Polyreactive Broadly Neutralizing B cells Are Selected to Provide Defense against Pandemic Threat Influenza Viruses

By analyzing more than 500 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) derived from B cells induced by numerous influenza virus vaccines and infections, we found mAbs targeting conserved neutralizing influenza virus hemagglutinin epitopes were polyreactive.
[Immunity]
Guthmiller, J. J., Lan, L. Y.-L., Fernández-Quintero, M. L., Han, J., Utset, H. A., Bitar, D. J., Hamel, N. J., Stovicek, O., Li, L., Tepora, M., Henry, C., Neu, K. E., Dugan, H. L., Borowska, M. T., Chen, Y.-Q., Liu, S. T. H., Stamper, C. T., Zheng, N.-Y., Huang, M., … Wilson, P. C. (2020). Polyreactive Broadly Neutralizing B cells Are Selected to Provide Defense against Pandemic Threat Influenza Viruses. Immunity, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.immuni.2020.10.005 Cite
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Self-Amplifying RNA Vaccines for Infectious Diseases

Scientists explore how self-amplifying RNAs are emerging as important vaccine candidates for infectious diseases, the advantages of synthetic manufacturing approaches, and their potential for preventing and treating chronic infections.
[Gene Therapy]
Bloom, K., van den Berg, F., & Arbuthnot, P. (2020). Self-amplifying RNA vaccines for infectious diseases. Gene Therapy, 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41434-020-00204-y Cite
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Landscape of Coordinated Immune Responses to H1N1 Challenge in Humans

Scientists showed changes in the abundance and activation states of more than 50 immune cell subsets in 35 individuals over 11 time points during human A/California/2009 (H1N1) virus challenge monitored using mass cytometry along with other clinical assessments.
[Journal of Clinical Investigation]
Rahil, Z., Leylek, R., Schürch, C. M., Chen, H., Bjornson-Hooper, Z., Christensen, S. R., Gherardini, P. F., Bhate, S. S., Spitzer, M. H., Fragiadakis, G. K., Mukherjee, N., Kim, N., Jiang, S., Yo, J., Gaudilliere, B., Affrime, M., Bock, B., Hensley, S. E., Idoyaga, J., … McIlwain, D. R. (2020). Landscape of coordinated immune responses to H1N1 challenge in humans. The Journal of Clinical Investigation, 130(11). https://doi.org/10.1172/JCI137265 Cite
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Transcriptional Regulation of Memory B Cell Differentiation

The authors discuss recent advancements regarding the signals and transcription factors regulating germinal centre-derived memory B cells development and function.
[Nature Reviews Immunology]
Laidlaw, B. J., & Cyster, J. G. (2020). Transcriptional regulation of memory B cell differentiation. Nature Reviews Immunology, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41577-020-00446-2 Cite
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FC-Optimized Antibodies Elicit CD8 Immunity to Viral Respiratory Infection

Researchers report that Fc engineering of anti-influenza IgG monoclonal antibodies for selective binding to the activating FcγR, FcγRIIa, resulted in enhanced efficacy to prevent or treat lethal viral respiratory infection with enhanced dendritic cell maturation and the induction of protective CD8+ T-cell responses.
[Nature]
Bournazos, S., Corti, D., Virgin, H. W., & Ravetch, J. V. (2020). Fc-optimized antibodies elicit CD8 immunity to viral respiratory infection. Nature, 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2838-z Cite
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Divalent Cation-Induced Conformational Changes of Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin

Divalent cations Cu2+ and Zn2+ could prevent the viral growth in mammalian cells during influenza infection, and viral titers decreased significantly on a copper surface. The underlying mechanisms included DNA damage by radicals, modulation of viral protease, M1 or neuraminidase, and morphological changes in viral particles.
[Scientific Reports]
Seok, J. H., Kim, H., Lee, D. B., An, J. S., Kim, E. J., Lee, J.-H., Chung, M. S., & Kim, K. H. (2020). Divalent cation-induced conformational changes of influenza virus hemagglutinin. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 15457. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-72368-x Cite
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The Influenza Virus NS1A Binding Protein Gene Modulates Macrophages Response to Cytokines and Phagocytic Potential in Inflammation

The authors determined that the modulation of the Ivns1abp gene in macrophages could modify resistance to macrophages against inflammation and maintain functional phagocytosis.
[Scientific Reports]
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Suboptimal SARS-CoV-2−specific CD8+ T Cell Response Associated with the Prominent HLA-A*02:01 Phenotype

SARS-CoV-2−specific CD8+ T cells recovered from convalescent COVID-19 patients had an atypically high prevalence of stem cell memory, central memory, and naïve phenotypes.
[Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America]
Habel, J. R., Nguyen, T. H. O., Sandt, C. E. van de, Juno, J. A., Chaurasia, P., Wragg, K., Koutsakos, M., Hensen, L., Jia, X., Chua, B., Zhang, W., Tan, H.-X., Flanagan, K. L., Doolan, D. L., Torresi, J., Chen, W., Wakim, L. M., Cheng, A. C., Doherty, P. C., … Kedzierska, K. (2020). Suboptimal SARS-CoV-2−specific CD8+ T cell response associated with the prominent HLA-A*02:01 phenotype. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2015486117 Cite
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In Vivo Detection of Antigen-Specific CD8+ T Cells by Immuno-Positron Emission Tomography

SynTacs, when labeled with positron-emitting isotopes, could noninvasively image antigen-specific CD8+ T cells in vivo.
[Nature Methods]
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Patrolling Alveolar Macrophages Conceal Bacteria from the Immune System to Maintain Homeostasis

Macrophages sensed, chemotaxed, and, with high efficiency, phagocytosed inhaled bacterial pathogens such as P. aeruginosa and S. aureus, cloaking the bacteria from neutrophils.
[Cell]
Neupane, A. S., Willson, M., Chojnacki, A. K., Castanheira, F. V. E. S., Morehouse, C., Carestia, A., Keller, A. E., Peiseler, M., DiGiandomenico, A., Kelly, M. M., Amrein, M., Jenne, C., Thanabalasuriar, A., & Kubes, P. (2020). Patrolling Alveolar Macrophages Conceal Bacteria from the Immune System to Maintain Homeostasis. Cell, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2020.08.020 Cite
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Identification and Structure of a Multidonor Class of Head-Directed Influenza-Neutralizing Antibodies Reveal the Mechanism for Its Recurrent Elicitation

Scientists identified and characterized a multidonor antibody class targeting the hemagglutinin head.
[Cell Reports]
Cheung, C. S.-F., Fruehwirth, A., Paparoditis, P. C. G., Shen, C.-H., Foglierini, M., Joyce, M. G., Leung, K., Piccoli, L., Rawi, R., Silacci-Fregni, C., Tsybovsky, Y., Verardi, R., Wang, L., Wang, S., Yang, E. S., Zhang, B., Zhang, Y., Chuang, G.-Y., Corti, D., … Zhou, T. (2020). Identification and Structure of a Multidonor Class of Head-Directed Influenza-Neutralizing Antibodies Reveal the Mechanism for Its Recurrent Elicitation. Cell Reports, 32(9). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.108088 Cite
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