Gene Deconvolution Reveals Aberrant Liver Regeneration and Immune Cell Infiltration in Alcohol-Associated Hepatitis

Investigators combined single‐cell RNA‐seq data from healthy livers and peripheral immune cells to measure cell proportions in chronic liver diseases.
[Hepatology]
Kim, A., Wu, X., Allende, D. S., & Nagy, L. E. (n.d.). Gene deconvolution reveals aberrant liver regeneration and immune cell infiltration in alcohol-associated hepatitis. Hepatology, n/a(n/a). https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1002/hep.31759 Cite
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HIF2α is a Direct Regulator of Neutrophil Motility

Scientists revealed that activation of the Hypoxia Inducible Factor-2 (HIF2α) due to deficiency of HIF-prolyl hydroxylase domain protein-2 boosts neutrophil migration specifically through highly confined microenvironments.
[Blood]
Sormendi, S., Deygas, M., Sinha, A., Bernard, M. L. M., Krüger, A., Koutzelis, I., Le Lay, G. M., Sáez, P. J., Gerlach, M., Franke, K., Meneses, A., Kräter, M., Palladini, A., Guck, J., Coskun, Ü., Chavakis, T., Vargas, P., & Wielockx, B. (2021). HIF2α is a Direct Regulator of Neutrophil Motility. Blood, blood.2020007505. https://doi.org/10.1182/blood.2020007505 Cite
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Beyond PROX1: Transcriptional, Epigenetic, and Noncoding RNA Regulation of Lymphatic Identity and Function

Scientists discuss recent insights into new players whose identification has contributed to deciphering the lymphatic regulatory code.
[Developmental Cell]
Ducoli, L., & Detmar, M. (2021). Beyond PROX1: transcriptional, epigenetic, and noncoding RNA regulation of lymphatic identity and function. Developmental Cell, 56(4), 406–426. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.devcel.2021.01.018 Cite
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Multiple Cell Types Contribute to the Atherosclerotic Lesion Fibrous Cap by PDGFRβ and Bioenergetic Mechanisms

Researchers showed that smooth muscle cell (SMC)-specific knockout of the Pdgfrb gene, which encodes platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFRβ), in Apoe−/− mice fed a Western diet for 18 weeks resulted in brachiocephalic artery lesions nearly devoid of SMCs but with no changes in lesion size, remodelling or indices of stability, including the percentage of ACTA2+ fibrous cap cells.
[Nature Metabolism]
Newman, A. A. C., Serbulea, V., Baylis, R. A., Shankman, L. S., Bradley, X., Alencar, G. F., Owsiany, K., Deaton, R. A., Karnewar, S., Shamsuzzaman, S., Salamon, A., Reddy, M. S., Guo, L., Finn, A., Virmani, R., Cherepanova, O. A., & Owens, G. K. (2021). Multiple cell types contribute to the atherosclerotic lesion fibrous cap by PDGFRβ and bioenergetic mechanisms. Nature Metabolism, 3(2), 166–181. https://doi.org/10.1038/s42255-020-00338-8 Cite
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Development and Application of Endothelial Cells Derived From Pluripotent Stem Cells in Microphysiological Systems Models

Investigators highlight how knowledge of vascular endothelial cell (EC) development in vivo is used to differentiate induced pluripotent stem cells into ECs.
[Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine]
Kennedy, C. C., Brown, E. E., Abutaleb, N. O., & Truskey, G. A. (2021). Development and Application of Endothelial Cells Derived From Pluripotent Stem Cells in Microphysiological Systems Models. Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine, 8. https://doi.org/10.3389/fcvm.2021.625016 Cite
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Exosomal LINC00174 Derived from Vascular Endothelial Cells Attenuates Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury via p53-Mediated Autophagy and Apoptosis

The authors investigated the regulation of specific long non-coding RNAs on the progression of ischemia/reperfusion injury. They identified and characterized the exosomes derived from mouse primary aortic endothelial cells.
[Molecular Therapy-Nucleic Acids]
Su, Q., Lv, X.-W., Xu, Y.-L., Cai, R.-P., Dai, R.-X., Yang, X.-H., Zhao, W.-K., & Kong, B.-H. (2021). Exosomal LINC00174 derived from vascular endothelial cells attenuates myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury via p53-mediated autophagy and apoptosis. Molecular Therapy - Nucleic Acids, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.omtn.2021.02.005 Cite
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Disturbance of Cellular Homeostasis as a Molecular Risk Evaluation of Human Endothelial Cells Exposed to Nanoparticles

Researchers determined the effect of different types of nanoparticles on human endothelial cells and examined the types of toxicity responses they can induce.
[Scientific Reports]
Wigner, P., Zielinski, K., Michlewska, S., Danielska, P., Marczak, A., Ricci, E. J., Santos-Oliveira, R., & Szwed, M. (2021). Disturbance of cellular homeostasis as a molecular risk evaluation of human endothelial cells exposed to nanoparticles. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 3849. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-83291-0 Cite
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Comparative Engraftment and Clonality of Macaque Hematopoietic Stem/Progenitor Cells Expanded on Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells Versus Non-Expanded Cells

Short and long-term engraftment were comparable for an engineered endothelial cell line (E-HUVEC) expanded and the non-expanded hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPCs) in both animals, despite extensive proliferation of CD34+ cells during eight days of ex vivo culture for the E-HUVEC HSPCs, and optimization of harvesting and infusion of HSPCs co-cultured on E-HUVEC in the second animal.
[Molecular Therapy-Methods & Clinical Development]
Srivastava, S. K., Truitt, L. L., Wu, C., Glaser, A., Nolan, D. J., Ginsberg, M., Espinoza, D. A., Koelle, S., Yabe, I. M., Yu, K.-R., Hong, S., Sellers, S., Krouse, A., Bonifacino, A., Metzger, M., Dagur, P. K., Donahue, R. E., Dunbar, C. E., & Panch, S. R. (2021). Comparative Engraftment and Clonality of Macaque Hematopoietic Stem/Progenitor Cells Expanded on Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells Versus Non-Expanded Cells. Molecular Therapy - Methods & Clinical Development, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.omtm.2021.02.009 Cite
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Rapid Depletion of Intratumoral Regulatory T Cells Induces Synchronized CD8 T and NK Cell Activation and IFN-γ-dependent Tumor Vessel Regression

To better understand the roles of intratumoral Tregs, the authors selectively depleted tumor-infiltrating T regulatory cells using anti-CD25-F(ab′)2 near-infrared photoimmunotherapy.
[Cancer Research]
Kurebayashi, Y., Olkowski, C. P., Lane, K. C., Vasalatiy, O. V., Xu, B. C., Okada, R., Furusawa, A., Choyke, P. L., Kobayashi, H., & Sato, N. (2021). Rapid Depletion of Intratumoral Regulatory T cells Induces Synchronized CD8 T and NK Cell Activation and IFN-γ-dependent Tumor Vessel Regression. Cancer Research. https://doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-20-2673 Cite
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Reprogramming Transcription Factors Oct4 and Sox2 Induces a BRD-Dependent Immunosuppressive Transcriptome in GBM-Propagating Cells

Induction and function of BRD/H3k27Ac-dependent immunosuppressive genes played a role in the immunosuppressive phenotype of stem-like tumor-propagating cells in GBM.
[Cancer Research]
Laterra, J., Ma, T., Hu, C., Lal, B., Zhou, W., Ma, Y., Ying, M., Prinos, P., Quiñones-Hinojosa, A., Lim, M., & Li, Y. (2021). Reprogramming transcription factors Oct4 and Sox2 induces a BRD-dependent immunosuppressive transcriptome in GBM-propagating cells. Cancer Research. https://doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-20-2489 Cite
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Blood-Brain Barrier Alterations in Human Brain Tumors Revealed by Genome-Wide Transcriptomic Profiling

Researchers employed RNA sequencing to characterize transcriptional alterations of endothelial cells isolated from primary and secondary human brain tumors.
[Neuro-Oncology]
Schaffenrath, J., Wyss, T., He, L., Rushing, E. J., Delorenzi, M., Vasella, F., Regli, L., Neidert, M. C., & Keller, A. (2021). Blood-brain barrier alterations in human brain tumors revealed by genome-wide transcriptomic profiling. Neuro-Oncology, noab022. https://doi.org/10.1093/neuonc/noab022 Cite
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