Fruquintinib Inhibits VEGF/VEGFR2 Axis of Choroidal Endothelial Cells and M1-Type Macrophages to Protect against Mouse Laser-Induced Choroidal Neovascularization

Investigators HMPL-013 inhibited VEGF/VEGFR2 binding in choroidal endothelial cells and macrophages, as well as macrophage M1 polarization. In vitro, noncontact coculture of human choroidal vascular endothelial cells and macrophages under hypoxia conditions was established.
[Cell Death & Disease]
Liu, X., Guo, A., Tu, Y., Li, W., Li, L., Liu, W., Ju, Y., Zhou, Y., Sang, A., & Zhu, M. (2020). Fruquintinib inhibits VEGF/VEGFR2 axis of choroidal endothelial cells and M1-type macrophages to protect against mouse laser-induced choroidal neovascularization. Cell Death & Disease, 11(11), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41419-020-03222-1 Cite
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Targeting PAK4 to Reprogram the Vascular Microenvironment and Improve CAR-T Immunotherapy for Glioblastoma

PAK4 knockout induced adhesion protein re-expression in endothelial cells, reduced vascular abnormalities, improved T cell infiltration and inhibits glioblastoma growth in mice.
[Nature Cancer]
Ma, W., Wang, Y., Zhang, R., Yang, F., Zhang, D., Huang, M., Zhang, L., Dorsey, J. F., Binder, Z. A., O’Rourke, D. M., Fraietta, J. A., Gong, Y., & Fan, Y. (2020). Targeting PAK4 to reprogram the vascular microenvironment and improve CAR-T immunotherapy for glioblastoma. Nature Cancer, 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1038/s43018-020-00147-8 Cite
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uPAR-Expressing Melanoma Exosomes Promote Angiogenesis by VE-Cadherin, EGFR and uPAR Overexpression and Rise of ERK1,2 Signaling in Endothelial Cells

Investigators investigated the role of uPAR in melanoma cell lines-derived exosomes and their pro-angiogenic effects on human microvascular endothelial cells and endothelial colony-forming cells.
[Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences]
Biagioni, A., Laurenzana, A., Menicacci, B., Peppicelli, S., Andreucci, E., Bianchini, F., Guasti, D., Paoli, P., Serratì, S., Mocali, A., Calorini, L., Del Rosso, M., Fibbi, G., Chillà, A., & Margheri, F. (2020). uPAR-expressing melanoma exosomes promote angiogenesis by VE-Cadherin, EGFR and uPAR overexpression and rise of ERK1,2 signaling in endothelial cells. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00018-020-03707-4 Cite
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In Vitro Model of Distinct Catabolic and Inflammatory Response Patterns of Endothelial Cells to Intervertebral Disc Cell Degeneration

The authors analyzed IL-6 and -8, VEGF, matrix metalloproteinase-1 and -3, nerve growth factor-β, and brain-derived neurotrophic factors with qRT-PCR and ELISA.
[Scientific Reports]
Hwang, M. H., Son, H.-G., Kim, J., & Choi, H. (2020). In vitro model of distinct catabolic and inflammatory response patterns of endothelial cells to intervertebral disc cell degeneration. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 20596. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-77785-6 Cite
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Commensal-Driven Immune Zonation of the Liver Promotes Host Defence

Investigators used quantitative multiplex imaging, genetic perturbations, transcriptomics, infection-based assays and mathematical modeling to reassess the relationship between the localization of immune cells in the liver and host protection.
[Nature]
Gola, A., Dorrington, M. G., Speranza, E., Sala, C., Shih, R. M., Radtke, A. J., Wong, H. S., Baptista, A. P., Hernandez, J. M., Castellani, G., Fraser, I. D. C., & Germain, R. N. (2020). Commensal-driven immune zonation of the liver promotes host defence. Nature, 1–6. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2977-2 Cite
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A Critical Role of Endothelial Cell Protein C Receptor in the Intestinal Homeostasis in Experimental Colitis

Investigators report that endothelial cell protein C receptor was expressed in the colon epithelial cells, CD11c+, and CD21+/CD35+ myeloid cells surrounding the crypts in the colon mucosa.
[Scientific Reports]
Kondreddy, V., Keshava, S., Esmon, C. T., Pendurthi, U. R., & Rao, L. V. M. (2020). A critical role of endothelial cell protein C receptor in the intestinal homeostasis in experimental colitis. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 20569. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-77502-3 Cite
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Current Trends on Applications of Stem Cells in Diabetic Nephropathy

Scientists review the potential mechanism of stem cells as new therapeutic agents in the treatment of diabetic nephropathy (DN). They also review recent findings and updated information about not only the utilization of stem cells on DN in both preclinical and clinical trials but limitations and future expectations of stem cell-based therapy for DN.
[Cell Death & Disease]
Liu, D., Zheng, W., Pan, S., & Liu, Z. (2020). Concise review: current trends on applications of stem cells in diabetic nephropathy. Cell Death & Disease, 11(11), 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41419-020-03206-1 Cite
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Immunobiology and Immunotherapy of HCC: Spotlight on Endothelial Specific YY1 Deletion Restricts Tumor Angiogenesis and Tumor Growthinnate and Innate-Like Immune Cells

VEGF-induced endothelial cell (EC) migration was diminished in Yin Yang 1 (YY1)-depleted HUVECs. A rescue experiment revealed that YY1-regulated BMP6 expression in ECs was involved in EC migration.
[Scientific Reports]
Ruf, B., Heinrich, B., & Greten, T. F. (2020). Immunobiology and immunotherapy of HCC: spotlight on innate and innate-like immune cells. Cellular & Molecular Immunology, 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41423-020-00572-w Cite
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A High-Content Screen Identifies Drugs That Restrict Tumor Cell Extravasation across the Endothelial Barrier

Researchers performed a high-content screen to identify drugs that block tumor cell extravasation by testing 3520 compounds on a transendothelial invasion co-culture assay. Hits were further characterized and validated using a series of in vitro assays, a zebrafish model enabling 3-D visualization of tumor cell extravasation, and mouse models of lung metastasis.
[Cancer Research]
Hilfenhaus, G., Mompeón, A., Freshman, J., Prajapati, D., Hernandez, G., Freitas, V. M., Ma, F., Langenbacher, A. D., Mirkov, S., Song, D., Cho, B.-K., Goo, Y. A., Pellegrini, M., Chen, J.-N., Damoiseaux, R., & Iruela-Arispe, M. L. (2020). A high-content screen identifies drugs that restrict tumor cell extravasation across the endothelial barrier. Cancer Research. https://doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-19-3911 Cite
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Manipulating Niche Composition Limits Damage to Haematopoietic Stem Cells during Plasmodium Infection

Using a murine model of malaria and combining single-cell RNA sequencing, mathematical modelling, transplantation assays and intravital microscopy, researchers showed that haematopoiesis was reprogrammed upon infection.
[Nature Cell Biology]
Manipulating niche composition limits damage to haematopoietic stem cells during Plasmodium infection | Nature Cell Biology. (n.d.). Retrieved November 24, 2020, from https://www.nature.com/articles/s41556-020-00601-w Cite
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Embryonic Periventricular Endothelial Cells Demonstrate a Unique Pro-Neurodevelopment and Anti-Inflammatory Gene Signature

Researchers conducted a comparative transcriptome analysis of mouse periventricular endothelial cells vs. adult brain endothelial cells in mono-culture or neural progenitor cells co-culture.
[Scientific Reports]
Kipper, F. C., Angolano, C., Vissapragada, R., Contreras, M. A., Moore, J., Bhasin, M., Ferran, C., & Thomas, A. J. (2020). Embryonic periventricular endothelial cells demonstrate a unique pro-neurodevelopment and anti-inflammatory gene signature. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 20393. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-77297-3 Cite
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