Cord Blood DNA Methylation Modifications in Infants Are Associated with White Matter Microstructure in the Context of Prenatal Maternal Depression and Anxiety

To determine if infants of women with depression and anxiety symptoms exhibit epigenetic modifications linked to neurodevelopmental changes, 52 umbilical cord bloods were profiled.
[Scientific Reports]
Dean, D. C., Madrid, A., Planalp, E. M., Moody, J. F., Papale, L. A., Knobel, K. M., Wood, E. K., McAdams, R. M., Coe, C. L., Hill Goldsmith, H., Davidson, R. J., Alisch, R. S., & Kling, P. J. (2021). Cord blood DNA methylation modifications in infants are associated with white matter microstructure in the context of prenatal maternal depression and anxiety. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 12181. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-91642-0 Cite
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Cross-Platform Validation of Neurotransmitter Release Impairments in Schizophrenia Patient-Derived NRXN1-Mutant Neurons

Scientists described a multicenter effort to test the generality of this pivotal observation, using independent analyses at two laboratories of patient-derived and newly engineered human neurons with heterozygous NRXN1 deletions.
[Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America]
Pak, C., Danko, T., Mirabella, V. R., Wang, J., Liu, Y., Vangipuram, M., Grieder, S., Zhang, X., Ward, T., Huang, Y.-W. A., Jin, K., Dexheimer, P., Bardes, E., Mitelpunkt, A., Ma, J., McLachlan, M., Moore, J. C., Qu, P., Purmann, C., … Südhof, T. C. (2021). Cross-platform validation of neurotransmitter release impairments in schizophrenia patient-derived NRXN1-mutant neurons. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 118(22). https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2025598118 Cite
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DayTwo, a Leader in Precision Medicine with the World’s Largest Microbiome Discovery Platform, Announces New Behavioral Science Approach for Diabetes Care

DayTwo, Inc. announced that it has launched a unique methodology for addressing depression in people with diabetes. The new solution, called EATS uses psychological techniques to overcome emotional barriers to chronic condition management.
[DayTwo, Inc. (Business Wire, Inc.)]
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VistaGen Therapeutics Initiates PALISADE Phase 3 Trial of PH94B in Social Anxiety Disorder

VistaGen Therapeutics Inc. announced the initiation of its PALISADE Phase III clinical program with the PALISADE-1 Phase III trial, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of PH94B for the acute treatment of anxiety in adults with Social Anxiety Disorder.
[VistaGen Therapeutics Inc. (Globenews Wire, Inc.)]
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Attractor Cortical Neurodynamics, Schizophrenia, and Depression

The author shows how understanding differences in the stability of attractor network systems in different brain areas can help to provide a scientific basis for relating some mental disorders to the operation of the underlying brain systems.
[Translational Psychiatry]
Attractor cortical neurodynamics, schizophrenia, and depression | Translational Psychiatry. (n.d.). Retrieved April 12, 2021, from https://www.nature.com/articles/s41398-021-01333-7 Cite
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Does the Epithelial Barrier Hypothesis Explain the Increase in Allergy, Autoimmunity and Other Chronic Conditions?

Scientists discuss how the immune responses to dysbiotic microbiota that cross the damaged barrier may be involved in the development of allergic and autoimmune diseases.
[Nature Reviews Immunology]
Akdis, C. A. (2021). Does the epithelial barrier hypothesis explain the increase in allergy, autoimmunity and other chronic conditions? Nature Reviews Immunology, 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41577-021-00538-7 Cite
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HDL Biodistribution and Brain Receptors in Zebrafish, Using HDLs as Vectors for Targeting Endothelial Cells and Neural Progenitors

Scarb1 gene expression was detected in neural stem cells (NSCs), suggesting a possible role of high density lipoproteins (HDLs) in NSC activity.
[Scientific Reports]
Sulliman, N. C., Ghaddar, B., Gence, L., Patche, J., Rastegar, S., Meilhac, O., & Diotel, N. (2021). HDL biodistribution and brain receptors in zebrafish, using HDLs as vectors for targeting endothelial cells and neural progenitors. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 6439. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-85183-9 Cite
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The Role of Neuropeptide Somatostatin in the Brain and Its Application in Treating Neurological Disorders

Investigators summarize the current knowledge on somatostatin (SST) expression and function in the brain. In particular, they describe the physiological roles of SST-positive interneurons in the cortex.
[Experimental and Molecular Medicine]
Song, Y.-H., Yoon, J., & Lee, S.-H. (2021). The role of neuropeptide somatostatin in the brain and its application in treating neurological disorders. Experimental & Molecular Medicine, 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1038/s12276-021-00580-4 Cite
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Circadian Rhythms in Bipolar Disorder Patient-Derived Neurons Predict Lithium Response: Preliminary Studies

Scientists used induced pluripotent stem cells to culture neuronal precursor cells and glutamatergic neurons from bipolar disorder patients characterized for lithium responsiveness and matched controls.
[Molecular Psychiatry]
Mishra, H. K., Ying, N. M., Luis, A., Wei, H., Nguyen, M., Nakhla, T., Vandenburgh, S., Alda, M., Berrettini, W. H., Brennand, K. J., Calabrese, J. R., Coryell, W. H., Frye, M. A., Gage, F. H., Gershon, E. S., McInnis, M. G., Nievergelt, C. M., Nurnberger, J. I., Shilling, P. D., … McCarthy, M. J. (2021). Circadian rhythms in bipolar disorder patient-derived neurons predict lithium response: preliminary studies. Molecular Psychiatry, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41380-021-01048-7 Cite
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The Effect of Electroconvulsive Therapy on Neuroinflammation, Behavior and Amyloid Plaques in the 5xFAD Mouse Model of Alzheimer’s Disease

Researchers nvestigated the short- and long-term effects of electroconvulsive therapy on neuroinflammation and amyloid-beta accumulation.
[Scientific Reports]
Svensson, M., Olsson, G., Yang, Y., Bachiller, S., Ekemohn, M., Ekstrand, J., & Deierborg, T. (2021). The effect of electroconvulsive therapy on neuroinflammation, behavior and amyloid plaques in the 5xFAD mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 4910. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-83998-0 Cite
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Constitutive Activity of Serotonin Receptor 6 Regulates Human Cerebral Organoids Formation and Depression-like Behaviors

The authors found that 5-HT6R was highly expressed in human NSCs and activation of the receptor promoted self-renewal of human NSCs, and thus induced the expansion and folding of human cerebral organoids; dysfunction of receptor or inhibition of its constitutive activity resulted in the premature differentiation of NSCs,
[Stem Cell Reports]
Constitutive Activity of Serotonin Receptor 6 Regulates Human Cerebral Organoids Formation and Depression-like Behaviors: Stem Cell Reports. (n.d.). Retrieved January 5, 2021, from https://www.cell.com/stem-cell-reports/fulltext/S2213-6711(20)30463-X Cite
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