Researchers suggested that microdose lithium conferred a protective effect on islet β-cells via targeting the GSK3β-regulated Nrf2 antioxidant response and thereby ameliorated type 1 diabetes mellitus and its related kidney impairment.
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Human keratinocytes cells were used as an experimental model for studies on the effects of platelet-rich plasma on cell proliferation, migration, collagen biosynthesis, prolidase activity, and its expression and anabolic signaling.
[International Journal of Molecular Sciences]
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Misiura, M., Guszczyn, T., Oscilowska, I., Baszanowska, W., Palka, J., & Miltyk, W. (2021). Platelet-Rich Plasma Promotes the Proliferation of Human Keratinocytes via a Progression of the Cell Cycle. A Role of Prolidase. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 22(2), 936. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22020936 Cite
The authors showed that La-related protein 1 (LARP1) was the most expressed LARP in mouse islets and human β-cells, being two–four-fold more abundant than LARP1B, a member of the family that also interacts with rapamycin complex 1.
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The structural information of the insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor (IGF2R), an overexpressed protein on activated hepatic stellate cells, were used for an in silico screening of novel IGF2R-specific peptide ligands.
[Journal of Materials Chemistry B]
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Weber, F., Casalini, T., Valentino, G., Brülisauer, L., Andreas, N., Koeberle, A., Kamradt, T., Contini, A., & Luciani, P. (2021). Targeting transdifferentiated hepatic stellate cells and monitoring the hepatic fibrogenic process by means of IGF2R-specific peptides designed in silico. Journal of Materials Chemistry B. https://doi.org/10.1039/D0TB02372H Cite
To directly define the roles of insulin and IGF-1 receptors in the maintenance of pluripotency and differentiation of stem cells, scientists knocked out both the receptors in induced pluripotent stem cells.
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Okawa, E. R., Gupta, M. K., Kahraman, S., Goli, P., Sakaguchi, M., Hu, J., Duan, K., Slipp, B., Lennerz, J. K., & Kulkarni, R. N. (2021). Essential roles of insulin and IGF-1 receptors during embryonic lineage development. Molecular Metabolism, 101164. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molmet.2021.101164 Cite
Scientists showed that shRNA-mediated SIX2 or SIX3 suppression in human pancreatic adult islets impaired insulin secretion.
[Genes & Development]
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The enhanced long noncoding RNA KB-1980E6.3 facilitated breast cancer stem cells self-renewal and tumorigenesis under hypoxic microenvironment both in vitro and in vivo.
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Zhu, P., He, F., Hou, Y., Tu, G., Li, Q., Jin, T., Zeng, H., Qin, Y., Wan, X., Qiao, Y., Qiu, Y., Teng, Y., & Liu, M. (2021). A novel hypoxic long noncoding RNA KB-1980E6.3 maintains breast cancer stem cell stemness via interacting with IGF2BP1 to facilitate c-Myc mRNA stability. Oncogene, 1–19. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41388-020-01638-9 Cite
Researchers examined a role for 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase 3 (PFKFB3) in hematopoietic cells in regulating white adipose tissue inflammation and systemic insulin sensitivity.
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Zhu, B., Guo, X., Xu, H., Jiang, B., Li, H., Wang, Y., Yin, Q., Zhou, T., Cai, J. J., Glaser, S., Meng, F., Francis, H., Alpini, G., & Wu, C. (2021). Adipose tissue inflammation and systemic insulin resistance in mice with diet-induced obesity is possibly associated with disruption of PFKFB3 in hematopoietic cells. Laboratory Investigation, 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41374-020-00523-z Cite
Researchers investigated the expression of insulin growth factor binding proteins and their role in the generation of human retinal organoids from human pluripotent stem cells.
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IGFBPs mediate IGF‐1’s functions in retinal lamination and photoreceptor development during pluripotent stem cell differentiation to retinal organoids - Zerti - - STEM CELLS - Wiley Online Library. (n.d.). Retrieved January 15, 2021, from https://stemcellsjournals.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/stem.3331?af=R Cite
The authors identify that the drug methotrexate and its downstream metabolite adenosine exert anti-inflammatory effects in the vascular endothelium by targeting and activating MiR-181b expression.
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Whether and how triglycerides promote hepatocyte injury remains unclear. Consequently, it is difficult to predict whether drugs designed to reduce hepatic triglycerides will prevent the most important complications of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.
[Trends in Pharmacological Sciences]