doi.org/10.1210/endocr/bqaa169 Cite
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Pancreatic β-Cells Respond to Fuel Pressure with an Early Metabolic Switch

Scientists present a study of β-cell metabolism under increased fuel pressure using a stable isotope resolved NMR approach to investigate early metabolic events leading up to β-cell dysfunction.
[Scientific Reports]
Malinowski, R. M., Ghiasi, S. M., Mandrup-Poulsen, T., Meier, S., Lerche, M. H., Ardenkjær-Larsen, J. H., & Jensen, P. R. (2020). Pancreatic β-cells respond to fuel pressure with an early metabolic switch. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 15413. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-72348-1 Cite
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Human T Cells Expressing a CD19 CAR-T Receptor Provide Insights into Mechanisms of Human CD19-Positive β Cell Destruction

Coculturing CD19-expressing β-like cells and CD19 CAR-T cells resulted in T cell-mediated β-like cell death with release of activated T cell cytokines.
[Cell Reports Medicine]
Ma, H., Jeppesen, J. F., & Jaenisch, R. (2020). Human T Cells Expressing a CD19 CAR-T Receptor Provide Insights into Mechanisms of Human CD19-Positive β Cell Destruction. Cell Reports Medicine, 1(6). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.xcrm.2020.100097 Cite
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Citrus Flavanone Metabolites Protect Pancreatic-β Cells Under Oxidative Stress Induced by Cholesterol

Cholesterol reduced pancreatic β-cell viability in a dose and time-dependent manner, with an improvement in the presence of the metabolites. Flavanone metabolites attenuated oxidative stress by reducing levels of lipid peroxides, superoxide anions, and hydrogen peroxide.
[Food & Function]
Anacleto, S. L., Milenkovic, D., Kroon, P. A., Needs, P. W., Lajolo, F. M., & Hassimotto, N. M. A. (2020). Citrus flavanone metabolites protect pancreatic-β cells under oxidative stress induced by cholesterol. Food & Function. https://doi.org/10.1039/D0FO01839B Cite
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