An Autophagy Enhancer Ameliorates Diabetes of Human IAPP-Transgenic Mice through Clearance of Amyloidogenic Oligomer

Researchers showed that a recently identified autophagy enhancer (MSL-7) reduces human IAPP oligomer accumulation in human iPSC-derived β-cells and diminishes oligomer-mediated apoptosis of β-cells.
[Nature Communications]
Kim, J., Park, K., Kim, M. J., Lim, H., Kim, K. H., Kim, S.-W., Lee, E.-S., Kim, H. (Henry), Kim, S. J., Hur, K. Y., Kim, J. H., Ahn, J. H., Yoon, K.-H., Kim, J.-W., & Lee, M.-S. (2021). An autophagy enhancer ameliorates diabetes of human IAPP -transgenic mice through clearance of amyloidogenic oligomer. Nature Communications, 12(1), 183. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20454-z Cite
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Pancreatic Islets Accumulate Cadmium in a Rodent Model of Cadmium-Induced Hyperglycemia

The authors examined the role of pancreatic islets in Cadmium (Cd)-induced hyperglycemia. They showed that within whole pancreatic tissue, Cd selectively accumulated in pancreatic islets and caused altered islet function that likely contributed to dysglycemia.
[International Journal of Molecular Sciences]
Fitzgerald, R., Olsen, A., Nguyen, J., Wong, W., El Muayed, M., & Edwards, J. (2021). Pancreatic Islets Accumulate Cadmium in a Rodent Model of Cadmium-Induced Hyperglycemia. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 22(1), 360. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22010360 Cite
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Recent Advances in the Design of Implantable Insulin Secreting Heterocellular Islet Organoids

Scientists discuss the different cell types used to prepare heterocellular organoids for islet transplantation and their contribution to the organoids design.
[Biomaterials]
Recent advances in the design of implantable insulin secreting heterocellular islet organoids - ScienceDirect. (n.d.). Retrieved January 5, 2021, from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0142961220308747 Cite
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Reductive TCA Cycle Metabolism Fuels Glutamine- and Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Secretion

Investigators demonstrated that stimulation of rat insulinoma cells or primary rat islets with glucose or glutamine + 2-aminobicyclo-(2,2,1)-heptane-2-carboxylic acid induced reductive, “counter-clockwise” tricarboxylic acid cycle flux of glutamine to citrate.
[Cell Metabolism]
Zhang, G.-F., Jensen, M. V., Gray, S. M., El, K., Wang, Y., Lu, D., Becker, T. C., Campbell, J. E., & Newgard, C. B. (2020). Reductive TCA cycle metabolism fuels glutamine- and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Cell Metabolism, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cmet.2020.11.020 Cite
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Cannabinoid Receptors Are Differentially Regulated in the Pancreatic Islets During the Early Development of Metabolic Syndrome

To determine the presence of CB1 and CB2 receptors in pancreatic β cells, immunofluorescence of primary cell cultures and pancreatic sections was performed.
[Islets]
Barajas-Martínez, A., Bermeo, K., Cruz, L. de la, Martínez-Vargas, M., Martínez-Tapia, R. J., García, D. E., & Navarro, L. (2020). Cannabinoid receptors are differentially regulated in the pancreatic islets during the early development of metabolic syndrome. Islets, 0(0), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1080/19382014.2020.1849927 Cite
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Dose-Dependent Effects of Necrostatin-1 Supplementation to Tissue Culture Media of Young Porcine Islets

Pre-weaned porcine islets were isolated from pancreata of pre-weaned Yorkshire piglets and cultured in a specific islet maturation media added with Nec-1 on day three of tissue culture at four different doses—0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 μM.
[PLoS One]
Lau, H., Corrales, N., Rodriguez, S., Luong, C., Mohammadi, M., Khosrawipour, V., Li, S., Alexander, M., Vos, P. de, & Lakey, J. R. T. (2020). Dose-dependent effects of necrostatin-1 supplementation to tissue culture media of young porcine islets. PLOS ONE, 15(12), e0243506. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0243506 Cite
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CASK Modulates the Assembly and Function of the Mint1/Munc18-1 Complex to Regulate Insulin Secretion

Scientists report that calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein serine kinase (CASK) functioned as an important regulator of insulin secretion. CASK depletion in mouse islets/β cells substantially reduced insulin secretion and vesicle docking/fusion.
[Cell Discovery]
Zhang, Z., Li, W., Yang, G., Lu, X., Qi, X., Wang, S., Cao, C., Zhang, P., Ren, J., Zhao, J., Zhang, J., Hong, S., Tan, Y., Burchfield, J., Yu, Y., Xu, T., Yao, X., James, D., Feng, W., & Chen, Z. (2020). CASK modulates the assembly and function of the Mint1/Munc18-1 complex to regulate insulin secretion. Cell Discovery, 6(1), 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41421-020-00216-3 Cite
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Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus as a Disease of the β-Cell (Do Not Blame the Immune System?)

The authors present the case that dysfunction occurs in both the immune system and β-cells, which provokes further dysfunction, and present the evidence leading to the consensus that islet autoimmunity is an essential component in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes mellitus.
[Nature Reviews Endocrinology]
Roep, B. O., Thomaidou, S., van Tienhoven, R., & Zaldumbide, A. (2020). Type 1 diabetes mellitus as a disease of the β-cell (do not blame the immune system?). Nature Reviews Endocrinology, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41574-020-00443-4 Cite
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Heterogeneous Expression of CFTR in Insulin-Secreting β-Cells of the Normal Human Islet

Researchers used immunofluorescence confocal and immunofluorescence microscopy, immunohistochemistry, RT-qPCR, Western blotting, pharmacology, electrophysiology and insulin secretory studies in normal human, rat and mouse islets.
[PLoS One]
Fulvio, M. D., Bogdani, M., Velasco, M., McMillen, T. S., Ridaura, C., Kelly, L., Almutairi, M. M., Kursan, S., Sajib, A. A., Hiriart, M., & Aguilar-Bryan, L. (2020). Heterogeneous expression of CFTR in insulin-secreting β-cells of the normal human islet. PLOS ONE, 15(12), e0242749. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0242749 Cite
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Loss of Furin in β cells Induces an mTORC1-ATF4 Anabolic Pathway that Leads to β cell Dysfunction

Investigators showed that FURIN was highly expressed in human islets, while roprotein convertase that potentially could provide redundancy were expressed at considerably lower levels.
[Diabetes]
Brouwers, B., Coppola, I., Vints, K., Dislich, B., Jouvet, N., Lommel, L. V., Segers, C., Gounko, N. V., Thorrez, L., Schuit, F., Lichtenthaler, S. F., Estall, J. L., Declercq, J., Ramos-Molina, B., & Creemers, J. W. M. (2020). Loss of Furin in β cells Induces an mTORC1-ATF4 Anabolic Pathway that Leads to β cell Dysfunction. Diabetes. https://doi.org/10.2337/db20-0474 Cite
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Single-Cell Lineage Analysis Reveals Extensive Multimodal Transcriptional Control during Directed Beta-Cell Differentiation

Investigators generated 95,308 single-cell transcriptomes and reconstructed a lineage tree of the entire differentiation process from human embryonic stem cells to beta-like cells to study temporally regulated genes during differentiation.
[Nature Metabolism]
Weng, C., Xi, J., Li, H., Cui, J., Gu, A., Lai, S., Leskov, K., Ke, L., Jin, F., & Li, Y. (2020). Single-cell lineage analysis reveals extensive multimodal transcriptional control during directed beta-cell differentiation. Nature Metabolism, 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1038/s42255-020-00314-2 Cite
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