Insights into Intrauterine Growth Restriction Based on Maternal and Umbilical Cord Blood Metabolomics

Untargeted nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomics was applied in 84 umbilical cord blood and maternal blood samples obtained from 48 intrauterine growth restriction and 36 appropriate for gestational age deliveries.
[Scientific Reports]
Moros, G., Boutsikou, T., Fotakis, C., Iliodromiti, Z., Sokou, R., Katsila, T., Xanthos, T., Iacovidou, N., & Zoumpoulakis, P. (2021). Insights into intrauterine growth restriction based on maternal and umbilical cord blood metabolomics. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 7824. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-87323-7 Cite
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SerpinB13 Antibodies Promote β Cell Development and Resistance to Type 1 Diabetes

Investigators showed that inhibiting serpinB13, a cathepsin L protease inhibitor expressed in the pancreatic epithelium, caused in vitro and in vivo cleavage of the extracellular domain of Notch1.
[Science Translational Medicine]
Kryvalap, Y., Jiang, M. L., Kryvalap, N., Hendrickson, C., & Czyzyk, J. (2021). SerpinB13 antibodies promote β cell development and resistance to type 1 diabetes. Science Translational Medicine, 13(588). https://doi.org/10.1126/scitranslmed.abf1587 Cite
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Exosome-Delivered CD44v6/C1QBP Complex Drives Pancreatic Cancer Liver Metastasis by Promoting Fibrotic Liver Microenvironment

Researchers explored the underlying mechanisms of how pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma-derived exosomes modulate the liver microenvironment and promote metastasis.
[Pancreas]
Xie, Z., Gao, Y., Ho, C., Li, L., Jin, C., Wang, X., Zou, C., Mao, Y., Wang, X., Li, Q., Fu, D., & Zhang, Y.-F. (2021). Exosome-delivered CD44v6/C1QBP complex drives pancreatic cancer liver metastasis by promoting fibrotic liver microenvironment. Gut. https://doi.org/10.1136/gutjnl-2020-323014 Cite
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Obesity, Adipose Tissue and Vascular Dysfunction

The authors discuss the local and systemic roles of adipose tissue derived secreted factors and increased systemic inflammation during obesity and highlight their detrimental impact on cardiovascular health.
[Circulation Research]
Koenen Mascha, Hill Michael A., Cohen Paul, & Sowers James R. (2021). Obesity, Adipose Tissue and Vascular Dysfunction. Circulation Research, 128(7), 951–968. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.121.318093 Cite
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Insulin-Positive Ductal Cells Do Not Migrate Into Preexisting Islets during Pregnancy

Researchers used a cell-tagging dye, CFDA-SE, to permanently label pancreatic duct cells through an intraductal infusion technique.
[Experimental and Molecular Medicine]
Liu, Q., Jiang, Y., Zhu, L., Qian, J., Wang, C., Yang, T., Prasadan, K., Gittes, G. K., & Xiao, X. (2021). Insulin-positive ductal cells do not migrate into preexisting islets during pregnancy. Experimental & Molecular Medicine, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1038/s12276-021-00593-z Cite
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Insulin and Insulin Analogs as Antidiabetic Therapy: A Perspective from Clinical Trials

The authors discuss the development of the most widely available insulin preparations and provide evidence-based insight into their use in clinical practice.
[Cell Metabolism]
Kramer, C. K., Retnakaran, R., & Zinman, B. (2021). Insulin and insulin analogs as antidiabetic therapy: A perspective from clinical trials. Cell Metabolism, 33(4), 740–747. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cmet.2021.03.014 Cite
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The Many Actions of Insulin in Skeletal Muscle, the Paramount Tissue Determining Glycemia

Scientists discuss the discoveries that have led to the current understanding of how insulin promotes glucose uptake in muscle.
[Cell Metabolism]
Sylow, L., Tokarz, V. L., Richter, E. A., & Klip, A. (2021). The many actions of insulin in skeletal muscle, the paramount tissue determining glycemia. Cell Metabolism, 33(4), 758–780. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cmet.2021.03.020 Cite
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Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Insulin-Producing Cells: A Regenerative Medicine Perspective

Investigators discuss current challenges surrounding the generation, delivery, and engraftment of stem cell-derived islet-like cells, along with strategies to induce durable tolerance to grafted cells, with an eye toward a functional cellular-based therapy enabling insulin independence for patients with diabetes.
[Cell Metabolism]
Migliorini, A., Nostro, M. C., & Sneddon, J. B. (2021). Human pluripotent stem cell-derived insulin-producing cells: A regenerative medicine perspective. Cell Metabolism, 33(4), 721–731. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cmet.2021.03.021 Cite
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Endogenous Mitochondrial Double‐Stranded RNA is Not an Activator of the Type I Interferon Response in Human Pancreatic Beta Cells

Researchers suggested that accumulation of endogenous mtdsRNA following degradosome knockdown depended on the proliferative capacity of the cells and was not a mediator of the type I interferon response in human pancreatic beta cells.
[Autoimmunity Highlights]
Coomans de Brachène, A., Castela, A., Musuaya, A. E., Marselli, L., Marchetti, P., & Eizirik, D. L. (2021). Endogenous mitochondrial double‐stranded RNA is not an activator of the type I interferon response in human pancreatic beta cells. Autoimmunity Highlights, 12(1), 6. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13317-021-00148-2 Cite
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Bitter Melon Fruit Extract Enhances Intracellular ATP Production and Insulin Secretion from Rat Pancreatic β-Cells

Scientists showed that hydrophobic components of bitter melon fruit extract increased ATP production and augmented insulin secretion from β-cells, consequently decreasing blood glucose levels.
[British Journal of Nutrition]
Bitter melon fruit extract enhances intracellular ATP production and insulin secretion from rat pancreatic β-cells | British Journal of Nutrition | Cambridge Core. (n.d.). Retrieved March 30, 2021, from https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition/article/bitter-melon-fruit-extract-enhances-intracellular-atp-production-and-insulin-secretion-from-rat-pancreatic-cells/B388E6AC085C0B1DB936801BDC00EF61 Cite
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The Hepatokine Fetuin-A Disrupts Functional Maturation of Pancreatic Beta Cells

The effects of fetuin-A were assessed during in vitro maturation of porcine neonatal islet cell clusters and in adult human islets. Expression alterations were examined via microarray, RNA sequencing and reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR, proteins were analyzed by western blotting and immunostaining, and insulin secretion was quantified in static incubations.
[Diabetologia]
The hepatokine fetuin-A disrupts functional maturation of pancreatic beta cells | SpringerLink. (n.d.). Retrieved March 30, 2021, from https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00125-021-05435-1 Cite
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