Investigators showed that inhibiting serpinB13, a cathepsin L protease inhibitor expressed in the pancreatic epithelium, caused in vitro and in vivo cleavage of the extracellular domain of Notch1.
[Science Translational Medicine]
Researchers used a cell-tagging dye, CFDA-SE, to permanently label pancreatic duct cells through an intraductal infusion technique.
[Experimental and Molecular Medicine]
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The authors showed that proliferative endothelial cells modulated macrophage (MΦ) infiltration and phenotype during β cell loss, and recruited MΦs were essential for β cell recovery.
[npj Regenerative Medicine]
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Saunders, D. C., Aamodt, K. I., Richardson, T. M., Hopkirk, A. J., Aramandla, R., Poffenberger, G., Jenkins, R., Flaherty, D. K., Prasad, N., Levy, S. E., Powers, A. C., & Brissova, M. (2021). Coordinated interactions between endothelial cells and macrophages in the islet microenvironment promote β cell regeneration. Npj Regenerative Medicine, 6(1), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41536-021-00129-z Cite
Investigators discuss current challenges surrounding the generation, delivery, and engraftment of stem cell-derived islet-like cells, along with strategies to induce durable tolerance to grafted cells, with an eye toward a functional cellular-based therapy enabling insulin independence for patients with diabetes.
Researchers observed state-specific enrichment of fasting glucose and type 2 diabetes genome-wide association studies for beta cells and enrichment for other endocrine cell types.
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Chiou, J., Zeng, C., Cheng, Z., Han, J. Y., Schlichting, M., Miller, M., Mendez, R., Huang, S., Wang, J., Sui, Y., Deogaygay, A., Okino, M.-L., Qiu, Y., Sun, Y., Kudtarkar, P., Fang, R., Preissl, S., Sander, M., Gorkin, D. U., & Gaulton, K. J. (2021). Single-cell chromatin accessibility identifies pancreatic islet cell type– and state-specific regulatory programs of diabetes risk. Nature Genetics, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41588-021-00823-0 Cite
Researchers suggested that accumulation of endogenous mtdsRNA following degradosome knockdown depended on the proliferative capacity of the cells and was not a mediator of the type I interferon response in human pancreatic beta cells.
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Coomans de Brachène, A., Castela, A., Musuaya, A. E., Marselli, L., Marchetti, P., & Eizirik, D. L. (2021). Endogenous mitochondrial double‐stranded RNA is not an activator of the type I interferon response in human pancreatic beta cells. Autoimmunity Highlights, 12(1), 6. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13317-021-00148-2 Cite
Scientists showed that hydrophobic components of bitter melon fruit extract increased ATP production and augmented insulin secretion from β-cells, consequently decreasing blood glucose levels.
[British Journal of Nutrition]
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Bitter melon fruit extract enhances intracellular ATP production and insulin secretion from rat pancreatic β-cells | British Journal of Nutrition | Cambridge Core. (n.d.). Retrieved March 30, 2021, from https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition/article/bitter-melon-fruit-extract-enhances-intracellular-atp-production-and-insulin-secretion-from-rat-pancreatic-cells/B388E6AC085C0B1DB936801BDC00EF61 Cite
The effects of fetuin-A were assessed during in vitro maturation of porcine neonatal islet cell clusters and in adult human islets. Expression alterations were examined via microarray, RNA sequencing and reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR, proteins were analyzed by western blotting and immunostaining, and insulin secretion was quantified in static incubations.
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The hepatokine fetuin-A disrupts functional maturation of pancreatic beta cells | SpringerLink. (n.d.). Retrieved March 30, 2021, from https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00125-021-05435-1 Cite
While much has been learned about type 1 diabetes (T1D), it is now clear that there is considerable heterogeneity in T1D with regards to genetics, pathology, response to immune-based therapies, clinical course, and susceptibility to diabetes-related complications. This review highlights knowledge gaps and opportunities to improve the understanding of T1D pathogenesis and outlines emerging therapies to treat or prevent T1D and reduce the burden of T1D.
[Journal of Clinical Investigation]
Investigators showed that gestational vitamin B6 deficiency decreased serotonin levels in maternal pancreatic islets and reduced β-cell proliferation in an serotonin receptor 2B-dependent manner.
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Researchers identified the insulin gene enhancer binding protein‐1 (ISL-1) protein as a potential modulator in bone marrow‐derived mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC)‐mediated revascularization of islet grafts. They demonstrated that the survival rate and insulin secretion of islets were increased in the presence of BMSCs, indicating that BMSCs promoted islet revascularization in a coculture system and rat diabetes model.
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Wang, Y., Wang, J.-W., Li, Y., Tian, X.-H., Feng, X.-S., Zhang, S.-C., Liu, P.-J., Xue, W.-J., Zheng, J., & Ding, X.-M. (n.d.). Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells improve rat islet graft revascularization by upregulating ISL1. STEM CELLS, n/a(n/a). https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1002/stem.3378 Cite