Researchers showed that a recently identified autophagy enhancer (MSL-7) reduces human IAPP oligomer accumulation in human iPSC-derived β-cells and diminishes oligomer-mediated apoptosis of β-cells.
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Kim, J., Park, K., Kim, M. J., Lim, H., Kim, K. H., Kim, S.-W., Lee, E.-S., Kim, H. (Henry), Kim, S. J., Hur, K. Y., Kim, J. H., Ahn, J. H., Yoon, K.-H., Kim, J.-W., & Lee, M.-S. (2021). An autophagy enhancer ameliorates diabetes of human IAPP -transgenic mice through clearance of amyloidogenic oligomer. Nature Communications, 12(1), 183. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20454-z Cite
The authors examined the role of pancreatic islets in Cadmium (Cd)-induced hyperglycemia. They showed that within whole pancreatic tissue, Cd selectively accumulated in pancreatic islets and caused altered islet function that likely contributed to dysglycemia.
[International Journal of Molecular Sciences]
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Scientists discuss the different cell types used to prepare heterocellular organoids for islet transplantation and their contribution to the organoids design.
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Recent advances in the design of implantable insulin secreting heterocellular islet organoids - ScienceDirect. (n.d.). Retrieved January 5, 2021, from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0142961220308747 Cite
Investigators demonstrated that stimulation of rat insulinoma cells or primary rat islets with glucose or glutamine + 2-aminobicyclo-(2,2,1)-heptane-2-carboxylic acid induced reductive, “counter-clockwise” tricarboxylic acid cycle flux of glutamine to citrate.
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To determine the presence of CB1 and CB2 receptors in pancreatic β cells, immunofluorescence of primary cell cultures and pancreatic sections was performed.
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Barajas-Martínez, A., Bermeo, K., Cruz, L. de la, Martínez-Vargas, M., Martínez-Tapia, R. J., García, D. E., & Navarro, L. (2020). Cannabinoid receptors are differentially regulated in the pancreatic islets during the early development of metabolic syndrome. Islets, 0(0), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1080/19382014.2020.1849927 Cite
Pre-weaned porcine islets were isolated from pancreata of pre-weaned Yorkshire piglets and cultured in a specific islet maturation media added with Nec-1 on day three of tissue culture at four different doses—0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 μM.
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Lau, H., Corrales, N., Rodriguez, S., Luong, C., Mohammadi, M., Khosrawipour, V., Li, S., Alexander, M., Vos, P. de, & Lakey, J. R. T. (2020). Dose-dependent effects of necrostatin-1 supplementation to tissue culture media of young porcine islets. PLOS ONE, 15(12), e0243506. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0243506 Cite
Scientists report that calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein serine kinase (CASK) functioned as an important regulator of insulin secretion. CASK depletion in mouse islets/β cells substantially reduced insulin secretion and vesicle docking/fusion.
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Zhang, Z., Li, W., Yang, G., Lu, X., Qi, X., Wang, S., Cao, C., Zhang, P., Ren, J., Zhao, J., Zhang, J., Hong, S., Tan, Y., Burchfield, J., Yu, Y., Xu, T., Yao, X., James, D., Feng, W., & Chen, Z. (2020). CASK modulates the assembly and function of the Mint1/Munc18-1 complex to regulate insulin secretion. Cell Discovery, 6(1), 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41421-020-00216-3 Cite
The authors present the case that dysfunction occurs in both the immune system and β-cells, which provokes further dysfunction, and present the evidence leading to the consensus that islet autoimmunity is an essential component in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes mellitus.
[Nature Reviews Endocrinology]
Researchers used immunofluorescence confocal and immunofluorescence microscopy, immunohistochemistry, RT-qPCR, Western blotting, pharmacology, electrophysiology and insulin secretory studies in normal human, rat and mouse islets.
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Fulvio, M. D., Bogdani, M., Velasco, M., McMillen, T. S., Ridaura, C., Kelly, L., Almutairi, M. M., Kursan, S., Sajib, A. A., Hiriart, M., & Aguilar-Bryan, L. (2020). Heterogeneous expression of CFTR in insulin-secreting β-cells of the normal human islet. PLOS ONE, 15(12), e0242749. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0242749 Cite
Investigators showed that FURIN was highly expressed in human islets, while roprotein convertase that potentially could provide redundancy were expressed at considerably lower levels.
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Brouwers, B., Coppola, I., Vints, K., Dislich, B., Jouvet, N., Lommel, L. V., Segers, C., Gounko, N. V., Thorrez, L., Schuit, F., Lichtenthaler, S. F., Estall, J. L., Declercq, J., Ramos-Molina, B., & Creemers, J. W. M. (2020). Loss of Furin in β cells Induces an mTORC1-ATF4 Anabolic Pathway that Leads to β cell Dysfunction. Diabetes. https://doi.org/10.2337/db20-0474 Cite
Investigators generated 95,308 single-cell transcriptomes and reconstructed a lineage tree of the entire differentiation process from human embryonic stem cells to beta-like cells to study temporally regulated genes during differentiation.
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