Multi-Modal Single-Cell Analysis Reveals Brain Immune Landscape Plasticity during Aging and Gut Microbiota Dysbiosis

Scientists analyzed compositional and transcriptional changes of the brain immune landscape in response to aging and gut dysbiosis.
[Cell Reports]
Golomb, S. M., Guldner, I. H., Zhao, A., Wang, Q., Palakurthi, B., Aleksandrovic, E. A., Lopez, J. A., Lee, S. W., Yang, K., & Zhang, S. (2020). Multi-modal Single-Cell Analysis Reveals Brain Immune Landscape Plasticity during Aging and Gut Microbiota Dysbiosis. Cell Reports, 33(9). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.108438 Cite
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Hematopoiesis: A Layered Organization across Species

The authors evaluate evidence for a layered hematopoietic system across species. They discuss mechanisms and selective pressures leading to the temporal generation of different cell types.
[Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology]
Elsaid, R., Soares-Da-Silva, F., Peixoto, M., Amiri, D., Mackowski, N., Pereira, P., Bandeira, A., & Cumano, An. (2020). Hematopoiesis: a layered organization across species. Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology, 8. https://doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2020.606642 Cite
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Cellular Context of IL-33 Expression Dictates Impact on Anti-Helminth Immunity

Scientists demonstrated that cell-intrinsic IL-33 promoted mouse dendritic cells to express the pore-forming protein perforin-2, which may function as a conduit on the plasma membrane facilitating IL-33 export.
[Science Immunology]
Cellular context of IL-33 expression dictates impact on anti-helminth immunity | Science Immunology. (n.d.). Retrieved November 17, 2020, from https://immunology.sciencemag.org/content/5/53/eabc6259 Cite
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Immune Checkpoint Molecules in Natural Killer Cells As Potential Targets for Cancer Immunotherapy

The authors focus on the recent findings concerning the roles of immune checkpoint molecules and receptors in the regulation of NK cell function, as well as their potential application in tumor immunotherapy.
[Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy]
Cao, Y., Wang, X., Jin, T., Tian, Y., Dai, C., Widarma, C., Song, R., & Xu, F. (2020). Immune checkpoint molecules in natural killer cells as potential targets for cancer immunotherapy. Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy, 5(1), 1–19. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41392-020-00348-8 Cite
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Metabolic Regulation by PPARγ Is Required for IL-33-Mediated Activation of ILC2s in Lung and Adipose Tissue

Scientists found that the metabolic sensor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma was highly expressed in ILC2s of the lung and adipose tissue and increased responsiveness to IL-33.
[Mucosal Immunology]
Fali, T., Aychek, T., Ferhat, M., Jouzeau, J.-Y., Busslinger, M., Moulin, D., & Eberl, G. (2020). Metabolic regulation by PPARγ is required for IL-33-mediated activation of ILC2s in lung and adipose tissue. Mucosal Immunology, 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41385-020-00351-w Cite
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IL-10 Producing Type 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells Prolong Islet Allograft Survival

Scientist showed that IL‐33 significantly prolonged islet allograft survival. IL‐33‐treated mice had elevated numbers of ILC2s and regulatory T cells.
[EMBO Molecular Medicine]
Huang, Q., Ma, X., Wang, Y., Niu, Z., Wang, R., Yang, F., Wu, M., Liang, G., Rong, P., Wang, H., Harris, D. C., Wang, W., & Cao, Q. (2020). IL-10 producing type 2 innate lymphoid cells prolong islet allograft survival. EMBO Molecular Medicine, n/a(n/a), e12305. https://doi.org/10.15252/emmm.202012305 Cite
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Rapid Enhancer Remodeling and Transcription Factor Repurposing Enable High Magnitude Gene Induction upon Acute Activation of NK Cells

Epigenomic and transcriptomic analyses of regions near highly induced genes in NK cells both in vitro and in a model of Toxoplasma gondii infection revealed de novo chromatin accessibility and enhancer remodeling controlled by signal-regulated transcription factors STATs.
[Immunity]
Rapid Enhancer Remodeling and Transcription Factor Repurposing Enable High Magnitude Gene Induction upon Acute Activation of NK Cells: Immunity. (n.d.). Retrieved October 6, 2020, from https://www.cell.com/immunity/fulltext/S1074-7613(20)30402-7 Cite
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Fatty Acid-Binding Protein 5 Limits ILC2-Mediated Allergic Lung Inflammation in a Murine Asthma Model

The authors examined the role of fatty acid-binding protein 5 (FABP5) in the allergic lung inflammation and demonstrated that the expression of FABP5 acts as a novel positive regulator of ST2 expression in alveolar epithelial cells (ECs) to generate retinoic acid (RA) and supports the synthesis of RA from type II alveolar ECs to suppress excessive activation of innate lymphoid cell 2 during allergic lung inflammation.
[Scientific Reports]
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Profibrotic Function of Pulmonary Group 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells Is Controlled by Regnase-1

The associations between Regnase-1 in ILC2s and human diseases were investigated by transcriptome analysis and a bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis mouse model. The clinical significance of Regnase-1 in ILC2s was further assessed using patients-derived cells.
[European Respiratory Journal]
Profibrotic function of pulmonary group 2 innate lymphoid cells is controlled by Regnase-1 | European Respiratory Society. (n.d.). Retrieved September 28, 2020, from https://erj.ersjournals.com/content/early/2020/09/17/13993003.00018-2020 Cite
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Profibrotic Function of Pulmonary Group 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells Is Controlled by Regnase-1

The associations between Regnase-1 in ILC2s and human diseases were investigated by transcriptome analysis and a bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis mouse model. The clinical significance of Regnase-1 in ILC2s was further assessed using patients-derived cells.
[European Respiratory Journal]
Profibrotic function of pulmonary group 2 innate lymphoid cells is controlled by Regnase-1 | European Respiratory Society. (n.d.). Retrieved September 28, 2020, from https://erj.ersjournals.com/content/early/2020/09/17/13993003.00018-2020 Cite
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IL-33-ST2 Axis Regulates Myeloid Cell Differentiation and Activation Enabling Effective Club Cell Regeneration

Researchers demonstrated a protective function for the IL-33-ST2 axis in bronchial epithelial repair, and implicated ST2 in myeloid cell differentiation.
[Nature Communications]
Dagher, R., Copenhaver, A. M., Besnard, V., Berlin, A., Hamidi, F., Maret, M., Wang, J., Qu, X., Shrestha, Y., Wu, J., Gautier, G., Raja, R., Aubier, M., Kolbeck, R., Humbles, A. A., & Pretolani, M. (2020). IL-33-ST2 axis regulates myeloid cell differentiation and activation enabling effective club cell regeneration. Nature Communications, 11(1), 4786. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-18466-w Cite
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