Adoptive T Cell Therapy Targeting Different Gene Products Reveals Diverse and Context-Dependent Immune Evasion in Melanoma

Researchers examined how regulation and function of gene products that provide the target epitopes for CD8+ T cell anti-tumor immunity influence therapeutic efficacy and resistance.
[Immunity]
Effern, M., Glodde, N., Braun, M., Liebing, J., Boll, H. N., Yong, M., Bawden, E., Hinze, D., Boorn-Konijnenberg, D. van den, Daoud, M., Aymans, P., Landsberg, J., Smyth, M. J., Flatz, L., Tüting, T., Bald, T., Gebhardt, T., & Hölzel, M. (2020). Adoptive T Cell Therapy Targeting Different Gene Products Reveals Diverse and Context-Dependent Immune Evasion in Melanoma. Immunity, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.immuni.2020.07.007 Cite
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A Nanoscale Metal Organic Frameworks-Based Vaccine Synergises with PD-1 Blockade to Potentiate Anti-Tumor Immunity

Scientists designed an ultrafast, low-temperature, and universal self-assembly route to integrate immunology-associated large molecules into metal-organic-framework-gated mesoporous silica as cancer vaccines.
[Nature Communications]
Li, X., Wang, X., Ito, A., & Tsuji, N. M. (2020). A nanoscale metal organic frameworks-based vaccine synergises with PD-1 blockade to potentiate anti-tumour immunity. Nature Communications, 11(1), 3858. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-17637-z Cite
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A Novel Transgenic Mouse Strain Expressing PKCβII Demonstrates Expansion of B1 and Marginal Zone B Cell Populations

Researchers investigated the relative role of PKCβII in B cells by generating transgenic mice where expression of the transgene is directed to these cells using the Eµ promoter
[Scientific Reports]
Azar, A. A., Michie, A. M., Tarafdar, A., Malik, N., Menon, G. K., Till, K. J., Vlatković, N., & Slupsky, J. R. (2020). A novel transgenic mouse strain expressing PKCβII demonstrates expansion of B1 and marginal zone B cell populations. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 13156. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-70191-y Cite
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Metabolic Conditioning of CD8+ Effector T Cells for Adoptive Cell Therapy

Investigators showed that transient glucose restriction in activated CD8+ effector T cells metabolically primed effector functions and enhanced tumor clearance in mice.
[Nature Metabolism]
Klein Geltink, R. I., Edwards-Hicks, J., Apostolova, P., O’Sullivan, D., Sanin, D. E., Patterson, A. E., Puleston, D. J., Ligthart, N. A. M., Buescher, J. M., Grzes, K. M., Kabat, A. M., Stanczak, M., Curtis, J. D., Hässler, F., Uhl, F. M., Fabri, M., Zeiser, R., Pearce, E. J., & Pearce, E. L. (2020). Metabolic conditioning of CD8 + effector T cells for adoptive cell therapy. Nature Metabolism, 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1038/s42255-020-0256-z Cite
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Correlative Study of Epigenetic Regulation of Tumor Microenvironment in Spindle Cell Melanomas and Cutaneous Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumors

Scientists investigated the epigenetic regulation of promoters and gene bodies and their effect on the tumor microenvironment composition of cutaneous malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors and spindle cell melanomas.
[Scientific Reports]
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The Impact of Donor Type on the Outcome of Pediatric Patients with Very High Risk Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia. A Study of the ALL SCT 2003 BFM-SG and 2007-BFM-International SG

Investigators demonstrated the impact of donor type on overall results of allogeneic stem cell transplantation for very-high risk pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia with worse results when using mismatched donor stem cell source.
[Bone Marrow Transplantation]
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Adoptive T Cell Therapy Targeting Different Gene Products Reveals Diverse and Context-Dependent Immune Evasion in Melanoma

Targeting melanosomal proteins or oncogenic CDK4R24C by adoptive cell transfer of the same epitope-specific CD8+ T cells revealed diverse genetic and non-genetic immune escape mechanisms.
[Immunity]
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Overexpression of miR-382 Sensitizes Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells to γδ T Cells through Inhibiting the Expression of C-Flip

As miR-382 was observed to be downregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues and cell lines, researchers found that overexpression of miR-382 increased the sensitivity of HCC cells to γδ T cells.
[Molecular Therapy-Oncolytics]
Chen, Z., Zheng, Z., Feng, L., Huo, Z., Huang, L., Fu, M., Chen, Q., Ke, Y., Yang, J., & Hou, B. (2020). Overexpression of miR-382 sensitizes hepatocellular carcinoma cells to γδ T cells through inhibiting the expression of c-FLIP. Molecular Therapy - Oncolytics, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.omto.2020.07.012 Cite
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Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Natural Killer Cells Gene-Modified to Express Chimeric Antigen Receptor-Targeting Solid Tumors

Scientists describe the characteristics of natural killer (NK) cells from multiple cell sources, including PSCs, the chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modification method and strategy for these NK cells.
[International Journal of Hematology]
Ueda, T., & Kaneko, S. (2020). Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived natural killer cells gene-modified to express chimeric antigen receptor-targeting solid tumors. International Journal of Hematology. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12185-020-02951-5 Cite
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Comparative Study between Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Etanercept as Immunomodulatory Agents in Rat Model of Rheumatoid Arthritis

Adipose tissue mesenchymal stem cells were able to delay the onset of collagen-induced arthritis, suppress the ongoing clinical and histopathological signs, decrease serum levels of TNF-α and anti-collagen type II, and downregulate the autoreactive T cells as etanercept.
[Immunologic Research]
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Regulatory T Cells Are Less Sensitive to Glucocorticoid Hormone Induced Apoptosis than CD4+ T Cells

Investigators analyzed the apoptosis-inducing effect of high dose in vitro dexamethasone treatment in mouse thymic- and splenic Tregs and CD4+ T cells.
[Apoptosis]
Prenek, L., Litvai, T., Balázs, N., Kugyelka, R., Boldizsár, F., Najbauer, J., Németh, P., & Berki, T. (2020). Regulatory T cells are less sensitive to glucocorticoid hormone induced apoptosis than CD4+ T cells. Apoptosis. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10495-020-01629-x Cite
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