So Close, and Yet So Far Away: The Dichotomy of the Specific Immune Response and Inflammation in Psoriasis and Atopic Dermatitis

The authors compare genetics, microbiome, T‐cell infiltrate and resulting epithelial response in psoriasis and atopic dermatitis.
[Journal of Internal Medicine]
Schäbitz, A., Eyerich, K., & Garzorz‐Stark, N. (n.d.). So close, and yet so far away: The dichotomy of the specific immune response and inflammation in psoriasis and atopic dermatitis. Journal of Internal Medicine, n/a(n/a). https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1111/joim.13235 Cite
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Cathepsin C Promotes Breast Cancer Lung Metastasis by Modulating Neutrophil Infiltration and Neutrophil Extracellular Trap Formation

Scientists showed that tumor-secreted protease cathepsin C promotes breast-to-lung metastasis by regulating recruitment of neutrophils and formation of neutrophil extracellular traps.
[Cancer Cell]
Xiao, Y., Cong, M., Li, J., He, D., Wu, Q., Tian, P., Wang, Y., Yang, S., Liang, C., Liang, Y., Wen, J., Liu, Y., Luo, W., Lv, X., He, Y., Cheng, D., Zhou, T., Zhao, W., Zhang, P., … Hu, G. (2021). Cathepsin C promotes breast cancer lung metastasis by modulating neutrophil infiltration and neutrophil extracellular trap formation. Cancer Cell, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ccell.2020.12.012 Cite
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Granzyme B Inhibition Reduces Disease Severity in Autoimmune Blistering Diseases

Scientists explored the role of the immune cell-secreted serine protease, granzyme B, in pemphigoid disease pathogenesis using three independent murine models. In all models, granzyme B knockout or topical pharmacological inhibition significantly reduces total blistering area compared to controls.
[Nature Communications]
Hiroyasu, S., Zeglinski, M. R., Zhao, H., Pawluk, M. A., Turner, C. T., Kasprick, A., Tateishi, C., Nishie, W., Burleigh, A., Lennox, P. A., Van Laeken, N., Carr, N. J., Petersen, F., Crawford, R. I., Shimizu, H., Tsuruta, D., Ludwig, R. J., & Granville, D. J. (2021). Granzyme B inhibition reduces disease severity in autoimmune blistering diseases. Nature Communications, 12(1), 302. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20604-3 Cite
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Feasibility of Reduced-Dose Posttransplant Cyclophosphamide and Cotransplantation of Peripheral Blood Stem Cells and Umbilical Cord-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells for SAA

Scientists evaluated the effectiveness and safety of reduced-dose cyclophosphamide, 20 mg/kg for 13 patients in matched sibling donor hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) cohort and 25 mg/kg for 22 patients in haplo-HSCT cohort, on days +3, +4 combined with cotransplantation of peripheral blood stem cells and human umbilical cord-derived MSCs for severe aplastic anemia (SAA).
[Scientific Reports]
Zu, Y., Zhou, J., Fu, Y., Fang, B., Liu, X., Zhang, Y., Yu, F., Zuo, W., Zhou, H., Gui, R., Li, Z., Liu, Y., Zhao, H., Zhang, C., & Song, Y. (2021). Feasibility of reduced-dose posttransplant cyclophosphamide and cotransplantation of peripheral blood stem cells and umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells for SAA. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 253. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-80531-7 Cite
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Suppression of Mucosal Th17 Memory Responses by Acellular Pertussis Vaccines Enhances Nasal Bordetella pertussis Carriage

Scientists showed that, unlike whole-cell pertussis vaccines, acellular pertussis vaccines, while protective against lung colonization by Bordetella pertussis, did not protect BALB/c mice from nasal colonization, but instead substantially prolonged nasal carriage.
[npj Vaccines]
Dubois, V., Chatagnon, J., Thiriard, A., Bauderlique-Le Roy, H., Debrie, A.-S., Coutte, L., & Locht, C. (2021). Suppression of mucosal Th17 memory responses by acellular pertussis vaccines enhances nasal Bordetella pertussis carriage. Npj Vaccines, 6(1), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41541-020-00270-8 Cite
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Identification of a Subset of Immunosuppressive P2RX1-Negative Neutrophils in Pancreatic Cancer Liver Metastasis

RNA sequencing of murine PDAC liver metastasis-infiltrated neutrophils show that P2RX1-deficient neutrophils express increased levels of immunosuppressive molecules, including PD-L1, and have enhanced mitochondrial metabolism.
[Nature Communications]
Wang, X., Hu, L.-P., Qin, W.-T., Yang, Q., Chen, D.-Y., Li, Q., Zhou, K.-X., Huang, P.-Q., Xu, C.-J., Li, J., Yao, L.-L., Wang, Y.-H., Tian, G.-A., Yang, J.-Y., Yang, M.-W., Liu, D.-J., Sun, Y.-W., Jiang, S.-H., Zhang, X.-L., & Zhang, Z.-G. (2021). Identification of a subset of immunosuppressive P2RX1-negative neutrophils in pancreatic cancer liver metastasis. Nature Communications, 12(1), 174. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20447-y Cite
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A Longitudinal Study of SARS-CoV-2-Infected Patients Reveals a High Correlation between Neutralizing Antibodies and COVID-19 Severity

Using either live SARS-CoV-2 particles or retroviruses pseudotyped with the SARS-CoV-2 S viral surface protein, researchers studied the neutralizing antibody response in serum samples from a cohort of 140 SARS-CoV-2 qPCR-confirmed infections.
[Cellular & Molecular Immunology]
Legros, V., Denolly, S., Vogrig, M., Boson, B., Siret, E., Rigaill, J., Pillet, S., Grattard, F., Gonzalo, S., Verhoeven, P., Allatif, O., Berthelot, P., Pélissier, C., Thiery, G., Botelho-Nevers, E., Millet, G., Morel, J., Paul, S., Walzer, T., … Pozzetto, B. (2021). A longitudinal study of SARS-CoV-2-infected patients reveals a high correlation between neutralizing antibodies and COVID-19 severity. Cellular & Molecular Immunology, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41423-020-00588-2 Cite
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Interleukin-8, Neutrophils, and NETs in a Collusion against Cancer Immunity and Immunotherapy

IL-8 has been reported to favor cancer progression and metastases via different mechanisms, including pro-angiogenesis and maintenance of cancer stem cells, but its ability to attract and functionally modulate neutrophils and macrophages arguably may be the most important factors.
[Clinical Cancer Research]
Teijeira, A., Garasa, S., Ochoa, M. C., Esparza, M. V., Olivera, I., Cirella, A., Eguren-Santamaria, I., Berraondo, P., Schalper, K. A., Andrea, C. E. de, Sanmamed, M. F., & Melero, I. (2020). Interleukin-8, Neutrophils, and NETs in a Collusion against Cancer Immunity and Immunotherapy. Clinical Cancer Research. https://doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-20-1319 Cite
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Circulating BMP9 Protects the Pulmonary Endothelium During Inflammation-induced Lung Injury in Mice

A bone morphogeneic protein 9 (BMP9)-neutralizing antibody was administrated to healthy adult mice and lung vasculature was examined. Potential mechanisms were delineated by transcript analysis in human lung endothelial cells.
[American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine]
Li, W., Long, L., Yang, X., Tong, Z., Southwood, M., King, R., Caruso, P., Upton, P. D., Yang, P., Bocobo, G. A., Nikolic, I., Higuera, A., Salmon, R. M., Jiang, H., Lodge, K. M., Hoenderdos, K., Baron, R. M., Yu, P. B., Condliffe, A. M., … Morrell, N. W. (2020). Circulating BMP9 Protects the Pulmonary Endothelium During Inflammation-induced Lung Injury in Mice. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. https://doi.org/10.1164/rccm.202005-1761OC Cite
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Eosinophils Improve Cardiac Function after Myocardial Infarction

Mechanistic studies revealed roles of eosinophil IL4 and cationic protein mEar1 in blocking H2O2– and hypoxia-induced mouse and human cardiomyocyte death, TGF-β-induced cardiac fibroblast Smad2/3 activation, and TNF-α-induced neutrophil adhesion on the heart endothelial cell monolayer.
[Nature Communications]
Liu, J., Yang, C., Liu, T., Deng, Z., Fang, W., Zhang, X., Li, J., Huang, Q., Liu, C., Wang, Y., Yang, D., Sukhova, G. K., Lindholt, J. S., Diederichsen, A., Rasmussen, L. M., Li, D., Newton, G., Luscinskas, F. W., Liu, L., … Shi, G.-P. (2020). Eosinophils improve cardiac function after myocardial infarction. Nature Communications, 11(1), 6396. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-19297-5 Cite
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Photosensitizer-Laden Neutrophils Are Controlled Remotely for Cancer Immunotherapy

Reinfusion of the engineered neutrophils into 4T1 tumor-bearing mice led to more Ce6 accumulation in tumors relative to Ce6 nanoformulation.
[Cell Reports]
Li, Y., Han, Y., Su, R., Liu, Y., Chong, G., Xu, D., He, R., Liu, Y., Dong, H., Shi, D., & Li, Y. (2020). Photosensitizer-Laden Neutrophils Are Controlled Remotely for Cancer Immunotherapy. Cell Reports, 33(11). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.108499 Cite
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