Microdose Lithium Protects against Pancreatic Islet Destruction and Renal Impairment in Streptozotocin-Elicited Diabetes

Researchers suggested that microdose lithium conferred a protective effect on islet β-cells via targeting the GSK3β-regulated Nrf2 antioxidant response and thereby ameliorated type 1 diabetes mellitus and its related kidney impairment.
[Antioxidants]
Zhang, J., Anshul, F., Malhotra, D. K., Jaume, J., Dworkin, L. D., & Gong, R. (2021). Microdose Lithium Protects against Pancreatic Islet Destruction and Renal Impairment in Streptozotocin-Elicited Diabetes. Antioxidants, 10(1), 138. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10010138 Cite
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Platelet-Rich Plasma Promotes the Proliferation of Human Keratinocytes via a Progression of the Cell Cycle. A Role of Prolidase

Human keratinocytes cells were used as an experimental model for studies on the effects of platelet-rich plasma on cell proliferation, migration, collagen biosynthesis, prolidase activity, and its expression and anabolic signaling.
[International Journal of Molecular Sciences]
Misiura, M., Guszczyn, T., Oscilowska, I., Baszanowska, W., Palka, J., & Miltyk, W. (2021). Platelet-Rich Plasma Promotes the Proliferation of Human Keratinocytes via a Progression of the Cell Cycle. A Role of Prolidase. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 22(2), 936. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22020936 Cite
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The RNA-Binding Protein LARP1 Is Dispensable for Pancreatic β-Cell Function and Mass

The authors showed that La-related protein 1 (LARP1) was the most expressed LARP in mouse islets and human β-cells, being two–four-fold more abundant than LARP1B, a member of the family that also interacts with rapamycin complex 1.
[Scientific Reports]
Werneck-de-Castro, J. P., Peçanha, F. L. M., Silvestre, D. H., & Bernal-Mizrachi, E. (2021). The RNA-binding protein LARP1 is dispensable for pancreatic β-cell function and mass. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 2079. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-81457-4 Cite
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Targeting Transdifferentiated Hepatic Stellate Cells and Monitoring the Hepatic Fibrogenic Process by Means of IGF2R-Specific Peptides Designed In Silico

The structural information of the insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor (IGF2R), an overexpressed protein on activated hepatic stellate cells, were used for an in silico screening of novel IGF2R-specific peptide ligands.
[Journal of Materials Chemistry B]
Weber, F., Casalini, T., Valentino, G., Brülisauer, L., Andreas, N., Koeberle, A., Kamradt, T., Contini, A., & Luciani, P. (2021). Targeting transdifferentiated hepatic stellate cells and monitoring the hepatic fibrogenic process by means of IGF2R-specific peptides designed in silico. Journal of Materials Chemistry B. https://doi.org/10.1039/D0TB02372H Cite
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Essential Roles of Insulin and IGF-1 Receptors during Embryonic Lineage Development

To directly define the roles of insulin and IGF-1 receptors in the maintenance of pluripotency and differentiation of stem cells, scientists knocked out both the receptors in induced pluripotent stem cells.
[Molecular Medicine]
Okawa, E. R., Gupta, M. K., Kahraman, S., Goli, P., Sakaguchi, M., Hu, J., Duan, K., Slipp, B., Lennerz, J. K., & Kulkarni, R. N. (2021). Essential roles of insulin and IGF-1 receptors during embryonic lineage development. Molecular Metabolism, 101164. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molmet.2021.101164 Cite
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SIX2 and SIX3 Coordinately Regulate Functional Maturity and Fate of Human Pancreatic β Cells

Scientists showed that shRNA-mediated SIX2 or SIX3 suppression in human pancreatic adult islets impaired insulin secretion.
[Genes & Development]
Bevacqua, R. J., Lam, J. Y., Peiris, H., Whitener, R. L., Kim, S., Gu, X., Friedlander, M. S. H., & Kim, S. K. (2021). SIX2 and SIX3 coordinately regulate functional maturity and fate of human pancreatic β cells. Genes & Development. https://doi.org/10.1101/gad.342378.120 Cite
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A Novel Hypoxic Long Noncoding RNA KB-1980E6.3 Maintains Breast Cancer Stem Cell Stemness via Interacting With IGF2BP1 to Facilitate C-Myc mRNA Stability

The enhanced long noncoding RNA KB-1980E6.3 facilitated breast cancer stem cells self-renewal and tumorigenesis under hypoxic microenvironment both in vitro and in vivo.
[Oncogene]
Zhu, P., He, F., Hou, Y., Tu, G., Li, Q., Jin, T., Zeng, H., Qin, Y., Wan, X., Qiao, Y., Qiu, Y., Teng, Y., & Liu, M. (2021). A novel hypoxic long noncoding RNA KB-1980E6.3 maintains breast cancer stem cell stemness via interacting with IGF2BP1 to facilitate c-Myc mRNA stability. Oncogene, 1–19. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41388-020-01638-9 Cite
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Adipose Tissue Inflammation and Systemic Insulin Resistance in Mice with Diet-Induced Obesity Is Possibly Associated with Disruption of PFKFB3 in Hematopoietic Cells

Researchers examined a role for 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase 3 (PFKFB3) in hematopoietic cells in regulating white adipose tissue inflammation and systemic insulin sensitivity.
[Laboratory Investigation]
Zhu, B., Guo, X., Xu, H., Jiang, B., Li, H., Wang, Y., Yin, Q., Zhou, T., Cai, J. J., Glaser, S., Meng, F., Francis, H., Alpini, G., & Wu, C. (2021). Adipose tissue inflammation and systemic insulin resistance in mice with diet-induced obesity is possibly associated with disruption of PFKFB3 in hematopoietic cells. Laboratory Investigation, 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41374-020-00523-z Cite
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IGFBPs Mediate IGF-1’s Functions in Retinal Lamination and Photoreceptor Development during Pluripotent Stem Cell Differentiation to Retinal Organoids

Researchers investigated the expression of insulin growth factor binding proteins and their role in the generation of human retinal organoids from human pluripotent stem cells.
[Stem Cells]
IGFBPs mediate IGF‐1’s functions in retinal lamination and photoreceptor development during pluripotent stem cell differentiation to retinal organoids - Zerti - - STEM CELLS - Wiley Online Library. (n.d.). Retrieved January 15, 2021, from https://stemcellsjournals.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/stem.3331?af=R Cite
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Methotrexate Attenuates Vascular Inflammation through an Adenosine-MicroRNA Dependent Pathway

The authors identify that the drug methotrexate and its downstream metabolite adenosine exert anti-inflammatory effects in the vascular endothelium by targeting and activating MiR-181b expression.
[eLife]
Yang, D., Haemmig, S., Zhou, H., Pérez-Cremades, D., Sun, X., Chen, L., Li, J., Haneo-Mejia, J., Yang, T., Hollan, I., & Feinberg, M. W. (2021). Methotrexate attenuates vascular inflammation through an adenosine-microRNA dependent pathway. ELife, 10, e58064. https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.58064 Cite
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Triglycerides in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Guilty Until Proven Innocent

Whether and how triglycerides promote hepatocyte injury remains unclear. Consequently, it is difficult to predict whether drugs designed to reduce hepatic triglycerides will prevent the most important complications of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.
[Trends in Pharmacological Sciences]
Semova, I., & Biddinger, S. B. (2021). Triglycerides in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Guilty Until Proven Innocent. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tips.2020.12.001 Cite
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