Crosstalk between Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts and Immune Cells in the Tumor Microenvironment: New Findings and Future Perspectives

Investigators shed light on recent advances regarding the direct and indirect crosstalk between cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and infiltrating immune cells and further summarize the possible immunoinhibitory mechanisms induced by CAFs in the tumor microenvironment.
[Molecular Cancer]
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Designing Biomaterials for the Modulation of Allogeneic and Autoimmune Responses to Cellular Implants in Type 1 Diabetes

Designing materials to decrease antigen escape, improve cell viability, and increase material compatibility are all approaches that can decrease the local release of antigen and danger signals into the implant microenvironment.
[Acta Biomaterialia]
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TIGER: The Gene Expression Regulatory Variation Landscape of Human Pancreatic Islets

Scientists created the translational human pancreatic islet genotype tissue-expression resource (TIGER), aggregating over 500 human islet genomic datasets from five cohorts in the Horizon 2020 consortium T2DSystems.
[Cell Reports]
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A 3-Dimensional Coculture Model to Visualize and Monitor Interaction Between Pancreatic Cancer and Islet β Cells

Adopting a 3D rotary cell culture system, researchers co-cultured several PDAC cell lines and MIN6 islet β cells.
[Pancreas]
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Sex-Biased Islet β Cell Dysfunction Is Caused by the MODY MAFA S64F Variant by Inducing Premature Aging and Senescence in Males

MAFAS64F production in male human β cells accelerated cellular senescence and increase senescence-associated secretory proteins compared to cells expressing MAFAWT.
[Cell Reports]
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A20 Controls Expression of Beta-Cell Regulatory Genes and Transcription Factors

Scientists investigated the mechanisms underlying the protective role of A20 in the pancreatic beta-cell. Investigators demonstrated a role for A20 in controling beta-cell integrity and survival, which likely resulted from the regulation of inflammatory signaling
[Journal of Molecular Endocrinology]
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Detecting Insulitis in Type 1 Diabetes with Ultrasound Phase-Change Contrast Agents

Researchers presented ultrasound imaging of nanodroplet (ND) contrast-agent accumulation within the islet. ND accumulation is dependent on immune infiltration; therefore, it tracked presymptomatic type I diabetes development and progression to diabetes
[Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America]
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1α, 25-(OH)2 Vitamin D3 Prevents Insulin Resistance and Regulates Coordinated Exocytosis and Insulin Secretion

Researchers investigated the short-term effect of 1α,25(OH)2 vitamin D3 and cholecalciferol on the glycemia and insulin sensitivity of control and dexamethasone-induced insulin-resistance in rats.
[Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry]
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ATP Synthase Inhibitory Factor Subunit 1 Regulates Islet β-Cell Function via Repression of Mitochondrial Homeostasis

ATP synthase inhibitory factor subunit 1 (IF1) is a mitochondrial protein interacting with ATP synthase to inhibit its enzyme activity. Scientists investigated islets freshly isolated from mouse lines with global inhibitory factor subunit 1 knockout (IF1−/−) and overexpression.
[Laboratory Investigation]
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Vitamin D Decreases Pancreatic Iron Overload in Type 2 Diabetes through the NF-κB-DMT1 Pathway

Researchers explored the underlying mechanisms of type 2 diabetes prevention by vitamin D, concentrating on pancreatic iron deposition reported recently.
[Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry]
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Diversity of Pathophysiology in Type 2 Diabetes Revealed by Islet Pathology

Recent research has suggested that transdifferentiation and dedifferentiation are involved in the decrease in β-cell volume and that it may change dynamically depending on the glucose metabolic state.
[Journal of Diabetes investigation]
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