The authors investigated how complement interacted with the platelet/neutrophil extracellular traps (NETS)/thrombin axis, using COVID-19 specimens, cell-based inhibition studies and NETs/human aortic endothelial cell co-cultures.
[Journal of Clinical Investigation]
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Skendros, P., Mitsios, A., Chrysanthopoulou, A., Mastellos, D. C., Metallidis, S., Rafailidis, P., Ntinopoulou, M., Sertaridou, E., Tsironidou, V., Tsigalou, C., Tektonidou, M. G., Konstantinidis, T., Papagoras, C., Mitroulis, I., Germanidis, G., Lambris, J. D., & Ritis, K. (2020). Complement and tissue factor-enriched neutrophil extracellular traps are key drivers in COVID-19 immunothrombosis. The Journal of Clinical Investigation. https://doi.org/10.1172/JCI141374 Cite
The author investigated the microscopic architecture of endothelial cells in human atherosclerosis and to determine whether the potential structural abnormalities of endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria may play a central pathogenic role in atherogenesis or may merely reflect the condition of a tissue whose integrity has already been disturbed or destroyed.
[Journal of Anatomy]
Scientists showed that deletion of endothelial epsin proteins reduced inflammation and attenuated atherosclerosis using both cell culture and mouse models of atherosclerosis.
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Dong, Y., Lee, Y., Cui, K., He, M., Wang, B., Bhattacharjee, S., Zhu, B., Yago, T., Zhang, K., Deng, L., Ouyang, K., Wen, A., Cowan, D. B., Song, K., Yu, L., Brophy, M. L., Liu, X., Wylie-Sears, J., Wu, H., … Chen, H. (2020). Epsin-mediated degradation of IP3R1 fuels atherosclerosis. Nature Communications, 11(1), 3984. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-17848-4 Cite
Scientists showed that berberine administration markedly ameliorated intralipid-induced insulin without affecting blood glucose, which was accompanied by alleviated mitochondrial swelling in skeletal muscle. They used human skeletal muscle cells, AML12 hepatocytes, HUVECs, and CypD knockout mice to investigate metabolic and molecular alternations.
[Acta Pharmacologica Sinica]
Investigators showed that an 18 hour exposure of human pulmonary artery endothelial cells to the different nanoparticles modestly affects cellular metabolic activity.
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Mesenchymal stem cells, endothelial progenitor cells and c-Kit+ cardiac interstitial cells when cultured together spontaneously formed scaffold-free 3D microenvironments termed CardioClusters.
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Monsanto, M. M., Wang, B. J., Ehrenberg, Z. R., Echeagaray, O., White, K. S., Alvarez, R., Fisher, K., Sengphanith, S., Muliono, A., Gude, N. A., & Sussman, M. A. (2020). Enhancing myocardial repair with CardioClusters. Nature Communications, 11(1), 3955. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-17742-z Cite
Cell culture experiments were performed in human dermal microvascular endothelial cells and included mRNA and protein analysis, and cell migration and proliferation assays. Ex vivo skin organoid culture was used to evaluate the effect of OSM on perivascular fibrosis.
[Arthritis Research & Therapy]
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Marden, G., Wan, Q., Wilks, J., Nevin, K., Feeney, M., Wisniacki, N., Trojanowski, M., Bujor, A., Stawski, L., & Trojanowska, M. (2020). The role of the oncostatin M/OSM receptor β axis in activating dermal microvascular endothelial cells in systemic sclerosis. Arthritis Research & Therapy, 22(1), 179. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13075-020-02266-0 Cite
To gain new insights into aberrant Down Syndrome (DS) development during early stages of mesoderm formation and its possible connection to lower solid tumor prevalence, the authors developed the first model of two types of DS iPSC-derived stromal cells.
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Galat, Y., Perepitchka, M., Elcheva, I., Iannaccone, S., Iannaccone, P. M., & Galat, V. (2020). iPSC-derived progenitor stromal cells provide new insights into aberrant musculoskeletal development and resistance to cancer in down syndrome. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 13252. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-69418-9 Cite
Scientists identified the basic biological properties and examined the multilineage differentiation potential of umbilical cord-MSCs.
[Stem Cell Research & Therapy]
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Xiang, E., Han, B., Zhang, Q., Rao, W., Wang, Z., Chang, C., Zhang, Y., Tu, C., Li, C., & Wu, D. (2020). Human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells prevent the progression of early diabetic nephropathy through inhibiting inflammation and fibrosis. Stem Cell Research & Therapy, 11(1), 336. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13287-020-01852-y Cite
Scientists positioned the ERAD-associated ubiquitin ligase MARCH6 as a determinant of angiogenic sprouting and barrier integrity through its ability to promote the degradation of the rate-limiting cholesterol biosynthetic enzyme squalene epoxidase.
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Tan, J. M. E., Stoel, M. M. van der, Berg, M. van den, Loon, N. M. van, Moeton, M., Scholl, E., Wel, N. N. van der, Kovačević, I., Hordijk, P. L., Loregger, A., Huveneers, S., & Zelcer, N. (2020). The MARCH6-SQLE Axis Controls Endothelial Cholesterol Homeostasis and Angiogenic Sprouting. Cell Reports, 32(5). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.107944 Cite
Investigators studied a family affected by dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) due to a frameshift variant in LMNA. Human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)–derived endothelial cells were generated from patients with LMNA-related DCM and phenotypically characterized.
[Science Translational Medicine]
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Sayed, N., Liu, C., Ameen, M., Himmati, F., Zhang, J. Z., Khanamiri, S., Moonen, J.-R., Wnorowski, A., Cheng, L., Rhee, J.-W., Gaddam, S., Wang, K. C., Sallam, K., Boyd, J. H., Woo, Y. J., Rabinovitch, M., & Wu, J. C. (2020). Clinical trial in a dish using iPSCs shows lovastatin improves endothelial dysfunction and cellular cross-talk in LMNA cardiomyopathy. Science Translational Medicine, 12(554). https://doi.org/10.1126/scitranslmed.aax9276 Cite
Researchers examined 19 COVID-19 exposed placentas for histopathologic findings, and for expression of ACE2, and TMPRSS2 by immunohistochemistry.
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Hecht, J. L., Quade, B., Deshpande, V., Mino-Kenudson, M., Ting, D. T., Desai, N., Dygulska, B., Heyman, T., Salafia, C., Shen, D., Bates, S. V., & Roberts, D. J. (2020). SARS-CoV-2 can infect the placenta and is not associated with specific placental histopathology: a series of 19 placentas from COVID-19-positive mothers. Modern Pathology, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41379-020-0639-4 Cite