In Situ Neutrophil Efferocytosis Shapes T Cell Immunity to Influenza Infection

Newly infiltrated inflammatory monocytes become a chief pool of phagocytes and play a key role in the clearance of highly motile apoptotic neutrophils during the resolution phase.
[Nature Immunology]
Lim, K., Kim, T., Trzeciak, A., Amitrano, A. M., Reilly, E. C., Prizant, H., Fowell, D. J., Topham, D. J., & Kim, M. (2020). In situ neutrophil efferocytosis shapes T cell immunity to influenza infection. Nature Immunology, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41590-020-0746-x Cite
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Combination Product of Dermal Matrix, Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells, and Timolol Promotes Diabetic Wound Healing in Mice

Scientists investigated whether a bioengineered scaffold device containing hypoxia‐preconditioned, allogeneic human mesenchymal stem cells combined with the beta‐adrenergic antagonist timolol could improve impaired wound healing in diabetic mice.
[Stem Cells Translational Medicine]
Yang, H., Fierro, F., So, M., Yoon, D. J., Nguyen, A. V., Gallegos, A., Bagood, M. D., Rojo‐Castro, T., Alex, A., Stewart, H., Chigbrow, M., Dasu, M. R., Peavy, T. R., Soulika, A. M., Nolta, J. A., & Isseroff, R. R. (n.d.). Combination product of dermal matrix, human mesenchymal stem cells, and timolol promotes diabetic wound healing in mice. STEM CELLS Translational Medicine, n/a(n/a). https://doi.org/10.1002/sctm.19-0380 Cite
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Neutrophil Caspase-11 Is Essential to Defend against a Cytosol-Invasive Bacterium

Although both caspase-1 and caspase-11 could cleave gasdermin D in macrophages and neutrophils, researchers found that NLRC4-activated caspase-1 triggered pyroptosis in macrophages, but this pathway did not trigger pyroptosis in neutrophils.
[Cell Reports]
Kovacs, S. B., Oh, C., Maltez, V. I., McGlaughon, B. D., Verma, A., Miao, E. A., & Aachoui, Y. (2020). Neutrophil Caspase-11 Is Essential to Defend against a Cytosol-Invasive Bacterium. Cell Reports, 32(4). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.107967 Cite
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Single-Cell Transcriptome Profiling Reveals Neutrophil Heterogeneity in Homeostasis and Infection

Investigators profiled >25,000 differentiating and mature mouse neutrophils using single-cell RNA sequencing to provide a comprehensive transcriptional landscape of neutrophil maturation, function and fate decision in their steady state and during bacterial infection.
[Nature Immunology]
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Extracellular Cold-Inducible RNA-Binding Protein Regulates Neutrophil Extracellular Trap Formation and Tissue Damage in Acute Pancreatitis

Scientists studied the role of extracellular cold-inducible RNA-binding protein, a novel damage-associated-molecular-pattern molecule, in severe acute pancreatitis.
[Laboratory Investigation]
Linders, J., Madhi, R., Rahman, M., Mörgelin, M., Regner, S., Brenner, M., Wang, P., & Thorlacius, H. (2020). Extracellular cold-inducible RNA-binding protein regulates neutrophil extracellular trap formation and tissue damage in acute pancreatitis. Laboratory Investigation, 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41374-020-0469-5 Cite
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Fusobacterium nucleatum Host-Cell Binding and Invasion Induces IL-8 and CXCL1 Secretion That Drives Colorectal Cancer Cell Migration

Cytokine secretion from HCT116 cells and cellular migration were attenuated by inhibiting F. nucleatum host-cell binding and entry using galactose sugars, L-arginine, neutralizing membrane protein antibodies, or fap2 deletion. F. nucleatum also induced the mobilization of immune cells in the tumor microenvironment.
[Science Signaling]
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Neutrophil Diversity and Plasticity in Tumor Progression and Therapy

The authors surmise that neutrophils can provide tools to tailor current immunotherapy strategies and pave the way to myeloid cell-centred therapeutic strategies, which would be complementary to current approaches.
[Nature Reviews Cancer]
Jaillon, S., Ponzetta, A., Di Mitri, D., Santoni, A., Bonecchi, R., & Mantovani, A. (2020). Neutrophil diversity and plasticity in tumour progression and therapy. Nature Reviews Cancer, 1–19. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41568-020-0281-y Cite
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Xenogeneic Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation for Mandibular Defect Regeneration

To examine donor cell survival and host immune reaction, pig bone marrow‐derived mesenchymal stem cells were labeled with CM‐DiI, loaded onto gelatin sponge, and transplanted into 5‐mm mandibular defects of immunocompetent and T cell‐deficient athymic rats.
[Xenotransplantation]
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The Commensal Skin Microbiota Triggers Type I IFN–Dependent Innate Repair Responses in Injured Skin

The authors uncovered a fundamental role of commensal skin microbiota and showed that it was mediated by the recruitment and the activation of type I interferon (IFN)-producing plasmacytoid DC.
[Nature Immunology]
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Cell Death in Chronic Inflammation: Breaking the Cycle to Treat Rheumatic Disease

Scientists outline pathways for the major cell death programmes and their potential roles in chronic inflammation. They also discuss current and developing therapies that target the cell death machinery.
[Nature Reviews Rheumatology]
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Kinetics of Pre‐Myelodysplastic Syndromes Blood Values Correlate with Disease Risk and Survival

Researchers reviewed pre‐diagnosis clinical data of 420 patients with pathologically confirmed myelodysplastic syndromes presenting with anemia.
[Hematological Oncology]
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Sex Differences in Neutrophil Biology Modulate Response to Type I Interferons and Immunometabolism

Investigators performed RNA sequencing on circulating neutrophils from healthy adult females and males. Female neutrophils displayed significant up-regulation of type I IFN-stimulated genes.
[Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America]
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