Investigators studied the frequencies and activation profiles of dendritic cells and monocytes present in the blood and lung of COVID-19 patients with different clinical severity in comparison with healthy individuals.
[Journal of Clinical Investigation]
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Sánchez-Cerrillo, I., Landete, P., Aldave, B., Sánchez-Alonso, S., Sánchez-Azofra, A., Marcos-Jiménez, A., Ávalos, E., Alcaraz-Serna, A., Santos, I. de los, Mateu-Albero, T., Esparcia, L., López-Sanz, C., Martínez-Fleta, P., Gabrie, L., Guerola, L. del C., Fuente, H. de la, Calzada, M. J., González-Álvaro, I., Alfranca, A., … Martín-Gayo, E. (2020). COVID-19 severity associates with pulmonary redistribution of CD1c+ DC and inflammatory transitional and nonclassical monocytes. The Journal of Clinical Investigation. https://doi.org/10.1172/JCI140335 Cite
Early priming of CD4+ T cells against tumor-derived antigens required cDC1, and this was not simply because they transport antigens to lymph nodes for processing by cDC2, as selective deletion of major histocompatibility class II molecules in cDC1 also prevented early CD4+ T cell priming.
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Ferris, S. T., Durai, V., Wu, R., Theisen, D. J., Ward, J. P., Bern, M. D., Davidson, J. T., Bagadia, P., Liu, T., Briseño, C. G., Li, L., Gillanders, W. E., Wu, G. F., Yokoyama, W. M., Murphy, T. L., Schreiber, R. D., & Murphy, K. M. (2020). cDC1 prime and are licensed by CD4 + T cells to induce anti-tumour immunity. Nature, 1–6. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2611-3 Cite
The authors believe that currently available strategies for vaccines that target dendritic cells or use them to present antitumor antigens could be integrated into existing clinical practice using prime–boost approaches.
[Nature Reviews Drug Discovery]
Investigators examined the CD34+c-Kit+Flt3+ myeloid progenitor population as potential mutation carrier in all langerhans cell histiocytosis disease manifestations.
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Scientists describe our current knowledge of the complex interplay between SARS-CoV-2 infection and the IFN system, highlighting some of the gaps that need to be filled for a better understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms.
Investigators demonstrated two strategies to concentrate HIV envelope immunogens in follicles, via the formation of immune complexes or by employing self-assembling protein nanoparticles for multivalent display of envelope antigens.
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Martin, J. T., Cottrell, C. A., Antanasijevic, A., Carnathan, D. G., Cossette, B. J., Enemuo, C. A., Gebru, E. H., Choe, Y., Viviano, F., Fischinger, S., Tokatlian, T., Cirelli, K. M., Ueda, G., Copps, J., Schiffner, T., Menis, S., Alter, G., Schief, W. R., Crotty, S., … Irvine, D. J. (2020). Targeting HIV Env immunogens to B cell follicles in nonhuman primates through immune complex or protein nanoparticle formulations. Npj Vaccines, 5(1), 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41541-020-00223-1 Cite
Immunogenic cell death was determined by assessing the release of damage-associated molecular patterns in the prostate cancer-derived cell lines LNCaP, 22RV1 and PC-3.
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Researchers found that conditioned media (CM) from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) stimulated with dual-acting TLR7/8 and TLR2/7 agonists were more potent drivers of inhibition of hepatisis e and hepatitis s antigen secretion from hepatitis B virus-infected primary human hepatocytes than CM from PBMCs stimulated with single-acting TLR7 or TLR9 agonists.
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Janovec, V., Hodek, J., Clarova, K., Hofman, T., Dostalik, P., Fronek, J., Chlupac, J., Chaperot, L., Durand, S., Baumert, T. F., Pichova, I., Lubyova, B., Hirsch, I., & Weber, J. (2020). Toll-like receptor dual-acting agonists are potent inducers of PBMC-produced cytokines that inhibit hepatitis B virus production in primary human hepatocytes. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 12767. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-69614-7 Cite
Compared with healthy donors, ebola virus disease (EVD) survivors exhibited increased markers of blood markers of inflammation, intestinal tissue damage, T cell and B cell activation and a depletion of circulating dendritic cells.
Researchers observed Oropouche orthobunyavirus replication in human leukocytes lineages as THP-1 monocytes, Jeko-1 B cells and Jurkat T cells. Cell viability and viral particle detection were maintained in these cells, even after successive passages.
The knockdown of the hematopoietic cell–specific transcription factors PU.1 and IRF4 decreased PD-L2 expression in GM-CSF-induced mouse bone marrow–derived dendritic cells.
[Journal of Immunology]
Investigators revealed malignant signatures capturing intratumoral transcriptional heterogeneity and predicting aggressiveness of malignant cells. Diverse immune cell subtypes were identified, including novel subtypes such as CLEC9A+ dendritic cells