Prevention of Fibrosis and Pathological Cardiac Remodeling by Salinomycin

Scientists demonstrated that salinomycin displayed potent anti-fibrotic activity in cardiac fibroblasts obtained from heart failure patients. In pre-clinical studies, salinomycin prevented cardiac fibrosis and functional decline in mouse models of ischemic and non-ischemic heart disease.
[Circulation Research]
Burke Ryan M, Dirkx, Jr. R. A., Quijada Pearl, Lighthouse Janet K, Mohan Amy, O’Brien Meghann, Wojciechowski Wojciech, Woeller Collynn, Phipps Richard P, Alexis Jeffrey D, Ashton John, & Small Eric M. (n.d.). Prevention of Fibrosis and Pathological Cardiac Remodeling by Salinomycin. Circulation Research, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.120.317791 Cite
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Identification of an Endogenous Glutamatergic Transmitter System Controlling Excitability and Conductivity of Atrial Cardiomyocytes

Researchers reveal an intrinsic glutamatergic transmitter system directly modulating excitability and conductivity of atrial cardiomyocytes through controlling ionotropic glutamate receptor-gated currents.
[Cell Research]
Xie, D., Xiong, K., Su, X., Wang, G., Ji, Q., Zou, Q., Wang, L., Liu, Y., Liang, D., Xue, J., Wang, L., Gao, X., Gu, X., Liu, H., He, X., Li, L., Yang, J., Lu, Y., Peng, L., & Chen, Y.-H. (2021). Identification of an endogenous glutamatergic transmitter system controlling excitability and conductivity of atrial cardiomyocytes. Cell Research, 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41422-021-00499-5 Cite
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Silencing of Sphingosine kinase 1 Affects Maturation Pathways in Mouse Neonatal Cardiomyocytes

Investigators demonstrated that the Sphingosine kinase-1 silencing in neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes facilitated their postnatal maturation in both physiological and stress conditions.
[International Journal of Molecular Sciences]
Jozefczuk, E., Szczepaniak, P., Guzik, T. J., & Siedlinski, M. (2021). Silencing of Sphingosine kinase 1 Affects Maturation Pathways in Mouse Neonatal Cardiomyocytes. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 22(7), 3616. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22073616 Cite
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Exosomes from Neuronal Stem Cells May Protect the Heart from Ischaemia/Reperfusion Injury via jak1/2 and gp130

Researchers demonstrated that exosomes from differentiating CTX0E03 cells could reduce infarct size in mice. In an in vitro assay, these exosomes delayed cardiomyocyte mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening, which was responsible for cardiomyocyte death after reperfusion.
[Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine]
Katsur, M., He, Z., Vinokur, V., Corteling, R., Yellon, D. M., & Davidson, S. M. (n.d.). Exosomes from neuronal stem cells may protect the heart from ischaemia/reperfusion injury via JAK1/2 and gp130. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, n/a(n/a). https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.16515 Cite
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Regulated Cell Death Pathways in Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiotoxicity

The authors focus on recent advances in our understanding of doxorubicin induced regulated cardiomyocyte death pathways including autophagy, ferroptosis, necroptosis, pyroptosis and apoptosis.
[Cell Death & Disease]
Christidi, E., & Brunham, L. R. (2021). Regulated cell death pathways in doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. Cell Death & Disease, 12(4), 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41419-021-03614-x Cite
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NRF2 Is Required for Structural and Metabolic Maturation of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Ardiomyocytes

The authors found that nuclear factor erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (NRF2) played an important role in the maturation of hiPSC-derived cardiomyocytes.
[Stem Cell Research & Therapy]
Zhang, X., Ye, L., Xu, H., Zhou, Q., Tan, B., Yi, Q., Yan, L., Xie, M., Zhang, Y., Tian, J., & Zhu, J. (2021). NRF2 is required for structural and metabolic maturation of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived ardiomyocytes. Stem Cell Research & Therapy, 12(1), 208. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13287-021-02264-2 Cite
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TRPV1 Channels Regulate the Automaticity of Embryonic Stem Cell‐Derived Cardiomyocytes through Stimulating the NA+/Ca2+ Exchanger Current

Investigators suggest that transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) activity was important for regulating the spontaneous activity of embryonic stem cell‐derived cardiomyocytes (ESC‐CMs) and revealed a novel interplay between TRPV1 and Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) in regulating the physiological functions of ESC‐CMs.
[Journal of Cellular Physiology]
Zhao, R., Liu, X., Qi, Z., Yao, X., & Tsang, S. Y. (n.d.). TRPV1 channels regulate the automaticity of embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes through stimulating the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger current. Journal of Cellular Physiology, n/a(n/a). https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1002/jcp.30369 Cite
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NGF Nanoparticles Enhance the Potency of Transplanted Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Myocardial Repair

In vitro, nerve growth factor significantly improved the proliferation of human umbilical cord MSCs and mitigated cytotoxicity and apoptosis under hypoxic injury.
[American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology]
Luo, W., Gong, Y., Qiu, F., Yuan, Y., Jia, W., Liu, Z., & Gao, L. (2021). NGF Nanoparticles Enhance the Potency of Transplanted Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Myocardial Repair. American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology. https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00855.2020 Cite
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Cardiac Macrophages Prevent Sudden Death during Heart Stress

Scientists showed that cardiac macrophages crucially maintained cardiac impulse conduction by facilitating myocardial intercellular communication through gap junctions.
[Nature Communications]
Sugita, J., Fujiu, K., Nakayama, Y., Matsubara, T., Matsuda, J., Oshima, T., Liu, Y., Maru, Y., Hasumi, E., Kojima, T., Seno, H., Asano, K., Ishijima, A., Tomii, N., Yamazaki, M., Kudo, F., Sakuma, I., Nagai, R., Manabe, I., & Komuro, I. (2021). Cardiac macrophages prevent sudden death during heart stress. Nature Communications, 12(1), 1910. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-22178-0 Cite
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Mitochondrial Aldehyde Dehydrogenase (ALDH2) Rescues Cardiac Contractile Dysfunction in an APP/PS1 Murine Model of Alzheimer’s Disease via Inhibition of ACSL4-Dependent Ferroptosis

In cardiomyocytes isolated from WT mice and in H9C2 myoblasts in vitro, application of Aβ (20 μM) decreased cell survival, compromised cardiomyocyte contractile function, and induced lipid peroxidation; ALDH2 transgene or activator Alda-1 rescued Aβ-induced deteriorating effects.
[Acta Pharmacologica Sinica]
Zhu, Z., Liu, Y., Gong, Y., Jin, W., Topchiy, E., Turdi, S., Gao, Y., Culver, B., Wang, S., Ge, W., Zha, W., Ren, J., Pei, Z., & Qin, X. (2021). Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) rescues cardiac contractile dysfunction in an APP/PS1 murine model of Alzheimer’s disease via inhibition of ACSL4-dependent ferroptosis. Acta Pharmacologica Sinica, 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41401-021-00635-2 Cite
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Generation, Functional Analysis and Applications of Isogenic Three-Dimensional Self-Aggregating Cardiac Microtissues from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

Scientists describe a protocol to generate cardiomyocytes, cardiac fibroblasts and cardiac endothelial cells, the three principal cell types in the heart, from human induced pluripotent stem cells and combine them in 3D cardiac microtissues.
[Nature Protocols]
Campostrini, G., Meraviglia, V., Giacomelli, E., van Helden, R. W. J., Yiangou, L., Davis, R. P., Bellin, M., Orlova, V. V., & Mummery, C. L. (2021). Generation, functional analysis and applications of isogenic three-dimensional self-aggregating cardiac microtissues from human pluripotent stem cells. Nature Protocols, 1–44. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41596-021-00497-2 Cite
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