The authors showed that dietary raffinose metabolism to fructose couples stress-induced gut microbial remodeling to intestinal stem cells renewal and epithelial homeostasis.
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Hou, Y., Wei, W., Guan, X., Liu, Y., Bian, G., He, D., Fan, Q., Cai, X., Zhang, Y., Wang, G., Zheng, X., & Hao, H. (2021). A diet-microbial metabolism feedforward loop modulates intestinal stem cell renewal in the stressed gut. Nature Communications, 12(1), 271. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20673-4 Cite
Scientists report that CREPT, a recently identified tumor-promoting protein, was required for the maintenance of murine intestinal stem cells. CREPT was preferably expressed in the crypts but not in the villi.
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Yang, L., Yang, H., Chu, Y., Song, Y., Ding, L., Zhu, B., Zhai, W., Wang, X., Kuang, Y., Ren, F., Jia, B., Wu, W., Ye, X., Wang, Y., & Chang, Z. (2021). CREPT is required for murine stem cell maintenance during intestinal regeneration. Nature Communications, 12(1), 270. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20636-9 Cite
Researchers found that Bach2 deficiency promotes intestinal epithelial cell proliferation during homeostasis. Moreover, genetic inactivation of Bach2 in mouse intestinal epithelium facilitated crypt regeneration after irradiation, resulting in a reduction in mortality.
[Stem Cell Reports]
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Li, Y., Rao, X., Tang, P., Chen, S., Guo, Q., Fu, G., Pan, M., Liang, L., Yao, Y., Gao, X., Zhou, Y., Zhang, Z., Xu, X., Hu, W., Gao, J., & Hua, G. (2020). Bach2 Deficiency Promotes Intestinal Epithelial Regeneration by Accelerating DNA Repair in Intestinal Stem Cells. Stem Cell Reports, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stemcr.2020.12.005 Cite
Investigators identified the histone methyltransferase Mll1 as a regulator of Wnt-driven intestinal cancer. Mll1 is highly expressed in Lgr5+ stem cells and human colon carcinomas with increased nuclear β-catenin.
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Grinat, J., Heuberger, J., Vidal, R. O., Goveas, N., Kosel, F., Berenguer-Llergo, A., Kranz, A., Wulf-Goldenberg, A., Behrens, D., Melcher, B., Sauer, S., Vieth, M., Batlle, E., Stewart, A. F., & Birchmeier, W. (2020). The epigenetic regulator Mll1 is required for Wnt-driven intestinal tumorigenesis and cancer stemness. Nature Communications, 11(1), 6422. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20222-z Cite
Scientists discovered non-canonical Wnt/planar cell polarity-activated intestinal stem cells that are primed towards the enteroendocrine or Paneth cell lineage.
[Nature Cell Biology]
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Böttcher, A., Büttner, M., Tritschler, S., Sterr, M., Aliluev, A., Oppenländer, L., Burtscher, I., Sass, S., Irmler, M., Beckers, J., Ziegenhain, C., Enard, W., Schamberger, A. C., Verhamme, F. M., Eickelberg, O., Theis, F. J., & Lickert, H. (2021). Non-canonical Wnt/PCP signalling regulates intestinal stem cell lineage priming towards enteroendocrine and Paneth cell fates. Nature Cell Biology, 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41556-020-00617-2 Cite
Matched human enteroid and colonoid lines, generated from ileal and colon biopsies from two donors, were cultured in extracellular matrix for three days, followed by a single 48h treatment with rifampin, omeprazole, CITCO and phenytoin at concentrations that induce target genes in hepatocytes.
[Drug Metabolism and Disposition]
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Evaluation of tissue stem cell derived human intestinal organoids, a physiologically relevant model to evaluate cytochrome P450 induction in gut | Drug Metabolism & Disposition. (n.d.). Retrieved January 5, 2021, from https://dmd.aspetjournals.org/content/early/2020/12/21/dmd.120.000281 Cite
To describe the relevant cell populations in an unbiased manner, researchers carried out a single-cell transcriptome analysis of the adult murine colon, producing a high-quality atlas of matched colonic epithelium and mesenchyme.
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Scientists review colon extracellular matrix physical properties at physiological and pathological states and their bioengineered in vitro reproduction applications to intestinal stem cell studies.
Using the intestine of SAMP1/YitFcsJ mice aged 10 to 14 weeks, morphometric alterations in the crypt-villus architecture, intestinal stem cells, crypt cells, and differentiated cells; organoid formation capacity of intestinal crypts; and niche signaling pathways were analyzed and compared with those of age-matched control AKR/J mice.
[Inflammatory Bowel Diseases]
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Lee, C., Hong, S. N., Kim, E. R., Chang, D. K., & Kim, Y.-H. (n.d.). Depletion of Intestinal Stem Cell Niche Factors Contributes to the Alteration of Epithelial Differentiation in SAMP1/YitFcsJ Mice With Crohn Disease-Like Ileitis. Inflammatory Bowel Diseases. https://doi.org/10.1093/ibd/izaa314 Cite
Scientists summarize recent advances in understanding the correlation between Hippo–YAP signaling and intestinal homeostasis, repair, and tumorigenesis, focusing specifically on intestinal stem cell regulation.
Scientists examined the mechanisms of action of LGR4 and LGR5 in parallel using coimmunoprecipitation, proximity ligation, competition binding, and time-resolved FRET assays in whole cells.