Tumor Co-Expression of Progranulin and Sortilin as a Prognostic Biomarker in Breast Cancer

The authors explored how co-expression of progranulin and sortilin was associated with established clinical markers by analyzing a tissue microarray including 560 randomized premenopausal breast cancer patients receiving either two years of tamoxifen treatment or no adjuvant treatment, with a median follow-up time of 28 years.
[BMC Cancer]
Berger, K., Rhost, S., Rafnsdóttir, S., Hughes, É., Magnusson, Y., Ekholm, M., Stål, O., Rydén, L., & Landberg, G. (2021). Tumor co-expression of progranulin and sortilin as a prognostic biomarker in breast cancer. BMC Cancer, 21(1), 185. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12885-021-07854-0 Cite
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PPARα-Selective Antagonist GW6471 Inhibits Cell Growth in Breast Cancer Stem Cells Inducing Energy Imbalance and Metabolic Stress

The authors isolated and characterized breast cancer stem cells from a triple-negative breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-231. The obtained mammospheres were then treated with the specific PPARα antagonist GW6471, after which, glucose, lipid metabolism, and invasiveness were analyzed.
[Biomedicines]
Castelli, V., Catanesi, M., Alfonsetti, M., Laezza, C., Lombardi, F., Cinque, B., Cifone, M. G., Ippoliti, R., Benedetti, E., Cimini, A., & d’Angelo, M. (2021). PPARα-Selective Antagonist GW6471 Inhibits Cell Growth in Breast Cancer Stem Cells Inducing Energy Imbalance and Metabolic Stress. Biomedicines, 9(2), 127. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9020127 Cite
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MicroRNA Regulation of Cancer Stem Cells in the Pathogenesis of Breast Cancer

Investigators summarize the critical roles of miRNAs in regulating multiple signaling pathways such as Wnt/β-catenin, Notch, PI3K/AKT/mTOR, BMI-1 and STAT3 that are important for the breast cancer stem cell maintenance.
[Cancer Cell International]
Niu, T., Zhang, W., & Xiao, W. (2021). MicroRNA regulation of cancer stem cells in the pathogenesis of breast cancer. Cancer Cell International, 21(1), 31. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12935-020-01716-8 Cite
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A Novel Hypoxic Long Noncoding RNA KB-1980E6.3 Maintains Breast Cancer Stem Cell Stemness via Interacting With IGF2BP1 to Facilitate C-Myc mRNA Stability

The enhanced long noncoding RNA KB-1980E6.3 facilitated breast cancer stem cells self-renewal and tumorigenesis under hypoxic microenvironment both in vitro and in vivo.
[Oncogene]
Zhu, P., He, F., Hou, Y., Tu, G., Li, Q., Jin, T., Zeng, H., Qin, Y., Wan, X., Qiao, Y., Qiu, Y., Teng, Y., & Liu, M. (2021). A novel hypoxic long noncoding RNA KB-1980E6.3 maintains breast cancer stem cell stemness via interacting with IGF2BP1 to facilitate c-Myc mRNA stability. Oncogene, 1–19. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41388-020-01638-9 Cite
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HES1 Promotes Breast Cancer Stem Cells by Elevating Slug in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

Investigators revealed that HES1 is a novel transcriptional activator for Slug through acting directly on its promoter. HES1 knockdown reduced breast cancer stem cell (BCSC) self-renewal, BCSC population, and cancer cell proliferation in TNBC, whereas overexpression of Slug restored the oncogenic function of HES1, both in vitro and in vivo.
[International Journal of Biological Sciences]
Li, X., Li, Y., Du, X., Wang, X., Guan, S., Cao, Y., Jin, F., & Li, F. (2021). HES1 promotes breast cancer stem cells by elevating Slug in triple-negative breast cancer. International Journal of Biological Sciences, 17(1), 247–258. https://doi.org/10.7150/ijbs.53477 Cite
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Breast Cancer Stem Cells, Heterogeneity, Targeting Therapies and Therapeutic Implications

One major challenge is determining the cancer stem cell properties that can be exploited as therapeutic targets. Another challenge is identifying suitable breast cancer stem cells (BCSC) biomarkers to assess the efficacy of novel BCSC-targeted therapies.
[Pharmacological Research]
Zeng, X., Liu, C., Yao, J., Wan, H., Wan, G., Li, Y., & Chen, N. (2021). Breast cancer stem cells, heterogeneity, targeting therapies and therapeutic implications. Pharmacological Research, 163, 105320. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrs.2020.105320 Cite
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ZFHX3 Promotes the Proliferation and Tumor Growth of ER-Positive Breast Cancer Cells Likely by Enhancing Stem-Like Features and MYC and TBX3 Transcription

Researchers found that ZFHX3 promoted the proliferation and tumor growth of breast cancer cells in culture and nude mice; and higher expression of ZFHX3 in human breast cancer specimens was associated with poorer prognosis.
[Cancers]
Dong, G., Ma, G., Wu, R., Liu, J., Liu, M., Gao, A., Li, X., A, J., Liu, X., Zhang, Z., Zhang, B., Fu, L., & Dong, J.-T. (2020). ZFHX3 Promotes the Proliferation and Tumor Growth of ER-Positive Breast Cancer Cells Likely by Enhancing Stem-Like Features and MYC and TBX3 Transcription. Cancers, 12(11), 3415. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12113415 Cite
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In Silico and In Vitro Studies on the Anti-Cancer Activity of Andrographolide Targeting Survivin in Human Breast Cancer Stem Cells

Human CD24/CD44+ breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) were treated with andrographolide in vitro for 24 hours. The cytotoxic effect of andrographolide on BCSCs was compared to that on human mesenchymal stem cells.
[PLoS One]
Wanandi, S. I., Limanto, A., Yunita, E., Syahrani, R. A., Louisa, M., Wibowo, A. E., & Arumsari, S. (2020). In silico and in vitro studies on the anti-cancer activity of andrographolide targeting survivin in human breast cancer stem cells. PLOS ONE, 15(11), e0240020. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0240020 Cite
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Evaluation of Chemotherapy and P2Et Extract Combination in Ex-Vivo Derived Tumor Mammospheres from Breast Cancer Patients

Researchers evaluated the ex vivo response of patient tumor-derived organoids (or mammospheres) to chemotherapy alone or in combination with P2Et. A xenotransplant model engrafted with MDA-MB-468 was used to evaluate in vivo the activity of P2Et, in this model P2Et delay tumor growth.
[Scientific Reports]
Urueña, C., Sandoval, T. A., Lasso, P., Tawil, M., Barreto, A., Torregrosa, L., & Fiorentino, S. (2020). Evaluation of chemotherapy and P2Et extract combination in ex-vivo derived tumor mammospheres from breast cancer patients. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 19639. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-76619-9 Cite
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Evaluation of Chemotherapy and P2Et Extract Combination in Ex Vivo Derived Tumor Mammospheres from Breast Cancer Patients

Investigators evaluated the presence of breast cancer stem cells as well as markers related to drug resistance in tumors obtained from 78 patients who had received (or not) chemotherapy before surgery.
[Scientific Reports]
Urueña, C., Sandoval, T. A., Lasso, P., Tawil, M., Barreto, A., Torregrosa, L., & Fiorentino, S. (2020). Evaluation of chemotherapy and P2Et extract combination in ex-vivo derived tumor mammospheres from breast cancer patients. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 19639. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-76619-9 Cite
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Differential Sensitivities of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Stem Cell towards Various Doses of Vitamin C: An Insight into the Internal Antioxidant Systems

The authors investigated the cellular energetics of two triple‐negative breast cancer stem cells treated with two pharmacological doses of vitamin C that generated reactive oxygen species.
[Journal of Cellular Biochemistry]
Sen, U., Chaudhury, D., P, S. S., & Bose, B. (n.d.). Differential sensitivities of triple-negative breast cancer stem cell towards various doses of vitamin C: An insight into the internal antioxidant systems. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry, n/a(n/a). https://doi.org/10.1002/jcb.29863 Cite
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