The authors provide a short overview of the different sources human oligodendroglial cells, and animal models available for pre-clinical cell therapy.
To define molecular mechanisms for the damaging cardiac outflow tract defects caused by GATA6 variants, scientists studied transcriptional and epigenetic responses to GATA6 loss of function and missense variants during cardiomyocyte differentiation of isogenic human iPSCs.
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Sharma, A., Wasson, L. K., Willcox, J. A., Morton, S. U., Gorham, J. M., DeLaughter, D. M., Neyazi, M., Schmid, M., Agarwal, R., Jang, M. Y., Toepfer, C. N., Ward, T., Kim, Y., Pereira, A. C., DePalma, S. R., Tai, A., Kim, S., Conner, D., Bernstein, D., … Seidman, C. E. (2020). GATA6 mutations in hiPSCs inform mechanisms for maldevelopment of the heart, pancreas, and diaphragm. ELife, 9, e53278. https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.53278 Cite
The authors report a protocol that efficiently induced near synchronous rosette organization, even from human PSC-derived neural progenitor cell monolayers that do not generally exhibit rosette formation using previously existing protocols.
[Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology]
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Townshend, R. F., Shao, Y., Wang, S., Cortez, C. L., Esfahani, S. N., Spence, J. R., O’Shea, K. S., Fu, J., Gumucio, D. L., & Taniguchi, K. (2020). Effect of Cell Spreading on Rosette Formation by Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Neural Progenitor Cells. Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology, 8. https://doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2020.588941 Cite
Investigators generated pericyte-like cells (PCs) from human (h)PSCs through the intermediate stage of the cranial neural crest (CNC) and revealed that the hPSC-CNC PCs expressed typical pericyte markers including PDGFRβ, CD146, NG2, CD13, Caldesmon, and Vimentin, and displayed distinct contractile properties, vasculogenic potential and endothelial barrier function.
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Sun, J., Huang, Y., Gong, J., Wang, J., Fan, Y., Cai, J., Wang, Y., Qiu, Y., Wei, Y., Xiong, C., Chen, J., Wang, B., Ma, Y., Huang, L., Chen, X., Zheng, S., Huang, W., Ke, Q., Wang, T., … Li, W. (2020). Transplantation of hPSC-derived pericyte-like cells promotes functional recovery in ischemic stroke mice. Nature Communications, 11(1), 5196. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-19042-y Cite
Scientists used human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived endothelial cells (ECs) and bulk- and single-cell RNA sequencing to study the effect of flow on the transcriptomic landscape of hiPSC-ECs and their heterogeneity.
[Frontiers in Physiology]
The authors employed dopaminergic neurons and microglia differentiated from patient-derived iPSCs carrying LRRK2 G2019S, the most common Parkinson’s disease-associated mutation.
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Interferon-γ signaling synergizes with LRRK2 in neurons and microglia derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells | Nature Communications. (n.d.). Retrieved October 14, 2020, from https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-020-18755-4 Cite
Scientists performed the largest single-cell transcriptomic study of human iPSC-derived dopaminergic neurons to elucidate gene expression dynamics in response to cytotoxic and genetic stressors.
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Fernandes, H. J. R., Patikas, N., Foskolou, S., Field, S. F., Park, J.-E., Byrne, M. L., Bassett, A. R., & Metzakopian, E. (2020). Single-Cell Transcriptomics of Parkinson’s Disease Human In Vitro Models Reveals Dopamine Neuron-Specific Stress Responses. Cell Reports, 33(2). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.108263 Cite
Axol Biosciences has added multi-electrode array (MEA) screening services for human-iPSC-derived cells to its service offering for preclinical drug discovery. The company said that its new MEA screening services optimize hiPSC-derived cell culture, while also providing electrophysiology acquisition and analysis from physiologically relevant human cell models.
[The Science Advisory Board]
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The authors propose that advancement in kidney organoid research will be facilitated through increasing knowledge on nephrogenesis and combining promising techniques such as organ-on-a-chip models.
[Journal of Molecular Medicine-Jmm]
Investigators employed dopaminergic neurons and microglia differentiated from patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells carrying LRRK2 G2019S, the most common Parkinson’s disease-associated mutation.
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Panagiotakopoulou, V., Ivanyuk, D., De Cicco, S., Haq, W., Arsić, A., Yu, C., Messelodi, D., Oldrati, M., Schöndorf, D. C., Perez, M.-J., Cassatella, R. P., Jakobi, M., Schneiderhan-Marra, N., Gasser, T., Nikić-Spiegel, I., & Deleidi, M. (2020). Interferon-γ signaling synergizes with LRRK2 in neurons and microglia derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells. Nature Communications, 11(1), 5163. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-18755-4 Cite
Researchers used human pluripotent stem cell-derived brain organoids to examine SARS-CoV-2 neurotropism. They found expression of viral receptor ACE2 in mature choroid plexus cells expressing abundant lipoproteins, but not in neurons or other cell types.
[Cell Stem Cell]
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Pellegrini, L., Albecka, A., Mallery, D. L., Kellner, M. J., Paul, D., Carter, A. P., James, L. C., & Lancaster, M. A. (2020). SARS-CoV-2 infects the brain choroid plexus and disrupts the blood-CSF-barrier in human brain organoids. Cell Stem Cell, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stem.2020.10.001 Cite