Differential Histone Distribution Patterns in Induced Asymmetrically Dividing Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells

The authors report that mouse ESCs with Wnt3a-bead induction displayed nonoverlapping preexisting (old) versus newly synthesized (new) histone H3 patterns, but mouse ESCs without Wnt3a beads had largely overlapping patterns.
[Cell Reports]
Ma, B., Trieu, T.-J., Cheng, J., Zhou, S., Tang, Q., Xie, J., Liu, J.-L., Zhao, K., Habib, S. J., & Chen, X. (2020). Differential Histone Distribution Patterns in Induced Asymmetrically Dividing Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells. Cell Reports, 32(6). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.108003 Cite
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Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells: Hope in the Treatment of Diseases, including Muscular Dystrophies

With the clinical trials and extensive basic research studying the biology of iPSCs, a promising future for human cell-based therapies using iPSCs seems to be increasingly clear and close.
[International Journal of Molecular Sciences]
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Three-Dimensional Otic Neuronal Progenitor Spheroids Derived from Human Embryonic Stem Cells

Investigators generated human ESC-derived otic neuronal progenitor spheroids—an aggregate form conducive to differentiation, transplantation, and prolonged cell survival—to optimize conditions for their transplantation.
[tissue engineering]
Heuer, R. A., Nella, K. T., Chang, H.-T., Coots, K. S., Oleksijew, A. M., Roque, C. B., Silva, L. H. A., McGuire, T. L., Homma, K., & Matsuoka, A. J. (2020). Three-Dimensional Otic Neuronal Progenitor Spheroids Derived from Human Embryonic Stem Cells. Tissue Engineering Part A. https://doi.org/10.1089/ten.tea.2020.0078 Cite
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MicroRNA-Dependent Inhibition of PFN2 Orchestrates ERK Activation and Pluripotent State Transitions by Regulating Endocytosis

The authors showed that the miR-290-PFN2 pathway regulates many aspects of ESC biology. In the absence of miRNAs, PFN2 was up-regulated in ESCs, with a resulting decrease in endocytosis.
[Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America]
Sangokoya, C., & Blelloch, R. (2020). MicroRNA-dependent inhibition of PFN2 orchestrates ERK activation and pluripotent state transitions by regulating endocytosis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2002750117 Cite
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Exosomes — Beyond Stem Cells for Cardiac Protection and Repair

Scientists discuss the therapeutic benefit of exosomes secreted by stem and progenitor cells in preclinical models of ischemic heart disease.
[Stem Cells]
Balbi, C., & Vassalli, G. (n.d.). Exosomes — Beyond Stem Cells for Cardiac Protection and Repair. STEM CELLS, n/a(n/a). https://doi.org/10.1002/stem.3261 Cite
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Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells: Hope in the Treatment of Diseases, Including Muscular Dystrophies

iPSC cells are laboratory-produced cells that combine the biological advantages of somatic adult and stem cells for cell-based therapy. The reprogramming of cells, such as fibroblasts, to an ESC-like state is done by the ectopic expression of transcription factors responsible for generating embryonic stem cell properties.
[International Journal of Molecular Sciences]
Gois Beghini, D., Iwao Horita, S., Cascabulho, C. M., Anastácio Alves, L., & Henriques-Pons, A. (2020). Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells: Hope in the Treatment of Diseases, including Muscular Dystrophies. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 21(15), 5467. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21155467 Cite
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Continuous ES/Feeder Cell-Sorting Device Using Dielectrophoresis and Controlled Fluid Flow

To culture PSCs on feeder cell layers, the elimination of feeder cells is required for biological or gene analysis and for cell passage. Therefore, a simple and cost-effective cell sorting technology is required. The authors focused on dielectrophoresis phenomena for cell separation because these do not require any fluorescent or magnetic dyes or antibodies.
[Micromachines]
Takahashi, Y., & Miyata, S. (2020). Continuous ES/Feeder Cell-Sorting Device Using Dielectrophoresis and Controlled Fluid Flow. Micromachines, 11(8), 734. https://doi.org/10.3390/mi11080734 Cite
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Inhibition of Protein Kinase D by CID755673 Promotes Maintenance of the Pluripotency of Embryonic Stem Cells

Investigators showed that the protein kinase D inhibitor CID755673 was able to maintain the undifferentiated state of mouse ESCs in combination with the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase inhibitor.
[Development]
Zhu, Z., Zhang, Y., Wang, X., Wang, X., & Ye, S.-D. (2020). Inhibition of protein kinase D by CID755673 promotes maintenance of the pluripotency of embryonic stem cells. Development. https://doi.org/10.1242/dev.185264 Cite
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PR-DUB Maintains Expression of Critical Genes through FOXK1/2 and ASXL1/2/3-Dependent Recruitment to Chromatin and H2AK119ub1 Deubiquitination

Scientists showed that BAP1 was dependent on the ASXL proteins and FOXK1/2 in facilitating gene activation across the genome. Although PR-DUB previously was shown to cooperate with PRC2, they observed minimal overlap and functional interaction between BAP1 and PRC2 in embryonic stem cells.
[Genome Research]
Kolovos, P., Nishimura, K., Sankar, A., Sidoli, S., Cloos, P. A., Helin, K., & Christensen, J. (2020). PR-DUB maintains expression of critical genes through FOXK1/2 and ASXL1/2/3-dependent recruitment to chromatin and H2AK119ub1 deubiquitination. Genome Research, gr.261016.120. https://doi.org/10.1101/gr.261016.120 Cite
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Current Concepts in Tumor-Derived Organoids

Organoids offer a new and exciting platform for studying cancer and directing personalised therapies. This review highlights how organoids are shaping the future of cancer research.
[British Journal of Cancer]
Porter, R. J., Murray, G. I., & McLean, M. H. (2020). Current concepts in tumour-derived organoids. British Journal of Cancer, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41416-020-0993-5 Cite
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LIF Is Essential for ISC Function and Protects against Radiation-Induced Gastrointestinal Syndrome

Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) is a cytokine essential for maintaining pluripotency of mouse ESCs. Scientists found that LIF was present in the intestinal stem cell (ISC) niche in crypts and critical for the function of ISCs in maintaining the intestinal epithelial homeostasis and regeneration.
[Cell Death & Disease]
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Modulating Electrophysiology of Motor Neural Networks via Optogenetic Stimulation during Neurogenesis and Synaptogenesis

Researchers used channelrhodopsin-2 transfected mouse ESC-derived motor neurons to explore short and long-term programming of neural networks by using optical stimulation implemented during neurogenesis and synaptogenesis.
[Scientific Reports]
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