Lentiviral Gene Therapy Vectors Encoding VIP Suppressed Diabetes-Related Inflammation and Augmented Pancreatic Beta-Cell Proliferation

The authors suggested the observed therapeutic effect of lentiviral vector carrying vasoactive intestinal peptide(VIP) gene was due to the repression of diabetes-induced inflammation, its insulinotropic properties, and VIP-induced beta-cell proliferation.
[Gene Therapy]
Erendor, F., Sahin, E. O., Sanlioglu, A. D., Balci, M. K., Griffith, T. S., & Sanlioglu, S. (2020). Lentiviral gene therapy vectors encoding VIP suppressed diabetes-related inflammation and augmented pancreatic beta-cell proliferation. Gene Therapy, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41434-020-0183-3 Cite
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Lactate Activation of α-Cell KATP Channels Inhibits Glucagon Secretion by Hyperpolarizing the Membrane Potential and Reducing Ca2+ Entry

Mouse and human islets were used in combination with confocal microscopy, electrophysiology, GCG immunoassays, and fluorescent thallium flux assays to assess α-cell Ca2+ handling, Vm, KATP currents, and GCG secretion.
[Molecular Metabolism]
Zaborska, K. E., Dadi, P. K., Dickerson, M. T., Nakhe, A. Y., Thorson, A. S., Schaub, C. M., Graff, S. M., Stanley, J. E., Kondapavuluru, R. S., Denton, J. S., & Jacobson, D. A. (2020). Lactate activation of α-cell KATP channels inhibits glucagon secretion by hyperpolarizing the membrane potential and reducing Ca2+ entry. Molecular Metabolism, 101056. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molmet.2020.101056 Cite
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IL-17F Induces Inflammation, Dysfunction and Cell Death in Mouse Islets

IL-17F possessed similar pathogenic activities to IL-17A in mouse β-cell lines and islets and was likely to be a type 17 associated pathogenic factor in type 1 diabetes.
[Scientific Reports]
Catterall, T., Fynch, S., Kay, T. W. H., Thomas, H. E., & Sutherland, A. P. R. (2020). IL-17F induces inflammation, dysfunction and cell death in mouse islets. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 13077. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-69805-2 Cite
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Lentiviral Gene Therapy Vectors Encoding VIP Suppressed Diabetes-Related Inflammation and Augmented Pancreatic Beta-Cell Proliferation

The authors suggest the observed therapeutic effect of lentiviral vector carrying VIP gene was due to the repression of diabetes-induced inflammation, its insulinotropic properties, and VIP-induced beta-cell proliferation.
[Gene Therapy]
Erendor, F., Sahin, E. O., Sanlioglu, A. D., Balci, M. K., Griffith, T. S., & Sanlioglu, S. (2020). Lentiviral gene therapy vectors encoding VIP suppressed diabetes-related inflammation and augmented pancreatic beta-cell proliferation. Gene Therapy, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41434-020-0183-3 Cite
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DGAT1 Inhibitors Protect Pancreatic β-Cells from Palmitic Acid-Induced Apoptosis

Researchers evaluated the potential beneficial effects of DGAT1 inhibitors on pancreatic β-cells, and further verified their antidiabetic effects in db/db mice.
[Acta Pharmacologica Sinica]
Huang, J., Guo, B., Wang, G., Zeng, L., Hu, Y., Wang, T., & Wang, H. (2020). DGAT1 inhibitors protect pancreatic β-cells from palmitic acid-induced apoptosis. Acta Pharmacologica Sinica, 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41401-020-0482-7 Cite
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Lentiviral Gene Therapy Vectors Encoding VIP Suppressed Diabetes-Related Inflammation and Augmented Pancreatic Beta-Cell Proliferation

The therapeutic efficacy of LentiVIP was tested in a multiple low-dose STZ-induced animal model of type 1 diabetes. LentiVIP delivery into diabetic animals reduced hyperglycemia, improved glucose tolerance, and prevented weight loss.
[Gene Therapy]
Erendor, F., Sahin, E. O., Sanlioglu, A. D., Balci, M. K., Griffith, T. S., & Sanlioglu, S. (2020). Lentiviral gene therapy vectors encoding VIP suppressed diabetes-related inflammation and augmented pancreatic beta-cell proliferation. Gene Therapy, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41434-020-0183-3 Cite
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Identification of an Anti-Diabetic, Orally Available Small Molecule that Regulates TXNIP Expression and Glucagon Action

In rat cells and in mouse and human islets, SRI-37330 inhibited expression and signaling of thioredoxin-interacting protein, previously found to be elevated in diabetes and to have detrimental effects on islet function.
[Cell Metabolism]
Identification of an Anti-diabetic, Orally Available Small Molecule that Regulates TXNIP Expression and Glucagon Action: Cell Metabolism. (n.d.). Retrieved July 28, 2020, from https://www.cell.com/cell-metabolism/fulltext/S1550-4131(20)30360-0 Cite
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Insulin2Q104del (Kuma) Mutant Mice Develop Diabetes with Dominant Inheritance

Scientists generated a novel Kuma mutant mice with p.Q104del in the Insulin2 gene in a BRJ background that exhibited a severe immune deficiency.
[Scientific Reports]
Sakano, D., Inoue, A., Enomoto, T., Imasaka, M., Okada, S., Yokota, M., Koike, M., Araki, K., & Kume, S. (2020). Insulin2 Q104del (Kuma) mutant mice develop diabetes with dominant inheritance. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 12187. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-68987-z Cite
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Mitomycin C Treatment Improves Pancreatic Islet Graft Longevity in Intraportal Islet Transplantation by Suppressing Proinflammatory Response

Researchers present a simple approach for islet preconditioning that uses the antibiotic mitomycin C, which has antitumor activity, to reduce islet immunogenicity and prevent proinflammatory events in an intraportal islet transplantation model.
[Scientific Reports]
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Functional Loss of Pancreatic Islets in Type 2 Diabetes: How Can We Halt It?

The authors provide a view of the experimental and clinical evidence on the ability of available anti-diabetes drugs to exert protective effects on beta-cells, with a specific focus on human pancreatic islets and clinical trials.
[Metabolism-Clinical and Experimental]
Marrano, N., Biondi, G., Cignarelli, A., Perrini, S., Laviola, L., Giorgino, F., & Natalicchio, A. (2020). Functional loss of pancreatic islets in type 2 diabetes: how can we halt it? Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.metabol.2020.154304 Cite
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Rb and p53 Execute Distinct Roles in the Development of Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors

By manipulating Rb and p53 genes, researchers established a multistep progression model from dysplastic islets to indolent pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNET) and aggressive metastatic PanNET in mice.
[Cancer Research]
Rb and p53 execute distinct roles in the development of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors | Cancer Research. (n.d.). Retrieved June 30, 2020, from https://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/early/2020/06/26/0008-5472.CAN-19-2232 Cite
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Localized Immunosuppression with Tannic Acid Encapsulation Delays Islet Allograft and Autoimmune-Mediated Rejection

Transplantation of poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone)/tannic acid (PVPON/TA)-encapsulated islets was immunomodulatory as gene expression and flow cytometric analysis revealed significantly decreased in immune cell infiltration, synthesis of ROS, inflammatory chemokines, cytokines, CD8 T cell effector responses, and concomitant increases in alternatively-activated M2 macrophage and dendritic cell phenotypes.
[Diabetes]
Barra, J. M., Kozlovskaya, V., Kharlampieva, E., & Tse, H. M. (2020). Localized Immunosuppression with Tannic Acid Encapsulation Delays Islet Allograft and Autoimmune-Mediated Rejection. Diabetes. https://doi.org/10.2337/db20-0248 Cite
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