The Dynamic Epigenetic Regulation of the Inactive X Chromosome in Healthy Human B Cells Is Dysregulated in Lupus Patients

Scientists used RNA fluorescence in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence to profile epigenetic features of the inactive X at the single-cell level in human B cell subsets from pediatric and adult systemic lupus erythematous patients and healthy controls.
[Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America]
Pyfrom, S., Paneru, B., Knox, J. J., Cancro, M. P., Posso, S., Buckner, J. H., & Anguera, M. C. (2021). The dynamic epigenetic regulation of the inactive X chromosome in healthy human B cells is dysregulated in lupus patients. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 118(24). https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2024624118 Cite
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Is There a Place for CAR-T Cells in the Treatment of Chronic Autoimmune Rheumatic Diseases?

The authors introduce CAR-T cell technology, describe the meaningful achievements of CAR-T cells observed in onco-hematology and discuss preliminary data obtained with CAR-T cells and their derivative constructions in experimental models of autoimmune diseases.
[Arthritis & Rheumatology]
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Depleting Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells Reduces Local Type I Interferon Responses and Disease Activity in Patients with Cutaneous Lupus

To evaluate the potential benefit of depleting plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) in autoimmunity, a monoclonal antibody targeting the pDC-specific marker immunoglobulin-like transcript 7 was generated.
[Science Translational Medicine]
Karnell, J. L., Wu, Y., Mittereder, N., Smith, M. A., Gunsior, M., Yan, L., Casey, K. A., Henault, J., Riggs, J. M., Nicholson, S. M., Sanjuan, M. A., Vousden, K. A., Werth, V. P., Drappa, J., Illei, G. G., Rees, W. A., Ratchford, J. N., & Investigators, V. T. (2021). Depleting plasmacytoid dendritic cells reduces local type I interferon responses and disease activity in patients with cutaneous lupus. Science Translational Medicine, 13(595). https://doi.org/10.1126/scitranslmed.abf8442 Cite
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Interferon Lambda in Inflammation and Autoimmune Rheumatic Diseases

The authors provide a critical evaluation of the current literature on IFNλ biology and how type III interferons might contribute to immune dysregulation and tissue damage in autoimmunity.
[Nature Reviews Rheumatology]
Goel, R. R., Kotenko, S. V., & Kaplan, M. J. (2021). Interferon lambda in inflammation and autoimmune rheumatic diseases. Nature Reviews Rheumatology, 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41584-021-00606-1 Cite
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Transcriptomic Analysis of Immune Cells in a Multi-Ethnic Cohort of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Patients Identifies Ethnicity- and Disease-Specific Expression Signatures

Scientists leveraged cell-sorted RNA-seq data from 120 systemic lupus erythematosus patients and applied a four-tier approach including unsupervised clustering, differential expression analyses, gene co-expression analyses.
[Communications Biology]
Andreoletti, G., Lanata, C. M., Trupin, L., Paranjpe, I., Jain, T. S., Nititham, J., Taylor, K. E., Combes, A. J., Maliskova, L., Ye, C. J., Katz, P., Dall’Era, M., Yazdany, J., Criswell, L. A., & Sirota, M. (2021). Transcriptomic analysis of immune cells in a multi-ethnic cohort of systemic lupus erythematosus patients identifies ethnicity- and disease-specific expression signatures. Communications Biology, 4(1), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1038/s42003-021-02000-9 Cite
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TRIM27 Contributes to Glomerular Endothelial Cell Injury in Lupus Nephritis by Mediating the FoxO1 Signaling Pathway

Researchers detected the expression of the tripartite motif-containing 27 (TRIM27) protein in glomerular endothelial cells in vivo and in vitro.
[Laboratory Investigation]
Liu, J., Xu, J., Huang, J., Gu, C., Liu, Q., Zhang, W., Gao, F., Tian, Y., Miao, X., Zhu, Z., Jia, B., Tian, Y., Wu, L., Zhao, H., Feng, X., & Liu, S. (2021). TRIM27 contributes to glomerular endothelial cell injury in lupus nephritis by mediating the FoxO1 signaling pathway. Laboratory Investigation, 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41374-021-00591-9 Cite
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Does the Epithelial Barrier Hypothesis Explain the Increase in Allergy, Autoimmunity and Other Chronic Conditions?

Scientists discuss how the immune responses to dysbiotic microbiota that cross the damaged barrier may be involved in the development of allergic and autoimmune diseases.
[Nature Reviews Immunology]
Akdis, C. A. (2021). Does the epithelial barrier hypothesis explain the increase in allergy, autoimmunity and other chronic conditions? Nature Reviews Immunology, 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41577-021-00538-7 Cite
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Sorrento Enters Into Merger Agreement to Acquire Late-Stage Oncology Company ACEA Therapeutics

Sorrento Therapeutics, Inc. announced the signing of a merger agreement pursuant to which Sorrento will acquire ACEA Therapeutics, Inc. The acquisition will include late clinical stage drug Abivertinib, clinical stage candidate AC0058, preclinical stage candidate AC0939, and ACEA’s extensive proprietary library of small molecules, which potentially have applications for numerous human disease indications, including non-small cell lung cancer, B cell lymphomas, systemic lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis and viral infections.
[Sorrento Therapeutics, Inc. (Globe Newswire, Inc.)]
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Type I Interferons Affect the Metabolic Fitness of CD8+ T Cells from Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

Scientists showed downregulation of mitochondria-derived genes and mitochondria-associated metabolic pathways in IFN-High patients from transcriptomic analysis of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells.
[Nature Communications]
Buang, N., Tapeng, L., Gray, V., Sardini, A., Whilding, C., Lightstone, L., Cairns, T. D., Pickering, M. C., Behmoaras, J., Ling, G. S., & Botto, M. (2021). Type I interferons affect the metabolic fitness of CD8 + T cells from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Nature Communications, 12(1), 1980. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-22312-y Cite
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Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling-1 Mimetic Peptides Attenuate Lymphocyte Activation in the MRL/lpr Mouse Autoimmune Model

Using Fas deficient, MRL/MpJ-Faslpr/J mice, which develop lupus-like disease spontaneously, investigators tested the hypothesis that a peptide mimic of the suppressor of cytokine signaling-1 kinase inhibitory region would inhibit lymphocyte activation and modulate lupus-associated pathologies.
[Scientific Reports]
Sharma, J., Collins, T. D., Roach, T., Mishra, S., Lam, B. K., Mohamed, Z. S., Veal, A. E., Polk, T. B., Jones, A., Cornaby, C., Haider, M. I., Zeumer-Spataro, L., Johnson, H. M., Morel, L. M., & Larkin, J. (2021). Suppressor of cytokine signaling-1 mimetic peptides attenuate lymphocyte activation in the MRL/lpr mouse autoimmune model. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 6354. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-86017-4 Cite
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B Cell-Specific XIST Complex Enforces X-inactivation and Restrains Atypical B Cells

Investigators showed XIST was continually required in adult human B cells to silence a subset of X-linked immune genes such as TLR7.
[Cell]
Yu, B., Qi, Y., Li, R., Shi, Q., Satpathy, A. T., & Chang, H. Y. (2021). B cell-specific XIST complex enforces X-inactivation and restrains atypical B cells. Cell, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2021.02.015 Cite
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