IL-1R1–Dependent Signaling Coordinates Epithelial Regeneration in Response to Intestinal Damage

The authors reported that after distinct types of intestinal epithelial damage, IL-1R1 signaling in GREM1+ mesenchymal cells increased production of R-spondin 3, a Wnt agonist required for intestinal stem cell self-renewal.
[Science Immunology]
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CD200–CD200R Immune Checkpoint Engagement Regulates ILC2 Effector Function and Ameliorates Lung Inflammation in Asthma

CD200R engagement inhibited activation, proliferation and type 2 cytokine production, indicating an immunoregulatory function for the CD200–CD200R axis on Group 2 innate lymphoid cells.
[Nature Communications]
Shafiei-Jahani, P., Helou, D. G., Hurrell, B. P., Howard, E., Quach, C., Painter, J. D., Galle-Treger, L., Li, M., Loh, Y.-H. E., & Akbari, O. (2021). CD200–CD200R immune checkpoint engagement regulates ILC2 effector function and ameliorates lung inflammation in asthma. Nature Communications, 12(1), 2526. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-22832-7 Cite
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Selective Deletion of SHIP-1 in Hematopoietic Cells in Mice Leads to Severe Lung Inflammation Involving ILC2 Cells

Deletion of Src homology 2 domain–containing inositol 5-phosphatase 1 (SHIP-1) selectively in B cells, T cells, dendritic cells or macrophages did not lead to spontaneous allergic inflammation in mice, suggesting that innate immune cells, particularly group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2 cells) may play an important role in this process.
[Scientific Reports]
Ye, X., Zhang, F., Zhou, L., Wei, Y., Zhang, L., Wang, L., Tang, H., Chen, Z., Kerr, W. G., Zheng, T., & Zhu, Z. (2021). Selective deletion of SHIP-1 in hematopoietic cells in mice leads to severe lung inflammation involving ILC2 cells. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 9220. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-88677-8 Cite
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Overlapping and Distinct Features of Viral and Allergen Immunity in the Human Lung

The authors explore how advances in the study of human immunology have shaped our understanding of the resident immune network and its response to two of the most commonly encountered inflammatory stimuli in the airways: viruses and allergens.
[Immunity]
Harker, J. A., & Lloyd, C. M. (2021). Overlapping and distinct features of viral and allergen immunity in the human lung. Immunity, 54(4), 617–631. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.immuni.2021.03.010 Cite
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Interleukin-17D Regulates Group 3 Innate Lymphoid Cell Function through Its Receptor CD93

Researchers examined the role of IL-17D, a poorly understood member in the IL-17 family. Il17d−/− mice were more susceptible to acute colitis, bacterial infection and experimentally induced colon cancer than their wildtype counterparts.
[Immunity]
Huang, J., Lee, H., Zhao, X., Han, J., Su, Y., Sun, Q., Shao, J., Ge, J., Zhao, Y., Bai, X., He, Y., Wang, X., Wang, X., & Dong, C. (2021). Interleukin-17D regulates group 3 innate lymphoid cell function through its receptor CD93. Immunity, 54(4), 673-686.e4. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.immuni.2021.03.018 Cite
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γδ T Cells Regulate the Intestinal Response to Nutrient Sensing

To investigate how nutrient uptake is regulated in the small intestine, scientists tested the effect of diets with different macronutrient compositions on epithelial gene expression.
[Science]
Sullivan, Z. A., Khoury-Hanold, W., Lim, J., Smillie, C., Biton, M., Reis, B. S., Zwick, R. K., Pope, S. D., Israni-Winger, K., Parsa, R., Philip, N. H., Rashed, S., Palm, N., Wang, A., Mucida, D., Regev, A., & Medzhitov, R. (2021). γδ T cells regulate the intestinal response to nutrient sensing. Science, 371(6535). https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aba8310 Cite
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Acetylcholine Production by Group 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells Promotes Mucosal Immunity to Helminths

Group 2 innate lymphoid cells were shown to synthesize and release acetylcholine during parasitic nematode infection.
[Science Immunology]
Roberts, L. B., Schnoeller, C., Berkachy, R., Darby, M., Pillaye, J., Oudhoff, M. J., Parmar, N., Mackowiak, C., Sedda, D., Quesniaux, V., Ryffel, B., Vaux, R., Gounaris, K., Berrard, S., Withers, D. R., Horsnell, W. G. C., & Selkirk, M. E. (2021). Acetylcholine production by group 2 innate lymphoid cells promotes mucosal immunity to helminths. Science Immunology, 6(57). https://doi.org/10.1126/sciimmunol.abd0359 Cite
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The ChAT-Acetylcholine Pathway Promotes Group 2 Innate Lymphoid Cell Responses and Anti-helminth Immunity

Scientist identified that activated innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) up-regulate choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)—the enzyme responsible for the biosynthesis of acetylcholine.
[Science Immunology]
Chu, C., Parkhurst, C. N., Zhang, W., Zhou, L., Yano, H., Arifuzzaman, M., & Artis, D. (2021). The ChAT-acetylcholine pathway promotes group 2 innate lymphoid cell responses and anti-helminth immunity. Science Immunology, 6(57). https://doi.org/10.1126/sciimmunol.abe3218 Cite
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Mesenchymal Stem Cells Regulate Type 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells via Regulatory T Cells through ICOS‐ICOSL Interaction

The authors investigated the potential immunomodulatory effects of mesenchymal stem cells on group 2 innate lymphoid cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from allergic rhinitis patients and healthy subjects.
[Stem Cells]
Fan, X., Xu, Z.-B., Li, C.-L., Zhang, H.-Y., Peng, Y.-Q., He, B.-X., Liu, X.-Q., Chen, D.-H., Chen, D., Akdis, C. A., & Fu, Q.-L. (n.d.). Mesenchymal stem cells regulate type 2 innate lymphoid cells via regulatory T cells through ICOS-ICOSL interaction. STEM CELLS, n/a(n/a). https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1002/stem.3369 Cite
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Understanding the Key Issues in the Treatment of Uncontrolled Persistent Asthma with Type 2 Inflammation

Researchers summarize the current understanding of the biology of type 2 inflammation in asthma, examine its influence on type 2 inflammatory comorbidities, and discuss how type 2 inflammatory biomarkers can be harnessed to further personalise treatments in the age of biologic medicines.
[European Respiratory Journal]
Busse, W. W., Kraft, M., Rabe, K. F., Deniz, Y., Rowe, P., Ruddy, M., & Castro, M. (2021). Understanding the key issues in the treatment of uncontrolled persistent asthma with type 2 inflammation. European Respiratory Journal. https://doi.org/10.1183/13993003.03393-2020 Cite
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Transcriptional and Functional Characterization of Neonatal Circulating ILCs

Researchers analyzed the transcriptomes and effector functions of cord blood innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). By RNAseq analysis, all ILC subsets could be clearly distinguished from each other.
[Stem Cells Translational Medicine]
Bennstein, S. B., Scherenschlich, N., Weinhold, S., Manser, A. R., Noll, A., Raba, K., Kögler, G., Walter, L., & Uhrberg, M. (n.d.). Transcriptional and functional characterization of neonatal circulating ILCs. STEM CELLS Translational Medicine, n/a(n/a). https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1002/sctm.20-0300 Cite
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