The NLRP3 Inflammasome Inhibitor OLT1177 Rescues Cognitive Impairment in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer’s Disease

Scientists analyzed the effect of pharmacological inhibition of the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome using dapansutrile (OLT1177), an oral NLRP3-specific inhibitor that is safe in humans.
[Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America]
Lonnemann, N., Hosseini, S., Marchetti, C., Skouras, D. B., Stefanoni, D., D’Alessandro, A., Dinarello, C. A., & Korte, M. (2020). The NLRP3 inflammasome inhibitor OLT1177 rescues cognitive impairment in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2009680117 Cite
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SIRT1 Alleviates Hepatic Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury Via the miR-182-Mediated XBP1/NLRP3 Pathway

In in vitro assays, NCTC1469 cells subjected to hypoxia/reoxygenation were transduced with siRNA/activator of SIRT1 or miR-182 agomir to confirm the effect of SIRT1 on NCTC1469 cell behaviors as well as the regulation of miR-182 and XBP1/NLRP3 signaling pathway.
[Molecular Therapy-Nucleic Acids]
SIRT1 Alleviates Hepatic Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury Via the miR-182-Mediated XBP1/NLRP3 Pathway: Molecular Therapy - Nucleic Acids. (n.d.). Retrieved November 26, 2020, from https://www.cell.com/molecular-therapy-family/nucleic-acids/fulltext/S2162-2531(20)30371-1 Cite
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MAPK1/3 Kinase-Dependent ULK1 Degradation Attenuates Mitophagy and Promotes Breast Cancer Bone Metastasis

Researchers showed that ULK1 deficiency induced an invasive phenotype of breast cancer cells under hypoxia and increases osteolytic bone metastasis.
[Autophagy]
Deng, R., Zhang, H.-L., Huang, J.-H., Cai, R.-Z., Wang, Y., Chen, Y.-H., Hu, B.-X., Ye, Z.-P., Li, Z.-L., Mai, J., Huang, Y., Li, X., Peng, X.-D., Feng, G.-K., Li, J.-D., Tang, J., & Zhu, X.-F. (2020). MAPK1/3 kinase-dependent ULK1 degradation attenuates mitophagy and promotes breast cancer bone metastasis. Autophagy, 0(ja), null. https://doi.org/10.1080/15548627.2020.1850609 Cite
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Scutellarin Ameliorates Pulmonary Fibrosis through Inhibiting NF-κB/NLRP3-Mediated Epithelial–Mesenchymal Transition and Inflammation

Investigators discovered that scutellarin suppressed inflammation and epithelial–mesenchymal transition in BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis through NF-κB/NLRP3 signaling.
[Cell Death & Disease]
Scutellarin ameliorates pulmonary fibrosis through inhibiting NF-κB/NLRP3-mediated epithelial–mesenchymal transition and inflammation | Cell Death & Disease. (n.d.). Retrieved November 19, 2020, from https://www.nature.com/articles/s41419-020-03178-2 Cite
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PCSK9 Regulates Pyroptosis via mtDNA Damage in Chronic Myocardial Ischemia

This study was designed to test the hypothesis that proprotein convertase subtilisin/Kexin type 9 (PCSK9) regulates pyroptosis in cardiomyocytes during chronic myocardial ischemia. Primary cardiomyocytes were isolated from WT and PCSK9−/− mice.
[Basic Research in Cardiology]
Wang, X., Li, X., Liu, S., Brickell, A. N., Zhang, J., Wu, Z., Zhou, S., & Ding, Z. (2020). PCSK9 regulates pyroptosis via mtDNA damage in chronic myocardial ischemia. Basic Research in Cardiology, 115(6), 66. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00395-020-00832-w Cite
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Influenza A Viruses Limit NLRP3-NEK7-Complex Formation and Pyroptosis in Human Macrophages

Researchers demonstrated here that a small accessory protein of contemporary H5N1 and H3N2 influenza A viruses curtails fulminant cell death of infected human macrophages.
[EMBO Reports]
Boal-Carvalho, I., Mazel-Sanchez, B., Silva, F., Garnier, L., Yildiz, S., Bonifacio, J. P., Niu, C., Williams, N., Francois, P., Schwerk, N., Schöning, J., Carlens, J., Viemann, D., Hugues, S., & Schmolke, M. (2020). Influenza A viruses limit NLRP3-NEK7-complex formation and pyroptosis in human macrophages. EMBO Reports, n/a(n/a), e50421. https://doi.org/10.15252/embr.202050421 Cite
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Sodium Alginate/Collagen Hydrogel Loaded with Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells Promotes Wound Healing and Skin Remodeling

An injectable hydrogel composed of sodium alginate and collagen type I was synthesized as a tissue scaffold to improve the efficacy of stem cells in a full-thickness excision wound model.
[Cell and Tissue Research]
Zhang, Z., Li, Z., Li, Y., Wang, Y., Yao, M., Zhang, K., Chen, Z., Yue, H., Shi, J., Guan, F., & Ma, S. (2020). Sodium alginate/collagen hydrogel loaded with human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells promotes wound healing and skin remodeling. Cell and Tissue Research. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00441-020-03321-7 Cite
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Membrane Nanotubes Facilitate the Propagation of Inflammatory Injury in the Heart upon Overactivation of the β-Adrenergic Receptor

β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) overactivation induced inflammasome activation in both the cardiomyocytes and cardiac fibroblasts of mice hearts following a subcutaneous injection of isoproterenol, a selective agonist of β-AR.
[Cell Death & Disease]
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Clonal Hematopoiesis-Driver DNMT3A Mutations Alter Immune Cells in Heart Failure

Transcriptomic profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells were analyzed in heart failure patients harboring DNA methyltransferase 3a (DNMT3A) clonal hematopoiesis-driver mutations and patients with HF and no DNMT3A mutations by single-cell RNA-sequencing.
[Circulation Research]
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TET2-Loss-of-Function-Driven Clonal Hematopoiesis Exacerbates Experimental Insulin Resistance in Aging and Obesity

Scientists showed that inactivating mutations in the epigenetic regulator TET2, which led to clonal hematopoiesis, aggravate age- and obesity-related insulin resistance in mice.
[Cell Reports]
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Modifying Bacterial Flagellin to Evade Nod-Like Receptor CARD 4 Recognition Enhances Protective Immunity Against Salmonella

Investigators showed that the cytosolic pattern recognition receptor Nod-like Receptor CARD 4 suppressed, rather than facilitated, effector and memory CD4+ T-cell responses against Salmonella in mice.
[Nature Microbiology]
Tourlomousis, P., Wright, J. A., Bittante, A. S., Hopkins, L. J., Webster, S. J., Bryant, O. J., Mastroeni, P., Maskell, D. J., & Bryant, C. E. (2020). Modifying bacterial flagellin to evade Nod-like Receptor CARD 4 recognition enhances protective immunity against Salmonella. Nature Microbiology, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41564-020-00801-y Cite
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