Distinct Single-Component Adjuvants Steer Human DC-Mediated T-cell Polarization via Toll-Like Receptor Signaling toward a Potent Antiviral Immune Response

Scientists assessed the effect of different adjuvants on human monocyte-derived dendritic cells and their ability to polarize innate and adaptive immune responses.
[Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America]
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Lycopus lucidus Turcz Ameliorates DNCB-Induced Atopic Dermatitis in BALB/C Mice

The authors determined whether Lycopus lucidus Turcz (LLT) could improve 2,4‑dinitrochlorobenzene‑induced dermatitis and to verify the inhibitory effect of LLT on the expression of chemokines and pro‑inflammatory cytokines in the HaCaT immortalized keratinocyte cell line.
[Molecular Medicine Reports]
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Novel Population of Human Monocyte and Osteoclast Progenitors from Pluripotent Stem Cells and Peripheral Blood

The authors developed reproducible methods to derive, from human pluripotent stem cells, a population containing monocyte progenitors able to generate functional osteoclast cells. Within this population, they identified cells with monocyte and osteoclast progenitor activity based on CD11b and CD14 expression.
[Blood Advances]
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Functional Mechanism of Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in the Treatment of Animal Models with Alzheimer’s Disease: Inhibition of Neuroinflammation

Investigators recapitulate the molecular basis of bone marrow (BM)MSC-assisted biological processes and summarizes the possible mechanisms related to the interaction between BMMSCs and microglia.
[Journal of Inflammation Research]
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Glial and Myeloid Heterogeneity in the Brain Tumor Microenvironment

The authors discuss the immune modulatory functions of microglia, monocyte-derived macrophages and astrocytes in brain metastases and glioma.
[Nature Reviews Cancer]
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CCR2 Deficiency Alters Activation of Microglia Subsets in Traumatic Brain Injury

Researchers defined the heterogeneity of microglia and macrophage phenotypes during traumatic brain injury (TBI) in wild-type mice and Ccr2−/− mice, which lacked macrophage influx following TBI and were resistant to brain damage.
[Cell Reports]
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Growth Arrest Specific-6 and Axl Coordinate Inflammation and Hypertension

In human endothelial cells, a striking correlation was observed between the degree of endothelial cell activation as reflected by intracellular adhesion molecule 1, isoLG-adduct accumulation and intracellular GAS6 levels.
[Circulation Research]
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IRF-4 Deficiency Reduces Inflammation and Kidney Fibrosis after Folic Acid-Induced Acute Kidney Injury

Scientists examined the effect of interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF-4) deficiency on inflammation and kidney fibrosis in an acute kidney injury-chronic kidney disease transition model induced by folic acid injury.
[International Immunopharmacology]
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The ATP-Hydrolyzing Ectoenzyme E-NTPD8 Attenuates Colitis through Modulation of P2X4 Receptor–Dependent Metabolism in Myeloid Cells

The molecular mechanism by which microbiota-derived ATP in the colon is regulated remains poorly understood. Researchers showed that E-NTPD8 was highly expressed in large-intestinal epithelial cells and hydrolyzed microbiota-derived luminal ATP.
[Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America]
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Involvement of C-Myc in Low Dose Radiation-Induced Senescence Enhanced Migration and Invasion of Unirradiated Cancer Cells

The authors found that conditioned medium harvested from WI-38 lung fibroblasts and H1299 lung adenocarcinoma cells exposed to 0.1Gy to 1Gy could enhance the migration and invasion of unirradiated H1299 cells in both 2D and 3D culturing circumstances.
[Aging-Us]
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tiRNA Signaling via Stress-Regulated Vesicle Transfer in the Hematopoietic Niche

The authors demonstrated that osteoblastic cells in the bone marrow niche elaborated extracellular vesicles (EV) that were taken up by hematopoietic progenitor cells in vivo, and that upregulating EV transfer improved hematopoietic recovery from genotoxic injury and survival from fungal sepsis.
[Cell Stem Cell]
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