Epitope-Resolved Profiling of the SARS-CoV-2 Antibody Response Identifies Cross-Reactivity with Endemic Human Coronaviruses

Researchers studied cross-reactivity using a highly multiplexed peptide assay to generate an epitope-resolved view of IgG reactivity across all human coronaviruses in both COVID-19 convalescent and negative donors.
[Cell Reports Medicine]
Ladner, J. T., Henson, S. N., Boyle, A. S., Engelbrektson, A. L., Fink, Z. W., Rahee, F., D’ambrozio, J., Schaecher, K. E., Stone, M., Dong, W., Dadwal, S., Yu, J., Caligiuri, M. A., Cieplak, P., Bjørås, M., Fenstad, M. H., Nordbø, S. A., Kainov, D. E., Muranaka, N., … Altin, J. A. (2021). Epitope-resolved profiling of the SARS-CoV-2 antibody response identifies cross-reactivity with endemic human coronaviruses. Cell Reports Medicine, 2(1). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.xcrm.2020.100189 Cite
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Evolution of Antibody Immunity to SARS-CoV-2

Scientists report on the humoral memory response in a cohort of 87 individuals assessed at 1.3 and 6.2 months after infection. They find that IgM, and IgG anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike protein receptor binding domain antibody titres decrease significantly with IgA being less affected.
[Nature]
Gaebler, C., Wang, Z., Lorenzi, J. C. C., Muecksch, F., Finkin, S., Tokuyama, M., Cho, A., Jankovic, M., Schaefer-Babajew, D., Oliveira, T. Y., Cipolla, M., Viant, C., Barnes, C. O., Bram, Y., Breton, G., Hägglöf, T., Mendoza, P., Hurley, A., Turroja, M., … Nussenzweig, M. C. (2021). Evolution of antibody immunity to SARS-CoV-2. Nature, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-03207-w Cite
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Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2): a Systemic Infection

Scientists summarize existing data on the replication of SARS-CoV-2 in different tissues in both patients and ex vivo models.
[Clinical Microbiology Reviews]
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2): a Systemic Infection | Clinical Microbiology Reviews. (n.d.). Retrieved January 18, 2021, from https://cmr.asm.org/content/34/2/e00133-20 Cite
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Roche Confirms US Government Agreement To Purchase Additional Doses of Regeneron’s Casirivimab and Imdevimab

Roche confirmed that the US Department of Health and Human Services and the Department of Defense will purchase additional supply of Regeneron’s casirivimab and imdevimab antibody cocktail for use in non-hospitalised COVID-19 patients as part of Operation Warp Speed.
[Roche (Globe Newswire, Inc.)]
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A Therapeutic Neutralizing Antibody Targeting Receptor Binding Domain of SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein

Researchers screened human monoclonal antibodies targeting the receptor binding domain of the viral spike protein via antibody library constructed from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of a convalescent patient.
[Nature Communications]
Kim, C., Ryu, D.-K., Lee, J., Kim, Y.-I., Seo, J.-M., Kim, Y.-G., Jeong, J.-H., Kim, M., Kim, J.-I., Kim, P., Bae, J. S., Shim, E. Y., Lee, M. S., Kim, M. S., Noh, H., Park, G.-S., Park, J. S., Son, D., An, Y., … Lee, S.-Y. (2021). A therapeutic neutralizing antibody targeting receptor binding domain of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Nature Communications, 12(1), 288. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20602-5 Cite
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Adaptive immunity to SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19

More studies reveal that CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, and neutralizing antibodies all contribute to control of SARS-CoV-2, in both non-hospitalized and hospitalized cases of COVID-19. The specific functions and kinetics of these adaptive immune responses are discussed.
[Cell]
Sette, A., & Crotty, S. (2021). Adaptive immunity to SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19. Cell, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2021.01.007 Cite
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Neuroinvasion of SARS-CoV-2 in Human and Mouse Brain

Scientists used three independent approaches to probe the capacity of SARS-CoV-2 to infect the brain. Using human brain organoids, they observed clear evidence of infection with accompanying metabolic changes in infected and neighboring neurons.
[Journal of Experimental Medicine]
Song, E., Zhang, C., Israelow, B., Lu-Culligan, A., Prado, A. V., Skriabine, S., Lu, P., Weizman, O.-E., Liu, F., Dai, Y., Szigeti-Buck, K., Yasumoto, Y., Wang, G., Castaldi, C., Heltke, J., Ng, E., Wheeler, J., Alfajaro, M. M., Levavasseur, E., … Iwasaki, A. (2021). Neuroinvasion of SARS-CoV-2 in human and mouse brain. Journal of Experimental Medicine, 218(e20202135). https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20202135 Cite
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Capsid-Like Particles Decorated with the SARS-CoV-2 Receptor-Binding Domain Elicit Strong Virus Neutralization Activity

Researchers developed two capsid-like particle-based vaccines displaying the receptor-binding domain of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein.
[Nature Communications]
Fougeroux, C., Goksøyr, L., Idorn, M., Soroka, V., Myeni, S. K., Dagil, R., Janitzek, C. M., Søgaard, M., Aves, K.-L., Horsted, E. W., Erdoğan, S. M., Gustavsson, T., Dorosz, J., Clemmensen, S., Fredsgaard, L., Thrane, S., Vidal-Calvo, E. E., Khalifé, P., Hulen, T. M., … Sander, A. F. (2021). Capsid-like particles decorated with the SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain elicit strong virus neutralization activity. Nature Communications, 12(1), 324. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20251-8 Cite
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Experimental Models to Study COVID-19 Effect in Stem Cells

The authors discuss ex vivo experimental models available to study the effect of COVID-19 on tissue stem cells.
[Cells]
Bobba, C. M., Fei, Q., Shukla, V., Lee, H., Patel, P., Putman, R. K., Spitzer, C., Tsai, M., Wewers, M. D., Lee, R. J., Christman, J. W., Ballinger, M. N., Ghadiali, S. N., & Englert, J. A. (2021). Nanoparticle delivery of microRNA-146a regulates mechanotransduction in lung macrophages and mitigates injury during mechanical ventilation. Nature Communications, 12(1), 289. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20449-w Cite
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Single-Cell RNA Sequencing Reveals SARS-CoV-2 Infection Dynamics in Lungs of African Green Monkeys

Scientists compared African green monkeys inoculated with infectious SARS-CoV-2 or irradiated, inactivated virus to study the dynamics of virus replication throughout the respiratory tract. Interestingly, genomic RNA from the animals inoculated with the irradiated virus was found to be highly stable, whereas sub-genomic RNA, an indicator of viral replication, was found to degrade quickly.
[Science Translational Medicine]
Speranza, E., Williamson, B. N., Feldmann, F., Sturdevant, G. L., Pérez, L. P., Meade-White, K., Smith, B. J., Lovaglio, J., Martens, C., Munster, V. J., Okumura, A., Shaia, C., Feldmann, H., Best, S. M., & Wit, E. de. (2021). Single-cell RNA sequencing reveals SARS-CoV-2 infection dynamics in lungs of African green monkeys. Science Translational Medicine. https://doi.org/10.1126/scitranslmed.abe8146 Cite
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Development and Structural Basis of a Two-MAb Cocktail for Treating SARS-CoV-2 Infections

Scientists report the identification and characterization of two groups of mouse neutralizing monoclonal antibodies targeting the receptor-binding domain on the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein.
[Nature Communications]
Zhang, C., Wang, Y., Zhu, Y., Liu, C., Gu, C., Xu, S., Wang, Y., Zhou, Y., Wang, Y., Han, W., Hong, X., Yang, Y., Zhang, X., Wang, T., Xu, C., Hong, Q., Wang, S., Zhao, Q., Qiao, W., … Huang, Z. (2021). Development and structural basis of a two-MAb cocktail for treating SARS-CoV-2 infections. Nature Communications, 12(1), 264. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20465-w Cite
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