In Situ Neutrophil Efferocytosis Shapes T Cell Immunity to Influenza Infection

Newly infiltrated inflammatory monocytes became a chief pool of phagocytes and played a key role in the clearance of highly motile apoptotic neutrophils during the resolution phase.
[Nature Immunology]
Lim, K., Kim, T., Trzeciak, A., Amitrano, A. M., Reilly, E. C., Prizant, H., Fowell, D. J., Topham, D. J., & Kim, M. (2020). In situ neutrophil efferocytosis shapes T cell immunity to influenza infection. Nature Immunology, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41590-020-0746-x Cite
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Characterization of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5Nx Viruses in the Ferret Model

HPAI H5N6 and H5N2 viruses of the 2.3.4.4 clade were assessed for their capacity to replicate in human respiratory tract cells, and to cause disease and transmit in the ferret model.
[Scientific Reports]
Pulit-Penaloza, J. A., Brock, N., Pappas, C., Sun, X., Belser, J. A., Zeng, H., Tumpey, T. M., & Maines, T. R. (2020). Characterization of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5Nx viruses in the ferret model. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 12700. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-69535-5 Cite
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LRCH1 Deficiency Enhances LAT Signalosome Formation and CD8+ T Cell Responses against Tumors and Pathogens

Investigators demonstrated that LRCH1 directly bound linker for activation of T cells (LAT), reduced LAT phosphorylation and interaction with GRB2, and also promoted the endocytosis of LAT.
[Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America]
Liu, C., Xu, X., Han, L., Wan, X., Zheng, L., Li, C., Liao, Z., Xiao, J., Zhong, R., Zheng, X., Wang, Q., Li, Z., Chen, H., Wei, B., & Wang, H. (2020). LRCH1 deficiency enhances LAT signalosome formation and CD8+ T cell responses against tumors and pathogens. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2000970117 Cite
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Characterization of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5Nx Viruses in the Ferret Model

HPAI H5N6 and H5N2 viruses of the 2.3.4.4 clade were assessed for their capacity to replicate in human respiratory tract cells, and to cause disease and transmit in the ferret model.
[Scientific Reports]
Pulit-Penaloza, J. A., Brock, N., Pappas, C., Sun, X., Belser, J. A., Zeng, H., Tumpey, T. M., & Maines, T. R. (2020). Characterization of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5Nx viruses in the ferret model. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 12700. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-69535-5 Cite
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Moderna Is Enrolling 30,000 Volunteers for Its Biggest COVID-19 Vaccine Trial

Biotech company Moderna has been making some pretty promising strides in developing and testing its COVID-19 vaccine. The company just announced it was working with the US National Institutes of Health to launch what will be one of the largest COVID-19 vaccine trials, a Phase III study enrolling tens of thousands of American volunteers to assess whether the vaccine could truly protect people from infection.
[MIT Technology Review]
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A Carbohydrate-Binding Protein from the Edible Lablab Beans Effectively Blocks the Infections of Influenza Viruses and SARS-CoV-2

The authors showed that the lectin FRIL, isolated from hyacinth beans, had anti-influenza and anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity. FRIL could neutralize 11 representative human and avian influenza strains at low nanomolar concentrations, and intranasal administration of FRIL was protective against lethal H1N1 infection in mice.
[Cell Reports]
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Specific Targeting of IL-1β Activity to CD8+ T Cells Allows for Safe Use as a Vaccine Adjuvant

Researchers present a bypass around these toxicities by targeting the activity of IL-1β to CD8+ T cells. Using this approach, they demonstrated safe inclusion of IL-1β as an adjuvant in vaccination strategies, leading to full protection of mice against a high influenza virus challenge dose by raising potent T cell responses.
[NPJ Vaccines]
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Adjuvanted H5N1 Influenza Vaccine Enhances Both Cross-Reactive Memory B Cell and Strain-Specific Naive B Cell Responses in Humans

Plasmablast response after the first immunization was exclusively directed to the conserved hemagglutinin stem region and came from memory B cells.
[Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America]
Ellebedy, A. H., Nachbagauer, R., Jackson, K. J. L., Dai, Y.-N., Han, J., Alsoussi, W. B., … Ahmed, R. (2020). Adjuvanted H5N1 influenza vaccine enhances both cross-reactive memory B cell and strain-specific naive B cell responses in humans. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1906613117 Cite
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PDS Biotech Collaborator Granted NIAID Award to Accelerate Development of Versamune®-Based Universal Influenza Vaccine

PDS Biotechnology Corporation announced that PDS Biotech collaborator, Professor J. Woodward of the University of Kentucky School of Medicine, has been awarded a grant from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases’ Collaborative Influenza Vaccine Innovation Centers program to progress development of a Versamune®-based universal influenza vaccine.
[PDS Biotechnology Corporation]
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Alveolar Macrophage-Derived Extracellular Vesicles Inhibit Endosomal Fusion of Influenza Virus

Scientists demonstrated that aveolar macrophages, but not epithelial cells (ECs), constitutively secreted paracrine activity localized to extracellular vesicles which inhibited influenza infection of ECs in vitro and in vivo .
[EMBO Journal]
Schneider, D. J., Smith, K. A., Latuszek, C. E., Wilke, C. A., Lyons, D. M., Penke, L. R., … Peters-Golden, M. (2020). Alveolar macrophage-derived extracellular vesicles inhibit endosomal fusion of influenza virus. The EMBO Journal, n/a(n/a), e105057. https://doi.org/10.15252/embj.2020105057 Cite
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PPARα Exacerbates Necroptosis, Leading to Increased Mortality in Postinfluenza Bacterial Superinfection

Lipidomic profiling of the lungs of superinfected mice revealed an increase in CYP450 metabolites during lethal superinfection.
[Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America]
Tam, V. C., Suen, R., Treuting, P. M., Armando, A., Lucarelli, R., Gorrochotegui-Escalante, N., … Gold, E. S. (2020). PPARα exacerbates necroptosis, leading to increased mortality in postinfluenza bacterial superinfection. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2006343117 Cite
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T-Cell Responses following Natural Influenza Infection or Vaccination in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients

Investigators evaluated the CD4+ and CD8+ responses to influenza A and B infection in a cohort of solid organ transplant patients.
[Scientific Reports]
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