Differentiation Induction of Human Stem Cells for Corneal Epithelial Regeneration

Stem cells can be induced to differentiate to corneal epithelial cells and used in treatment in corneal epithelium deficiency. Multipotent stem cells (MSCs) and pluripotent stem cells (ESCs and iPSCs) are promising cells to address the problem. Various protocols have been developed to induce differentiation of the stem cells into corneal epithelial cells.
[International Journal of Molecular Sciences]
Theerakittayakorn, K., Thi Nguyen, H., Musika, J., Kunkanjanawan, H., Imsoonthornruksa, S., Somredngan, S., Ketudat-Cairns, M., & Parnpai, R. (2020). Differentiation Induction of Human Stem Cells for Corneal Epithelial Regeneration. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 21(21), 7834. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21217834 Cite
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A Concise Review on Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes for Personalized Regenerative Medicine

Investigators provide a concise update on the generation of iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes (CMs) and their application in personalized cardiac regenerative medicine. They also discuss the current limitations and challenges in the application of iPSC-derived CMs.
[Stem Cell Reviews and Reports]
Pushp, P., Nogueira, D. E. S., Rodrigues, C. A. V., Ferreira, F. C., Cabral, J. M. S., & Gupta, M. K. (2020). A Concise Review on Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes for Personalized Regenerative Medicine. Stem Cell Reviews and Reports. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12015-020-10061-2 Cite
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G9a Plays Distinct Roles in Maintaining DNA Methylation, Retrotransposon Silencing, and Chromatin Looping

Scientists observed widespread DNA methylation loss in G9a depleted and catalytic mutant ESCs. Furthermore, they defined how G9a regulates chromatin accessibility, epigenetic modifications, and transcriptional silencing in both catalytic-dependent and -independent manners.
[Cell Reports]
Jiang, Q., Ang, J. Y. J., Lee, A. Y., Cao, Q., Li, K. Y., Yip, K. Y., & Leung, D. C. Y. (2020). G9a Plays Distinct Roles in Maintaining DNA Methylation, Retrotransposon Silencing, and Chromatin Looping. Cell Reports, 33(4). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.108315 Cite
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AgeX Therapeutics Sublicenses Stem Cell Line ESI-053 To ImStem Biotechnology For Development Of Cell Therapy Candidate IMS001 For COVID-19 And Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

AgeX Therapeutics, Inc. and ImStem Biotechnology, Inc. announced that ImStem has obtained from AgeX a non-exclusive, royalty-bearing sublicense to use AgeX’s clinical-grade ESC line ESI-053 to derive ImStem’s investigational MSC product candidate IMS001 for development in COVID-19 as well as acute respiratory distress syndrome from other causes.
[AgeX Therapeutics]
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Visualization and Quantification of Dynamic Intercellular Coupling in Human Embryonic Stem Cells Using Single Cell Sonoporation

The authors quantify cell–cell permeability based on dye diffusion using mass transport models. Their results revealed heterogeneous intercellular connectivity and a variety of spatiotemporal characteristics of intercellular Ca2+ waves in human ESC colonies induced by sonoporation of single cells.
[Scientific Reports]
Fan, Z., Xue, X., Fu, J., & Deng, C. X. (2020). Visualization and quantification of dynamic intercellular coupling in human embryonic stem cells using single cell sonoporation. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 18253. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-75347-4 Cite
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Single-Cell RNA-Seq Reveals that CD9 Is a Negative Marker of Glucose-Responsive Pancreatic β-like Cells Derived from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

Scientists observed more CD9+C-PEPTIDE+ β cells in the fetal than in the adult cadaveric islets and more Ki67+ proliferating cells among CD9+ fetal β cells. Their experiments showed CD9 as a cell-surface marker for negative enrichment of glucose-responsive β-like cells differentiated from human PSCs.
[Stem Cell Reports]
Li, X., Yang, K. Y., Chan, V. W., Leung, K. T., Zhang, X.-B., Wong, A. S., Chong, C. C. N., Wang, C. C., Ku, M., & Lui, K. O. (2020). Single-Cell RNA-Seq Reveals that CD9 Is a Negative Marker of Glucose-Responsive Pancreatic β-like Cells Derived from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells. Stem Cell Reports, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stemcr.2020.09.009 Cite
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Complete Inhibition of ABCB1 and ABCG2 at the Blood–Brain Barrier by Co-Infusion of Erlotinib and Tariquidar to Improve Brain Delivery of the Model ABCB1/ABCG2 Substrate [11C]erlotinib

Scientists examined the feasibility of simultaneous ABCB1/ABCG2 inhibition with i.v. co-infusion of erlotinib and tariquidar by studying brain distribution of the model ABCB1/ABCG2 substrate [11C]erlotinib in mice and rhesus macaques with PET. Tolerability of the erlotinib/tariquidar combination was assessed in human embryonic stem cell-derived cerebral organoids.
[Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism]
Tournier, N., Goutal, S., Mairinger, S., Lozano, I. H., Filip, T., Sauberer, M., Caillé, F., Breuil, L., Stanek, J., Freeman, A. F., Novarino, G., Truillet, C., Wanek, T., & Langer, O. (2020). Complete inhibition of ABCB1 and ABCG2 at the blood–brain barrier by co-infusion of erlotinib and tariquidar to improve brain delivery of the model ABCB1/ABCG2 substrate [11C]erlotinib: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism. https://doi.org/10.1177/0271678X20965500 Cite
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Single-Cell RNA-Seq Reveals that CD9 Is a Negative Marker of Glucose-Responsive Pancreatic β-like Cells Derived from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

Researchers purified β-like cells for spontaneous formation of islet-like organoids against CD9, and found significantly more NKX6.1+MAFA+C-PEPTIDE+ β-like cells in the CD9− than in the CD9+ population.
[Cell Stem Cell]
Li, X., Yang, K. Y., Chan, V. W., Leung, K. T., Zhang, X.-B., Wong, A. S., Chong, C. C. N., Wang, C. C., Ku, M., & Lui, K. O. (2020). Single-Cell RNA-Seq Reveals that CD9 Is a Negative Marker of Glucose-Responsive Pancreatic β-like Cells Derived from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells. Stem Cell Reports, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stemcr.2020.09.009 Cite
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Cell-Cycle-Dependent ERK Signaling Dynamics Direct Fate Specification in the Mammalian Preimplantation Embryo

Endogenous tagging of Nanog in ESCs revealed that ERK inhibition promoted enhanced stabilization of NANOG protein after mitosis. Scientists showed that cell cycle, signaling, and differentiation are coordinated during preimplantation development.
[Developmental Cell]
Pokrass, M. J., Ryan, K. A., Xin, T., Pielstick, B., Timp, W., Greco, V., & Regot, S. (2020). Cell-Cycle-Dependent ERK Signaling Dynamics Direct Fate Specification in the Mammalian Preimplantation Embryo. Developmental Cell, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.devcel.2020.09.013 Cite
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Application of Human Amniotic Epithelial Cells in Regenerative Medicine: A Systematic Review

Investigators focus on summarizing the biological characteristics of human amniotic epithelial cells, therapeutic applications, and recent advances in treating various tissue injuries and disorders.
[Stem Cell Research & Therapy]
Zhang, Q., & Lai, D. (2020). Application of human amniotic epithelial cells in regenerative medicine: a systematic review. Stem Cell Research & Therapy, 11(1), 439. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13287-020-01951-w Cite
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Functional Diversification of SRSF Protein Kinase to Control Ubiquitin-Dependent Neurodevelopmental Signaling

Scientists investigated the expression and function of SRPK family members in human pluripotent stem cells and the brain. SRPK1, SRPK2, and RNF12 were expressed in human iPSCs, and quantitative total proteomic analysis confirmed the expression of these components and REX1.
[Developmental Cell]
Bustos, F., Segarra-Fas, A., Nardocci, G., Cassidy, A., Antico, O., Davidson, L., Brandenburg, L., Macartney, T. J., Toth, R., Hastie, C. J., Moran, J., Gourlay, R., Varghese, J., Soares, R. F., Montecino, M., & Findlay, G. M. (2020). Functional Diversification of SRSF Protein Kinase to Control Ubiquitin-Dependent Neurodevelopmental Signaling. Developmental Cell, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.devcel.2020.09.025 Cite
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