Plasma from Patients with Bacterial Sepsis or Severe COVID-19 Induces Production of Suppressive Myeloid Cells from Human Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells In Vitro

To examine the ontogeny and function of MS1 cells, scientists developed a cellular model for inducing CD14+ MS1 monocytes by treating human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells from healthy bone marrow donors in culture with plasma from patients with severe bacterial infection or SARS-CoV-2 infection.
[Science Translational Medicine]
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Cryopreservation of Unrelated Donor Hematopoietic Stem Cells: The Right Answer for Transplantations during the COVID-19 Pandemic?

Investigators compared 32 patients who underwent unrelated donor (UD) hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) using cryopreserved peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) during the COVID-19 pandemic with 32 patients who underwent UD HSCT using fresh PBSC in the previous period.
[Bone Marrow Transplantation]
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GBT Awards $450,000 in ACCEL Grants to Improve Access to Care in Sickle Cell Disease

Global Blood Therapeutics, Inc. has awarded approximately $450,000 to US community-based organizations and institutions as part of the company’s 2021 Access to Excellent Care for Sickle Cell Patients (ACCEL) Grant Program. The program provides support to accelerate the development of sustainable access-to-care programs for people living with sickle cell disease.
[Global Blood Therapeutic, Inc.]
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Human Kidney Spheroids and Monolayers Provide Insights into SARS-CoV-2 Renal Interactions

Using ex vivo cell models, investigators analyzed SARS-Cov2 interactions with kidney tubular cells and assessed direct tubular injury. These models comprised primary human kidney epithelial cells and more quiescent three-dimensional kidney spheroids.
[Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology]
Omer, D., Pleniceanu, O., Gnatek, Y., Namestnikov, M., Cohen-Zontag, O., Goldberg, S., Friedman, Y. E., Friedman, N., Mandelboim, M., Vitner, E., Achdout, H., Avraham, R., Zahavy, E., Israely, T., Mayan, H., & Dekel, B. (2021). Human Kidney Spheroids and Monolayers Provide Insights into SARS-CoV-2 Renal Interactions. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology. https://doi.org/10.1681/ASN.2020111546 Cite
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Distinct Antibody and Memory B Cell Responses in SARS-CoV-2 Naïve and Recovered Individuals Following mRNA Vaccination

Researchers showed that the SARS-CoV-2 envelope protein alone is able to cause acute respiratory distress syndrome-like damages in vitro and in vivo.
[Science Immunology]
Goel, R. R., Apostolidis, S. A., Painter, M. M., Mathew, D., Pattekar, A., Kuthuru, O., Gouma, S., Hicks, P., Meng, W., Rosenfeld, A. M., Dysinger, S., Lundgreen, K. A., Kuri-Cervantes, L., Adamski, S., Hicks, A., Korte, S., Oldridge, D. A., Baxter, A. E., Giles, J. R., … Wherry, E. J. (2021). Distinct antibody and memory B cell responses in SARS-CoV-2 naïve and recovered individuals following mRNA vaccination. Science Immunology, 6(58). https://doi.org/10.1126/sciimmunol.abi6950 Cite
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Glycan Reactive Anti-HIV-1 Antibodies Bind the SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein but Do Not Block Viral Entry

Scientists report that antibodies that displayed high levels of cross-reactivity with the SARS-CoV-2 spike, were incapable of neutralizing pseudoviruses expressing SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins and were unlikely to mediate ADE via FcγRII receptor engagement.
[Scientific Reports]
Mannar, D., Leopold, K., & Subramaniam, S. (2021). Glycan reactive anti-HIV-1 antibodies bind the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein but do not block viral entry. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 12448. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-91746-7 Cite
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Memory B Cells Targeting SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein and Their Dependence on CD4+ T Cell Help

Scientists investigated SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific memory B cells and their dependence on CD4+ T cell help in different settings of COVID-19.
[Cell Reports]
Pušnik, J., Richter, E., Schulte, B., Dolscheid-Pommerich, R., Bode, C., Putensen, C., Hartmann, G., Alter, G., & Streeck, H. (2021). Memory B cells targeting SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and their dependence on CD4+ T cell help. Cell Reports, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2021.109320 Cite
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Molecular Mechanism of Interaction between SARS-CoV-2 and Host Cells and Interventional Therapy

Scientists review the current knowledge and crucial information about how SARS-CoV-2 attaches on the surface of host cells through a variety of receptors, such as ACE2, neuropilin-1, AXL, and antibody–FcγR complexes.
[Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy]
Zhang, Q., Xiang, R., Huo, S., Zhou, Y., Jiang, S., Wang, Q., & Yu, F. (2021). Molecular mechanism of interaction between SARS-CoV-2 and host cells and interventional therapy. Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy, 6(1), 1–19. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41392-021-00653-w Cite
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Natural Killer Cells in Antiviral Immunity

The authors review recent insights into the role of NK cells in viral infections, with particular emphasis on human studies.
[Nature Reviews Immunology]
Björkström, N. K., Strunz, B., & Ljunggren, H.-G. (2021). Natural killer cells in antiviral immunity. Nature Reviews Immunology, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41577-021-00558-3 Cite
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MigVax’s Subunit Oral COVID-19 Vaccine Preclinical Trial Demonstrates Effectivity as a Booster

MigVax Ltd., a startup company developing an oral subunit vaccine against COVID-19, today announced promising results from preclinical tests that demonstrated the effectivity of its MigVax-101 subunit oral vaccine as a booster for previously vaccinated persons.
[MigVax Ltd. (BusinessWire, Inc.)]
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Metformin Inhibition of Mitochondrial ATP and DNA Synthesis Abrogates NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation and Pulmonary Inflammation

Researchers showed that metformin inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome activation and interleukin (IL)-1β production in cultured and alveolar macrophages along with inflammasome-independent IL-6 secretion, thus attenuating lipopolysaccharide- and SARS-CoV-2-induced Acute respiratory distress syndrome.
[Immunity]
Xian, H., Liu, Y., Nilsson, A. R., Gatchalian, R., Crother, T. R., Tourtellotte, W. G., Zhang, Y., Aleman-Muench, G. R., Lewis, G., Chen, W., Kang, S., Luevanos, M., Trudler, D., Lipton, S. A., Soroosh, P., Teijaro, J., Torre, J. C. de la, Arditi, M., Karin, M., & Sanchez-Lopez, E. (2021). Metformin inhibition of mitochondrial ATP and DNA synthesis abrogates NLRP3 inflammasome activation and pulmonary inflammation. Immunity, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.immuni.2021.05.004 Cite
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