Regulatory T-Cell Phenotypes in Children with Sickle Cell Disease

The authors investigated the impact of hydroxyurea therapy on Tregs in sickle cell disease.
[Pediatric Research]
Zahran, A. M., Saad, K., Elsayh, K. I., Khalaf, S. M., Mahmoud, K. H., Elhoufey, A., & Hetta, H. F. (2021). Regulatory T-cell phenotypes in children with sickle cell disease. Pediatric Research, 1–4. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41390-021-01627-y Cite
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Tissue-Resident Macrophages Provide a Pro-tumorigenic Niche to Early NSCLC Cells

To explore the diversity of the macrophage compartment in human non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) lesions, researchers performed single-cell RNA sequencing of tumour-associated leukocytes.
[Nature]
Casanova-Acebes, M., Dalla, E., Leader, A. M., LeBerichel, J., Nikolic, J., Morales, B. M., Brown, M., Chang, C., Troncoso, L., Chen, S. T., Sastre-Perona, A., Park, M. D., Tabachnikova, A., Dhainaut, M., Hamon, P., Maier, B., Sawai, C. M., Agulló-Pascual, E., Schober, M., … Merad, M. (2021). Tissue-resident macrophages provide a pro-tumorigenic niche to early NSCLC cells. Nature, 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-03651-8 Cite
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Tissue-Resident Macrophages Provide a Pro-tumorigenic Niche to Early NSCLC Cells

Researchers identified distinct populations of macrophages that were enriched in human and mouse lung tumors.
[Nature]
Casanova-Acebes, M., Dalla, E., Leader, A. M., LeBerichel, J., Nikolic, J., Morales, B. M., Brown, M., Chang, C., Troncoso, L., Chen, S. T., Sastre-Perona, A., Park, M. D., Tabachnikova, A., Dhainaut, M., Hamon, P., Maier, B., Sawai, C. M., Agulló-Pascual, E., Schober, M., … Merad, M. (2021). Tissue-resident macrophages provide a pro-tumorigenic niche to early NSCLC cells. Nature, 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-03651-8 Cite
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T-Regulatory Cells Predict Clinical Outcome in Soft Tissue Sarcoma Patients: A Clinico-Pathological Study

Investigators analyzed tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and immune checkpoint molecules in soft tissue sarcomas, and assessed their prognostic impact regarding local recurrence, distant metastasis, and overall survival.
[British Journal of Cancer]
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TCF1 in T Cell Immunity: A Broadened Frontier

Scientists summarize the key findings on TCF1 across the fields of T cell immunity and reflect on the possibility of exploring TCF1 and its downstream transcriptional programmes as therapeutic targets for improving antiviral and antitumour immunity.
[Nature Reviews Immunology]
Zhao, X., Shan, Q., & Xue, H.-H. (2021). TCF1 in T cell immunity: a broadened frontier. Nature Reviews Immunology, 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41577-021-00563-6 Cite
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Structural Specificities of Cell Surface β-Glucan Polysaccharides Determine Commensal Yeast Mediated Immuno-Modulatory Activities

MGCP, in contrast to previously identified microbial cell surface polysaccharides, through a Dectin1-Cox2 signaling axis in dendritic cells, facilitates regulatory T cell induction from naïve T cells.
[Nature Communications]
Lee, C., Verma, R., Byun, S., Jeun, E.-J., Kim, G.-C., Lee, S., Kang, H.-J., Kim, C. J., Sharma, G., Lahiri, A., Paul, S., Kim, K. S., Hwang, D. S., Iwakura, Y., Speciale, I., Molinaro, A., De Castro, C., Rudra, D., & Im, S.-H. (2021). Structural specificities of cell surface β-glucan polysaccharides determine commensal yeast mediated immuno-modulatory activities. Nature Communications, 12(1), 3611. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-23929-9 Cite
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αSMA+ Fibroblasts Suppress Lgr5+ Cancer Stem Cells and Restrain Colorectal Cancer Progression

Scientists demonstrated that αSMA+ cancer-associated fibroblast in colorectal cancer (CRC) exert tumor-restraining functions via BMP4/TGFβ1 paracrine signaling that served to suppress Lgr5+ CSCs and promoted anti-tumor immunity, ultimately limiting CRC progression.
[Oncogene]
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Human Immune System Adaptations to Simulated Microgravity Revealed by Single-Cell Mass Cytometry

Researchers employed a high-dimensional mass cytometry approach to characterize over 250 cell-specific functional responses in 18 innate and adaptive immune cell subsets exposed to 1G or simulated µG using the Rotating Wall Vessel.
[Scientific Reports]
Spatz, J. M., Fulford, M. H., Tsai, A., Gaudilliere, D., Hedou, J., Ganio, E., Angst, M., Aghaeepour, N., & Gaudilliere, B. (2021). Human immune system adaptations to simulated microgravity revealed by single-cell mass cytometry. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 11872. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-90458-2 Cite
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Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Extracellular Vesicles Attenuate Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis via Regulating Pro and Anti-Inflammatory Cytokines

Scientists investigated the effect of extracellular vesicles derived from human umbilical cord-MSC on the clinical score and inflammatory/anti-inflammatory cytokines on the EAE mouse model.
[Scientific Reports]
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Human-Derived Treg and MSC Combination Therapy May Augment Immunosuppressive Potency In Vitro, but Did Not Improve Blood Brain Barrier Integrity in an Experimental Rat Traumatic Brain Injury Model

Researchers compared the ability of regulatory T cells (Treg) + mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) combination therapy, as well as MSC and Treg monotherapies, to improve blood brain barrier permeability in vivo and suppress inflammation in vitro.
[PLOS One]
Caplan, H. W., Prabhakara, K. S., Furman, N. E. T., Zorofchian, S., Martin, C., Xue, H., Olson, S. D., & Jr, C. S. C. (2021). Human-derived Treg and MSC combination therapy may augment immunosuppressive potency in vitro, but did not improve blood brain barrier integrity in an experimental rat traumatic brain injury model. PLOS ONE, 16(5), e0251601. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0251601 Cite
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Dysregulated Immunity in PID Patients with Low GARP Expression on Tregs Due to Mutations in LRRC32

Scientists performed whole-exome sequencing of patients with immune dysregulation disorders and identified two patients with previously undescribed mutations in LRRC32, which encoded glycoprotein A repetitions predominant.
[Cellular & Molecular Immunology]
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