Cardiomyocyte Transplantation after Myocardial Infarction Alters the Immune Response in the Heart

The authors showed for the first time that the immune response is altered as a result of syngeneic neonatal cardiomyocyte transplantation after myocardial infarction leading to improved cardiac pump function as observed by magnetic resonance imaging in C57BL/6J mice.
[Cells]
Vasudevan, P., Wolfien, M., Lemcke, H., Lang, C. I., Skorska, A., Gaebel, R., Koczan, D., Lindner, T., Engelmann, R., Vollmar, B., Krause, B. J., Wolkenhauer, O., Lang, H., Steinhoff, G., & David, R. (2020). Cardiomyocyte Transplantation after Myocardial Infarction Alters the Immune Response in the Heart. Cells, 9(8), 1825. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9081825 Cite
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Elevation in the Counts of IL-35-Producing B Cells Infiltrating into Lung Tissue in Mycobacterial Infection Is Associated with the Downregulation of Th1/Th17 and Upregulation of Foxp3+Treg

Purified B cells from such patients generated more IL-35 after stimulation by antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and secreted more IL-10.
[Scientific Reports]
Chen, C., Xu, H., Peng, Y., Luo, H., Huang, G.-X., Wu, X.-J., Dai, Y.-C., Luo, H.-L., Zhang, J.-A., Zheng, B.-Y., Zhang, X.-N., Chen, Z. W., & Xu, J.-F. (2020). Elevation in the counts of IL-35-producing B cells infiltrating into lung tissue in mycobacterial infection is associated with the downregulation of Th1/Th17 and upregulation of Foxp3 + Treg. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 13212. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-69984-y Cite
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Treatment of Mice with S4B6 IL-2 Complex Prevents Lethal Toxoplasmosis via IL-12- and IL-18-Dependent Interferon-Gamma Production by Non-CD4 Immune Cells

Scientists investigated the in vivo regulation of IFN-γ production by CD8+ T cells, DN T cells and NK cells in response to acute Toxoplasma gondii infection.
[Scientific Reports]
Kupz, A., Pai, S., Giacomin, P. R., Whan, J. A., Walker, R. A., Hammoudi, P.-M., Smith, N. C., & Miller, C. M. (2020). Treatment of mice with S4B6 IL-2 complex prevents lethal toxoplasmosis via IL-12- and IL-18-dependent interferon-gamma production by non-CD4 immune cells. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 13115. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-70102-1 Cite
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Comparative Study between Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Etanercept as Immunomodulatory Agents in Rat Model of Rheumatoid Arthritis

Adipose tissue mesenchymal stem cells were able to delay the onset of collagen-induced arthritis, suppress the ongoing clinical and histopathological signs, decrease serum levels of TNF-α and anti-collagen type II, and downregulate the autoreactive T cells as etanercept.
[Immunologic Research]
El-Gendy, H., Hawass, S. E.-D., Awad, M., Mohsen, M. A., Amin, M., Abdalla, H. A., Fouad, S., & Lotfy, A. (2020). Comparative study between human mesenchymal stem cells and etanercept as immunomodulatory agents in rat model of rheumatoid arthritis. Immunologic Research. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12026-020-09132-w Cite
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Regulatory T Cells Are Less Sensitive to Glucocorticoid Hormone Induced Apoptosis than CD4+ T Cells

Investigators analyzed the apoptosis-inducing effect of high dose in vitro dexamethasone treatment in mouse thymic- and splenic Tregs and CD4+ T cells.
[Apoptosis]
Prenek, L., Litvai, T., Balázs, N., Kugyelka, R., Boldizsár, F., Najbauer, J., Németh, P., & Berki, T. (2020). Regulatory T cells are less sensitive to glucocorticoid hormone induced apoptosis than CD4+ T cells. Apoptosis. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10495-020-01629-x Cite
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Regulatory T Cells Suppress Th17 Cell Ca2+ Signaling in the Spinal Cord during Murine Autoimmune Neuroinflammation

Investigators used two-photon microscopy to elucidate the spatial organization, motility characteristics, and interactions of endogenous Treg and Th17 cells together with antigen-presenting cells within the spinal cord leptomeninges in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, an animal model of multiple sclerosis.
[Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America]
Othy, S., Jairaman, A., Dynes, J. L., Dong, T. X., Tune, C., Yeromin, A. V., Zavala, A., Akunwafo, C., Chen, F., Parker, I., & Cahalan, M. D. (2020). Regulatory T cells suppress Th17 cell Ca2+ signaling in the spinal cord during murine autoimmune neuroinflammation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2006895117 Cite
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MSCs-Released TGFβ1 Generate CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ in T-Reg Cells of Human SLE PBMC

The authors used a post-test control group design. MSCs were obtained from human umbilical cord blood and characterized according to their surface antigen expression and multilineage differentiation capacities.
[Journal of the Formosan Medical Association]
Darlan, D. M., Munir, D., Putra, A., & Jusuf, N. K. (2020). MSCs-released TGFβ1 generate CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ in T-reg cells of human SLE PBMC. Journal of the Formosan Medical Association. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfma.2020.06.028 Cite
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The Immunology of Renal Cell Carcinoma

Renal cell carcinoma is considered to be an immunogenic tumor but is known to mediate immune dysfunction in large part by eliciting the infiltration of immune-inhibitory cells, such as regulatory T cells and myeloid-derived suppressor cells, into the tumor microenvironment.
[Nature Reviews Nephrology]
Díaz-Montero, C. M., Rini, B. I., & Finke, J. H. (2020). The immunology of renal cell carcinoma. Nature Reviews Nephrology, 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41581-020-0316-3 Cite
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IFN-γ Promoted Exosomes from Mesenchymal Stem Cells to Attenuate Colitis via miR-125a and miR-125b

Exosomes were isolated from control and IFN-γ-primed mesenchymal stem cells and were verified by transmission electron microscope and immunofluorescence staining.
[Cell Death & Disease]
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The Cytokine Receptor IL-7Rα Impairs IL-2 Receptor Signaling and Constrains the In Vitro Differentiation of Foxp3+ Treg Cells

Researchers report that IL-7Rα downregulation was necessary to maximize IL-2R signaling. While IL-7Rα overexpression promoted IL-7 signaling, unexpectedly, IL-2 signaling was suppressed in the same cells.
[iScience]
Waickman, A. T., Keller, H. R., Kim, T.-H., Luckey, M. A., Tai, X., Hong, C., Molina-Paris, C., Walsh, S. T. R., & Park, J.-H. (2020). The cytokine receptor IL-7Rα impairs IL-2 receptor signaling and constrains the in vitro differentiation of Foxp3+ Treg cells. IScience, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2020.101421 Cite
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Mitomycin C Treatment Improves Pancreatic Islet Graft Longevity in Intraportal Islet Transplantation by Suppressing Proinflammatory Response

Researchers present a simple approach for islet preconditioning that uses the antibiotic mitomycin C, which has antitumor activity, to reduce islet immunogenicity and prevent proinflammatory events in an intraportal islet transplantation model.
[Scientific Reports]
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Intra-Articular Xenogeneic Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Based Therapy Increases CD4+CD25+ Cells in Synovial Fluid

The authors aimed to identify the lymphocytic response to a xenogeneic human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cell-based cell therapy.
[Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology]
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