Researchers investigated insulin-producing cell generation from two practical canine MSCs, canine bone marrow-derived MSC, and canine adipose-derived MSCs.
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Collagen type XI alpha 1 (COL11A1) is overexpressed in cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs); therefore this study examined its role during CAF activation in epithelial ovarian cancer.
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Scientists showed that the branched-chain fatty acids, isobutyric and isovaleric acid, increased glucose production and activated mTORC1/S6K1 in hepatocytes.
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Choi, B. S.-Y., Daniel, N., Houde, V. P., Ouellette, A., Marcotte, B., Varin, T. V., Vors, C., Feutry, P., Ilkayeva, O., Ståhlman, M., St-Pierre, P., Bäckhed, F., Tremblay, A., White, P. J., & Marette, A. (2021). Feeding diversified protein sources exacerbates hepatic insulin resistance via increased gut microbial branched-chain fatty acids and mTORC1 signaling in obese mice. Nature Communications, 12(1), 3377. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-23782-w Cite
In this review, the authors focus upon the microfibrillar collagen VI, which is present in the extracellular matrix of most tissues.
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Williams, L., Layton, T., Yang, N., Feldmann, M., & Nanchahal, J. (n.d.). Collagen VI as a driver and disease biomarker in human fibrosis. The FEBS Journal, n/a(n/a). https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1111/febs.16039 Cite
Researchers tested the hypothesis that a particular immune activation profile might be correlated with insulin resistance in a general population. By measuring 43 markers of immune, endothelial, and coagulation activation, we have previously shown that five different immune activation profiles may be distinguished in 150 volunteers.
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Cezar, R., Desigaud, D., Pastore, M., Kundura, L., Dupuy, A.-M., Cognot, C., Vincent, T., Reynes, C., Sabatier, R., Maggia, E., & Corbeau, P. (2021). Insulin resistance is linked to a specific profile of immune activation in human subjects. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 12314. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-91758-3 Cite
Min6 cells were induced by 5 mg/dl UA and the cell proliferation, apoptosis, and insulin release were evaluated using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, flow cytometry and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, respectively.
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Investigators constructed PRL-1 overexpressed human placental mesenchymal stem cells in an attempt to enhance the suppressive function of adipogenesis in Graves’ ophthalmopathy animal models.
[Stem Cell Research & Therapy]
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Park, M., Kim, J. Y., Kang, J. M., Lee, H. J., Banga, J. P., Kim, G. J., & Lew, H. (2021). PRL-1 overexpressed placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells suppress adipogenesis in Graves’ ophthalmopathy through SREBP2/HMGCR pathway. Stem Cell Research & Therapy, 12(1), 304. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13287-021-02337-2 Cite
Scientists investigated if pterostilbene regulates glucose metabolism and insulin signaling, as well as its potential mechanism in the context of AGEs exposure.
[Molecular Nutrition & Food Research]
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Yu, W., Fan, L., Wang, M., Cao, B., & Hu, X. (n.d.). Pterostilbene Improves Insulin Resistance Caused by Advanced Glycation End Products (AGEs) in Hepatocytes and Mice. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, n/a(n/a), 2100321. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.202100321 Cite
Scientists evaluated modifications by prolonged-release pirfenidone on key hepatic miRNAs expression in a MAFLD/NASH model.
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Escutia-Gutiérrez, R., Rodríguez-Sanabria, J. S., Monraz-Méndez, C. A., García-Bañuelos, J., Santos-García, A., Sandoval-Rodríguez, A., & Armendáriz-Borunda, J. (2021). Pirfenidone modifies hepatic miRNAs expression in a model of MAFLD/NASH. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 11709. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-91187-2 Cite
Reserachers described and validated the use of the SUnSET approach to demonstrate through FACS and Western Blot that glucose increases protein translation in the human cell line EndoC-βH2
[Journal of Biological Chemistry]
Utilizing Min6 cells, a pancreatic ß-cell model, scientists knocked down G-protein coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) and measured glucose-mediated intracellular calcium responses and insulin secretion.
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