Tailored Generation of Insulin Producing Cells from Canine Mesenchymal Stem Cells Derived from Bone Marrow and Adipose Tissue

Researchers investigated insulin-producing cell generation from two practical canine MSCs, canine bone marrow-derived MSC, and canine adipose-derived MSCs.
[Scientific Reports]
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COL11A1 Activates Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts by Modulating TGF-β3 through the NF-κB/IGFBP2 Axis in Ovarian Cancer Cells

Collagen type XI alpha 1 (COL11A1) is overexpressed in cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs); therefore this study examined its role during CAF activation in epithelial ovarian cancer.
[Oncogene]
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Feeding Diversified Protein Sources Exacerbates Hepatic Insulin Resistance via Increased Gut Microbial Branched-Chain Fatty Acids and mTORC1 Signaling in Obese Mice

Scientists showed that the branched-chain fatty acids, isobutyric and isovaleric acid, increased glucose production and activated mTORC1/S6K1 in hepatocytes.
[Nature Communications]
Choi, B. S.-Y., Daniel, N., Houde, V. P., Ouellette, A., Marcotte, B., Varin, T. V., Vors, C., Feutry, P., Ilkayeva, O., Ståhlman, M., St-Pierre, P., Bäckhed, F., Tremblay, A., White, P. J., & Marette, A. (2021). Feeding diversified protein sources exacerbates hepatic insulin resistance via increased gut microbial branched-chain fatty acids and mTORC1 signaling in obese mice. Nature Communications, 12(1), 3377. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-23782-w Cite
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Collagen VI as a Driver and Disease Biomarker in Human Fibrosis

In this review, the authors focus upon the microfibrillar collagen VI, which is present in the extracellular matrix of most tissues.
[FEBS Journal]
Williams, L., Layton, T., Yang, N., Feldmann, M., & Nanchahal, J. (n.d.). Collagen VI as a driver and disease biomarker in human fibrosis. The FEBS Journal, n/a(n/a). https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1111/febs.16039 Cite
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Insulin Resistance Is Linked to a Specific Profile of Immune Activation in Human Subjects

Researchers tested the hypothesis that a particular immune activation profile might be correlated with insulin resistance in a general population. By measuring 43 markers of immune, endothelial, and coagulation activation, we have previously shown that five different immune activation profiles may be distinguished in 150 volunteers.
[Scientific Reports]
Cezar, R., Desigaud, D., Pastore, M., Kundura, L., Dupuy, A.-M., Cognot, C., Vincent, T., Reynes, C., Sabatier, R., Maggia, E., & Corbeau, P. (2021). Insulin resistance is linked to a specific profile of immune activation in human subjects. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 12314. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-91758-3 Cite
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Abnormal Expression of microRNA-296-3p in Type 2 Diabetes Patients and its Role in Pancreatic β-Cells Function by Targeting Tensin Homolog Deleted on Chromosome Ten

Min6 cells were induced by 5 mg/dl UA and the cell proliferation, apoptosis, and insulin release were evaluated using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, flow cytometry and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, respectively.
[Biochemical Genetics]
Cheng, M., Guo, Y., Zhong, W., Chen, X., & Guo, G. (2021). Abnormal Expression of microRNA-296-3p in Type 2 Diabetes Patients and its Role in Pancreatic β-Cells Function by Targeting Tensin Homolog Deleted on Chromosome Ten. Biochemical Genetics. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10528-021-10083-6 Cite
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PRL-1 Overexpressed Placenta-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Suppress Adipogenesis in Graves’ Ophthalmopathy through SREBP2/HMGCR Pathway

Investigators constructed PRL-1 overexpressed human placental mesenchymal stem cells in an attempt to enhance the suppressive function of adipogenesis in Graves’ ophthalmopathy animal models.
[Stem Cell Research & Therapy]
Park, M., Kim, J. Y., Kang, J. M., Lee, H. J., Banga, J. P., Kim, G. J., & Lew, H. (2021). PRL-1 overexpressed placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells suppress adipogenesis in Graves’ ophthalmopathy through SREBP2/HMGCR pathway. Stem Cell Research & Therapy, 12(1), 304. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13287-021-02337-2 Cite
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Pterostilbene Improves Insulin Resistance Caused by Advanced Glycation End Products (AGEs) in Hepatocytes and Mice

Scientists investigated if pterostilbene regulates glucose metabolism and insulin signaling, as well as its potential mechanism in the context of AGEs exposure.
[Molecular Nutrition & Food Research]
Yu, W., Fan, L., Wang, M., Cao, B., & Hu, X. (n.d.). Pterostilbene Improves Insulin Resistance Caused by Advanced Glycation End Products (AGEs) in Hepatocytes and Mice. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, n/a(n/a), 2100321. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.202100321 Cite
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Pirfenidone Modifies Hepatic miRNAs Expression in a Model of MAFLD/NASH

Scientists evaluated modifications by prolonged-release pirfenidone on key hepatic miRNAs expression in a MAFLD/NASH model.
[Scientific Reports]
Escutia-Gutiérrez, R., Rodríguez-Sanabria, J. S., Monraz-Méndez, C. A., García-Bañuelos, J., Santos-García, A., Sandoval-Rodríguez, A., & Armendáriz-Borunda, J. (2021). Pirfenidone modifies hepatic miRNAs expression in a model of MAFLD/NASH. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 11709. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-91187-2 Cite
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Glucose Treatment of Human Pancreatic β-Cells Enhances Translation of mRNAs Involved in Energetics and Insulin Secretion

Reserachers described and validated the use of the SUnSET approach to demonstrate through FACS and Western Blot that glucose increases protein translation in the human cell line EndoC-βH2
[Journal of Biological Chemistry]
Glucose treatment of human pancreatic β-cells enhances translation of mRNAs involved in energetics and insulin secretion. (2021). Journal of Biological Chemistry, 100839. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbc.2021.100839 Cite
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GRK2 Contributes to Glucose Mediated Calcium Responses and Insulin Secretion in Pancreatic Islet Cells

Utilizing Min6 cells, a pancreatic ß-cell model, scientists knocked down G-protein coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) and measured glucose-mediated intracellular calcium responses and insulin secretion.
[Scientific Reports]
Snyder, J., Lackey, A. I., Brown, G. S., Diaz, M., Yuzhen, T., & Sato, P. Y. (2021). GRK2 contributes to glucose mediated calcium responses and insulin secretion in pancreatic islet cells. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 11129. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-90253-z Cite
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