Deletion of FGF9 in GABAergic Neurons Causes Epilepsy

Scientists found that loss of Fgf9 in olig1 progenitor cells induced epilepsy in mice, with pathological changes in the cortex. Then depleting Fgf9 in different neural populations revealed that epilepsy was associated with GABAergic neurons.
[Cell Death & Disease]
Guo, M., Cui, C., Song, X., Jia, L., Li, D., Wang, X., Dong, H., Ma, Y., Liu, Y., Cui, Z., Yi, L., Li, Z., Bi, Y., Li, Y., Liu, Y., Duan, W., & Li, C. (2021). Deletion of FGF9 in GABAergic neurons causes epilepsy. Cell Death & Disease, 12(2), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41419-021-03478-1 Cite
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SOX1 Is a Backup Gene for Brain Neurons and Glioma Stem Cell Protection and Proliferation

The authors collate the most important discoveries relating to the neuroprotective effects of SOX1 in brain cancer and propose hypothesis worthy of SOX1’s role in the survival of senescent neuronal cells, its roles in fibroblast cell proliferation, and cell fate for neuroprotection, and the discharge of electrical impulses for homeostasis.
[Molecular Neurobiology]
Kanwore, K., Guo, X., Abdulrahman, A. A., Kambey, P. A., Nadeem, I., & Gao, D. (2021). SOX1 Is a Backup Gene for Brain Neurons and Glioma Stem Cell Protection and Proliferation. Molecular Neurobiology. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12035-020-02240-6 Cite
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Great Expectations: Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Technologies in Neurodevelopmental Impairments

Investigators introduce the development of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), the currently established iPSCs disease models, and artificial organoids related to neurodevelopmental impairments.
[International Journal of Medical Sciences]
Zhang, X., Li, Z., Liu, Y., & Gai, Z. (2021). Great Expectations: Induced pluripotent stem cell technologies in neurodevelopmental impairments. International Journal of Medical Sciences, 18(2), 459–473. https://doi.org/10.7150/ijms.51842 Cite
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Valproic Acid-Exposed Astrocytes Impair Inhibitory Synapse Formation and Function

Investigators examined whether exposure of cultured astrocytes to valproic acid altered neuronal morphology and synapse function of co-cultured neurons.
[Scientific Reports]
Valproic acid-exposed astrocytes impair inhibitory synapse formation and function | Scientific Reports. (n.d.). Retrieved January 8, 2021, from https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-020-79520-7 Cite
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Epilepsy Protein Efhc1/myoclonin1 Is Expressed in Cells with Motile Cilia but Not in Neurons or Mitotic Apparatuses in Brain

All of the western blot, immunocytochemical, and immunohistochemical analyses showed that mRib72-pAb crossreacts with several mouse proteins besides myoclonin1, while 6A3-mAb specifically recognized myoclonin1 and detected it only in cells with motile cilia but not in neurons.
[Scientific Reports]
Suzuki, T., Inoue, I., & Yamakawa, K. (2020). Epilepsy protein Efhc1/myoclonin1 is expressed in cells with motile cilia but not in neurons or mitotic apparatuses in brain. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 22076. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-79202-4 Cite
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Epilepsy Protein Efhc1/myoclonin1 Is Expressed in Cells with Motile Cilia but Not in Neurons or Mitotic Apparatuses in Brain

All of the western blot, immunocytochemical, and immunohistochemical analyses showed that mRib72-pAb crossreacts with several mouse proteins besides myoclonin1, while 6A3-mAb specifically recognized myoclonin1 and detected it only in cells with motile cilia but not in neurons.
[Scientific Reports]
Suzuki, T., Inoue, I., & Yamakawa, K. (2020). Epilepsy protein Efhc1/myoclonin1 is expressed in cells with motile cilia but not in neurons or mitotic apparatuses in brain. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 22076. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-79202-4 Cite
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YIPF5 Mutations Cause Neonatal Diabetes and Microcephaly through Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress

Investigators used three human β cell models to investigate the mechanism through which YIPF5 loss of function affects β cells. Loss of YIPF5 function in stem cell–derived islet cells resulted in proinsulin retention in the ER, marked ER stress, and β cell failure.
[Journal of Clinical Investigation]
Franco, E. D., Lytrivi, M., Ibrahim, H., Montaser, H., Wakeling, M. N., Fantuzzi, F., Patel, K., Demarez, C., Cai, Y., Igoillo-Esteve, M., Cosentino, C., Lithovius, V., Vihinen, H., Jokitalo, E., Laver, T. W., Johnson, M. B., Sawatani, T., Shakeri, H., Pachera, N., … Hattersley, A. T. (2020). YIPF5 mutations cause neonatal diabetes and microcephaly through endoplasmic reticulum stress. The Journal of Clinical Investigation, 130(12). https://doi.org/10.1172/JCI141455 Cite
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Hyaluronan Regulates Synapse Formation and Function in Developing Neural Networks

Scientists used 3D cortical spheroids derived from human iPSCs to replicate the neurodevelopmental window. Their results demonstrated that hyaluronan preferentially surrounds nascent excitatory synapses.
[Scientific Reports]
Wilson, E., Knudson, W., & Newell-Litwa, K. (2020). Hyaluronan regulates synapse formation and function in developing neural networks. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 16459. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-73177-y Cite
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The Effects of Microglia‐ and Astrocyte‐Derived Factors on Neurogenesis in Health and Disease

The authors describe how glial cells play a role in adult hippocampal neurogenesis in both health and disease, especially focusing on glia‐derived factors.
[European Journal of Neuroscience]
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Application of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells in Epilepsy

The authors provide an overview of iPSC lines that have been derived from patients with specific epilepsy types. They discuss the genetic underpinnings and molecular mechanisms of each epilepsy type.
[Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience]
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Astrocytic BDNF and TrkB Regulate Severity and Neuronal Activity in Mouse Models of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

Specific genetic deletion of BDNF in astrocytes prevented the increase in the number of firing neurons and the global firing rate in an in vitro model of temporal lobe epilepsy.
[Cell Death & Disease]
Astrocytic BDNF and TrkB regulate severity and neuronal activity in mouse models of temporal lobe epilepsy | Cell Death & Disease. (n.d.). Retrieved June 4, 2020, from https://www.nature.com/articles/s41419-020-2615-9 Cite
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