Scientists shed light into the current therapeutic landscape of hepatocellular carcinoma with an emphasis on the available treatments, ranging from surgical and local-ablative therapy for early and intermediate stages of the disease to systemic therapies for advanced cancer treatments.
The authors summarize the existing evidence that supports the concept of microvesicles, the tiny particles have a big role behind the rare immortal cancer stem cells which controls the tumor initiation, propagation and metastasis in liver cancer.
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He, C., Ali, D. J., Aseervatham G, S. B., Sun, B., & Xiao, Z. (2021). Microvesicles – promising tiny players’ of cancer stem cells targeted liver cancer treatments: the interesting interactions and therapeutic aspects. Pharmacological Research, 105609. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrs.2021.105609 Cite
Investigators demonstrated that chondroitin sulfate coated multilayered 50-nm nanoparticles encapsulating collagenase and silibinin broke down the dense collagen stroma, while silibinin inhibited activated hepatic stellate cells.
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Researchers investigated the effect and mechanism of β-glucan prepared from Lignosus rhinocerotis using an enzymatic method on epithelial restitution during intestinal mucosal damage.
[Journal of Ethnopharmacology]
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Veeraperumal, S., Qiu, H.-M., Tan, C.-S., Ng, S.-T., Zhang, W., Tang, S., Cheong, K.-L., & Liu, Y. (2021). Restitution of epithelial cells during intestinal mucosal wound healing: the effect of a polysaccharide from the sclerotium of Lignosus rhinocerotis (Cooke) Ryvarden. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 114024. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2021.114024 Cite
Scientists suggested that fat can induce glucose-mediated metabolic changes in non-transformed liver cells similar to those found in hepatocellular carcinoma.
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Can-Fite BioPharma Ltd. announced new data from the Phase II advanced liver cancer study including overall survival of nearly 4 years in two patients who are under namodenoson treatment.
[Can-Fite BioPharma Ltd.]
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Researchers uncovered a TNFR2-hnRNPK-YAP signaling axis in hepatic progenitor cells essential for primary liver cancer development.
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Meng, Y., Zhao, Q., An, L., Jiao, S., Li, R., Sang, Y., Liao, J., Nie, P., Wen, F., Ju, J., Zhou, Z., & Wei, L. (2021). A TNFR2-hnRNPK axis promotes primary liver cancer development via activation of YAP signaling in hepatic progenitor cells. Cancer Research. https://doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-20-3175 Cite
The recovery of C2orf40 expression in hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines could induce G0/G1 phase arrest and apoptosis, and also inhibit cell migration and invasion by reversing the epithelial–mesenchymal transition process, both in vivo and in vitro.
[Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology]
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Wu, Y., Xiang, Q., Lv, X., Xiang, X., Feng, Z., Tian, S., Tang, J., Xiang, T., & Gong, J. (n.d.). C2orf40 inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma through UBR5-dependent or p53-independent mechanisms. Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, n/a(n/a). https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1111/jgh.15441 Cite
The effects of lactonic sophorolipids and cell death inhibitors were measured by MTT test on HepG2 cells. Their morphology of the cells was observed under a microscope.
[Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology]
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To mimic liver fibrosis in vitro, LX-2 cells were treated with TGF-β. Gene and protein expressions were detected by RT-qPCR and western blot, respectively.
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The authors summarize findings indicating that the dysregulation of stress kinases plays a fundamental role in the development of steatosis and are important players inducing liver fibrosis.