Despite the importance of immunity against neuraminidase (NA), NA content and immunogenicity are neglected in current influenza vaccines. To address this, a recombinant N1/N2 NA vaccine was developed.
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Giurgea, L. T., Park, J.-K., Walters, K.-A., Scherler, K., Cervantes-Medina, A., Freeman, A., Rosas, L. A., Kash, J. C., Taubenberger, J. K., & Memoli, M. J. (2021). The effect of calcium and magnesium on activity, immunogenicity, and efficacy of a recombinant N1/N2 neuraminidase vaccine. Npj Vaccines, 6(1), 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41541-021-00310-x Cite
Human plasmacytoid dendritic cells produced high amounts of type I interferon when incubated with live cytomegalovirus-infected fibroblasts but not with free cytomegalovirus
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Yun, T. J., Igarashi, S., Zhao, H., Perez, O. A., Pereira, M. R., Zorn, E., Shen, Y., Goodrum, F., Rahman, A., Sims, P. A., Farber, D. L., & Reizis, B. (2021). Human plasmacytoid dendritic cells mount a distinct antiviral response to virus-infected cells. Science Immunology, 6(58). https://doi.org/10.1126/sciimmunol.abc7302 Cite
The authors discuss what is known about SARS-CoV-2 in the context of the broad knowledge of influenza virus, highlighting the similarities and differences between the respiratory viruses.
[Nature Reviews Microbiology]
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Scientists assessed Th1 cell generation in vivo by studying antigen-specific CD4+ T cells during infection with the phagosomal pathogen Salmonella enterica, or influenza A virus, for which CD4+ T cells were less important.
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Researchers showed that endogenous lipids released from virus-infected host cells activate lung γδ T cells to produce interleukin 17 A for early protection against H1N1 influenza infection.
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Wang, X., Lin, X., Zheng, Z., Lu, B., Wang, J., Tan, A. H.-M., Zhao, M., Loh, J. T., Ng, S. W., Chen, Q., Xiao, F., Huang, E., Ko, K.-H., Huang, Z., Li, J., Kok, K.-H., Lu, G., Liu, X., Lam, K.-P., … Lu, L. (2021). Host-derived lipids orchestrate pulmonary γδ T cell response to provide early protection against influenza virus infection. Nature Communications, 12(1), 1914. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-22242-9 Cite
Organicell Regenerative Medicine, Inc. announced that it has entered into a Material Cooperative Research and Development Agreement with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to determine the anti-inflammatory and anti-infective effectiveness of Zofin™ in experimental models of influenza infection.
[Organicell Regenerative Medicine, Inc. (BusinessWire, Inc)]
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Scientists suggest that therapeutics targeting filamentous virus particles could overcome antiviral drug resistance and immune evasion in pleomorphic viruses.
Scientists applied electron cryotomography and subtomogram averaging to describe the structural basis for hexagonal lattice formation by haemagglutinin-esterase-fusion on the viral surface.
Researchers showed that headless hemagglutinin stabilized-stem immunogens presented on ferritin nanoparticles elicit broadly neutralizing antibody responses to diverse H1 and H3 viruses in nonhuman primates when delivered with a squalene-based oil-in-water emulsion adjuvant, AF03.
[Science Translational Medicine]
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Darricarrère, N., Qiu, Y., Kanekiyo, M., Creanga, A., Gillespie, R. A., Moin, S. M., Saleh, J., Sancho, J., Chou, T.-H., Zhou, Y., Zhang, R., Dai, S., Moody, A., Saunders, K. O., Crank, M. C., Mascola, J. R., Graham, B. S., Wei, C.-J., & Nabel, G. J. (2021). Broad neutralization of H1 and H3 viruses by adjuvanted influenza HA stem vaccines in nonhuman primates. Science Translational Medicine, 13(583). https://doi.org/10.1126/scitranslmed.abe5449 Cite
Building upon the COBRA technology, nine next-generation H3N2 influenza hemagglutinin (HA) vaccines were designed using a next generation algorithm and design methodology.
In mice, epigraph vaccination leads to significant cross-reactive antibody and T-cell responses against a diverse panel of swH3 isolates.
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