Influenza- and MCMV-Induced Memory CD8 T Cells Control Respiratory Vaccinia Virus Infection Despite Residence in Distinct Anatomical Niches

Scientists used influenza virus to induce predominantly tissue resident memory T cells or cytomegalovirus to elicit a large pool of effector-like memory cells in the lungs and determined their early protective capacity and mechanism of reactivation.
[Mucosal Immunology]
Welten, S. P. M., Oderbolz, J., Yilmaz, V., Bidgood, S. R., Gould, V., Mercer, J., Spörri, R., & Oxenius, A. (2021). Influenza- and MCMV-induced memory CD8 T cells control respiratory vaccinia virus infection despite residence in distinct anatomical niches. Mucosal Immunology, 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41385-020-00373-4 Cite
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Myomerger Promotes Fusion Pore by Elastic Coupling between Proximal Membrane Leaflets and Hemifusion Diaphragm

Researchers showed that Myomerger ectodomain generated positive spontaneous curvature of lipid monolayers. They substantiated the mechanism by experiments on myoblast fusion and influenza hemagglutinin-mediated cell fusion.
[Nature Communications]
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Critical Role of Syk-Dependent STAT1 Activation in Innate Antiviral Immunity

Researchers identified that STAT1 activation is independent of cytokines and JAKs at the early infection stage of some viruses, including influenza A virus.
[Cell Reports]
Liu, S., Liao, Y., Chen, B., Chen, Y., Yu, Z., Wei, H., Zhang, L., Huang, S., Rothman, P. B., Gao, G. F., & Chen, J.-L. (2021). Critical role of Syk-dependent STAT1 activation in innate antiviral immunity. Cell Reports, 34(3). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.108627 Cite
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Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2): a Systemic Infection

Scientists summarize existing data on the replication of SARS-CoV-2 in different tissues in both patients and ex vivo models.
[Clinical Microbiology Reviews]
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2): a Systemic Infection | Clinical Microbiology Reviews. (n.d.). Retrieved January 18, 2021, from https://cmr.asm.org/content/34/2/e00133-20 Cite
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Tissue-Resident CD4+ T Helper Cells Assist the Development of Protective Respiratory B and CD8+ T Cell Memory Responses

Researchers report that lung T helper cells provide local assistance for the optimal development of tissue-resident memory B and CD8+ T cells after the resolution of primary influenza virus infection.
[Science Immunology]
Son, Y. M., Cheon, I. S., Wu, Y., Li, C., Wang, Z., Gao, X., Chen, Y., Takahashi, Y., Fu, Y.-X., Dent, A. L., Kaplan, M. H., Taylor, J. J., Cui, W., & Sun, J. (2021). Tissue-resident CD4+ T helper cells assist the development of protective respiratory B and CD8+ T cell memory responses. Science Immunology, 6(55). https://doi.org/10.1126/sciimmunol.abb6852 Cite
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T Resident Helper Cells Promote Humoral Responses in the Lung

The authors characterized the dynamics and transcriptional regulation of lung-resident CD4+ T cells during influenza infection and identified a long-lived, Bcl6-dependent population that they have termed T resident helper cells.
[Science Immunology]
Swarnalekha, N., Schreiner, D., Litzler, L. C., Iftikhar, S., Kirchmeier, D., Künzli, M., Son, Y. M., Sun, J., Moreira, E. A., & King, C. G. (2021). T resident helper cells promote humoral responses in the lung. Science Immunology, 6(55). https://doi.org/10.1126/sciimmunol.abb6808 Cite
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Modeling Human Adaptive Immune Responses with Tonsil Organoids

The authors used human tonsils, readily available lymphoid organs, to develop a functional organotypic system that recapitulated key germinal center features in vitro, including the production of antigen-specific antibodies, somatic hypermutation and affinity maturation, plasmablast differentiation and class-switch recombination.
[Nature Medicine]
Wagar, L. E., Salahudeen, A., Constantz, C. M., Wendel, B. S., Lyons, M. M., Mallajosyula, V., Jatt, L. P., Adamska, J. Z., Blum, L. K., Gupta, N., Jackson, K. J. L., Yang, F., Röltgen, K., Roskin, K. M., Blaine, K. M., Meister, K. D., Ahmad, I. N., Cortese, M., Dora, E. G., … Davis, M. M. (2021). Modeling human adaptive immune responses with tonsil organoids. Nature Medicine, 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41591-020-01145-0 Cite
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Mechanism of EBV Inducing Anti-Tumor Immunity and Its Therapeutic Use

Researchers showed that expression of the Epstein–Barr virus signaling protein LMP1 in B cells provokes T cell responses to multiple tumor-associated antigens.
[Nature]
Mechanism of EBV inducing anti-tumour immunity and its therapeutic use | Nature. (n.d.). Retrieved January 5, 2021, from https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-020-03075-w Cite
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Transcriptomic Similarities and Differences in Host Response between SARS-CoV-2 and Other Viral Infections

Researchers studied the whole-blood transcriptomic host response to SARS-CoV-2 using RNAseq from 24 healthy controls and 62 prospectively enrolled patients with COVID-19.
[iScience]
Thair, S. A., He, Y. D., Hasin-Brumshtein, Y., Sakaram, S., Pandya, R., Toh, J., Rawling, D., Remmel, M., Coyle, S., Dalekos, G. N., Koutsodimitropoulos, I., Vlachogianni, G., Gkeka, E., Karakike, E., Damoraki, G., Antonakos, N., Khatri, P., Giamarellos-Bourboulis, E. J., & Sweeney, T. E. (2020). Transcriptomic Similarities and Differences in Host Response between SARS-CoV-2 and Other Viral Infections. IScience, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2020.101947 Cite
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Preexisting Immunity Shapes Distinct Antibody Landscapes after Influenza Virus Infection and Vaccination in Humans

Scientist investigated the impact of preexisting immunity on generation of protective antibody responses to conserved viral epitopes upon influenza virus infection and vaccination in humans
[Science Translational Medicine]
Dugan, H. L., Guthmiller, J. J., Arevalo, P., Huang, M., Chen, Y.-Q., Neu, K. E., Henry, C., Zheng, N.-Y., Lan, L. Y.-L., Tepora, M. E., Stovicek, O., Bitar, D., Palm, A.-K. E., Stamper, C. T., Changrob, S., Utset, H. A., Coughlan, L., Krammer, F., Cobey, S., & Wilson, P. C. (2020). Preexisting immunity shapes distinct antibody landscapes after influenza virus infection and vaccination in humans. Science Translational Medicine, 12(573). https://doi.org/10.1126/scitranslmed.abd3601 Cite
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Distinct Inflammatory Profiles Distinguish COVID-19 from Influenza with Limited Contributions from Cytokine Storm

Scientists studied the immune responses in COVID-19 and influenza patients. Compared to patients with influenza, patients with COVID-19 exhibited largely equivalent lymphocyte counts, fewer monocytes, and lower surface human leukocyte antigen-class II expression on selected monocyte populations.
[Science Advances]
Mudd, P. A., Crawford, J. C., Turner, J. S., Souquette, A., Reynolds, D., Bender, D., Bosanquet, J. P., Anand, N. J., Striker, D. A., Martin, R. S., Boon, A. C. M., House, S. L., Remy, K. E., Hotchkiss, R. S., Presti, R. M., O’Halloran, J. A., Powderly, W. G., Thomas, P. G., & Ellebedy, A. H. (2020). Distinct inflammatory profiles distinguish COVID-19 from influenza with limited contributions from cytokine storm. Science Advances, 6(50), eabe3024. https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abe3024 Cite
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