Human Kidney Spheroids and Monolayers Provide Insights into SARS-CoV-2 Renal Interactions

Using ex vivo cell models, investigators analyzed SARS-Cov2 interactions with kidney tubular cells and assessed direct tubular injury. These models comprised primary human kidney epithelial cells and more quiescent three-dimensional kidney spheroids.
[Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology]
Omer, D., Pleniceanu, O., Gnatek, Y., Namestnikov, M., Cohen-Zontag, O., Goldberg, S., Friedman, Y. E., Friedman, N., Mandelboim, M., Vitner, E., Achdout, H., Avraham, R., Zahavy, E., Israely, T., Mayan, H., & Dekel, B. (2021). Human Kidney Spheroids and Monolayers Provide Insights into SARS-CoV-2 Renal Interactions. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology. https://doi.org/10.1681/ASN.2020111546 Cite
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Distinct Antibody and Memory B Cell Responses in SARS-CoV-2 Naïve and Recovered Individuals Following mRNA Vaccination

Researchers showed that the SARS-CoV-2 envelope protein alone is able to cause acute respiratory distress syndrome-like damages in vitro and in vivo.
[Science Immunology]
Goel, R. R., Apostolidis, S. A., Painter, M. M., Mathew, D., Pattekar, A., Kuthuru, O., Gouma, S., Hicks, P., Meng, W., Rosenfeld, A. M., Dysinger, S., Lundgreen, K. A., Kuri-Cervantes, L., Adamski, S., Hicks, A., Korte, S., Oldridge, D. A., Baxter, A. E., Giles, J. R., … Wherry, E. J. (2021). Distinct antibody and memory B cell responses in SARS-CoV-2 naïve and recovered individuals following mRNA vaccination. Science Immunology, 6(58). https://doi.org/10.1126/sciimmunol.abi6950 Cite
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Glycan Reactive Anti-HIV-1 Antibodies Bind the SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein but Do Not Block Viral Entry

Scientists report that antibodies that displayed high levels of cross-reactivity with the SARS-CoV-2 spike, were incapable of neutralizing pseudoviruses expressing SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins and were unlikely to mediate ADE via FcγRII receptor engagement.
[Scientific Reports]
Mannar, D., Leopold, K., & Subramaniam, S. (2021). Glycan reactive anti-HIV-1 antibodies bind the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein but do not block viral entry. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 12448. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-91746-7 Cite
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Memory B Cells Targeting SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein and Their Dependence on CD4+ T Cell Help

Scientists investigated SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific memory B cells and their dependence on CD4+ T cell help in different settings of COVID-19.
[Cell Reports]
Pušnik, J., Richter, E., Schulte, B., Dolscheid-Pommerich, R., Bode, C., Putensen, C., Hartmann, G., Alter, G., & Streeck, H. (2021). Memory B cells targeting SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and their dependence on CD4+ T cell help. Cell Reports, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2021.109320 Cite
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SARS-CoV-2 RBD Trimer Protein Adjuvanted with Alum-3M-052 Protects from SARS-CoV-2 Infection and Immune Pathology in the Lung

Scientists developed a trimeric form of the receptor binding domain and showed that it induces a potent neutralizing antibody response against live virus with diverse effector functions and provided protection against SARS-CoV-2 challenge in mice and rhesus macaques.
[Nature Communications]
Routhu, N. K., Cheedarla, N., Bollimpelli, V. S., Gangadhara, S., Edara, V. V., Lai, L., Sahoo, A., Shiferaw, A., Styles, T. M., Floyd, K., Fischinger, S., Atyeo, C., Shin, S. A., Gumber, S., Kirejczyk, S., Dinnon, K. H., Shi, P.-Y., Menachery, V. D., Tomai, M., … Amara, R. R. (2021). SARS-CoV-2 RBD trimer protein adjuvanted with Alum-3M-052 protects from SARS-CoV-2 infection and immune pathology in the lung. Nature Communications, 12(1), 3587. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-23942-y Cite
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Molecular Mechanism of Interaction between SARS-CoV-2 and Host Cells and Interventional Therapy

Scientists review the current knowledge and crucial information about how SARS-CoV-2 attaches on the surface of host cells through a variety of receptors, such as ACE2, neuropilin-1, AXL, and antibody–FcγR complexes.
[Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy]
Zhang, Q., Xiang, R., Huo, S., Zhou, Y., Jiang, S., Wang, Q., & Yu, F. (2021). Molecular mechanism of interaction between SARS-CoV-2 and host cells and interventional therapy. Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy, 6(1), 1–19. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41392-021-00653-w Cite
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Natural Killer Cells in Antiviral Immunity

The authors review recent insights into the role of NK cells in viral infections, with particular emphasis on human studies.
[Nature Reviews Immunology]
Björkström, N. K., Strunz, B., & Ljunggren, H.-G. (2021). Natural killer cells in antiviral immunity. Nature Reviews Immunology, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41577-021-00558-3 Cite
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SARS-CoV-2 Envelope Protein Causes Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS)-Like Pathological Damages and Constitutes an Antiviral Target

Researchers showed that the SARS-CoV-2 envelope protein alone is able to cause acute respiratory distress syndrome-like damages in vitro and in vivo.
[Cell Research]
Xia, B., Shen, X., He, Y., Pan, X., Liu, F.-L., Wang, Y., Yang, F., Fang, S., Wu, Y., Duan, Z., Zuo, X., Xie, Z., Jiang, X., Xu, L., Chi, H., Li, S., Meng, Q., Zhou, H., Zhou, Y., … Gao, Z. (2021). SARS-CoV-2 envelope protein causes acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)-like pathological damages and constitutes an antiviral target. Cell Research, 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41422-021-00519-4 Cite
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Metformin Inhibition of Mitochondrial ATP and DNA Synthesis Abrogates NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation and Pulmonary Inflammation

Researchers showed that metformin inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome activation and interleukin (IL)-1β production in cultured and alveolar macrophages along with inflammasome-independent IL-6 secretion, thus attenuating lipopolysaccharide- and SARS-CoV-2-induced Acute respiratory distress syndrome.
[Immunity]
Xian, H., Liu, Y., Nilsson, A. R., Gatchalian, R., Crother, T. R., Tourtellotte, W. G., Zhang, Y., Aleman-Muench, G. R., Lewis, G., Chen, W., Kang, S., Luevanos, M., Trudler, D., Lipton, S. A., Soroosh, P., Teijaro, J., Torre, J. C. de la, Arditi, M., Karin, M., & Sanchez-Lopez, E. (2021). Metformin inhibition of mitochondrial ATP and DNA synthesis abrogates NLRP3 inflammasome activation and pulmonary inflammation. Immunity, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.immuni.2021.05.004 Cite
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Twist Bioscience Begins Shipping of Synthetic RNA Controls for Kappa (B.1.617.1) SARS-CoV-2 Variants for Development of Accurate Tests

Twist Bioscience Corporation announced that it has started shipping its synthetic RNA reference controls for the SARS-CoV-2 Kappa variant strain.
[Twist Bioscience Corporation (BusinessWire, Inc.)]
Press Release
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SARS-CoV-2 mRNA Vaccination Induces Functionally Diverse Antibodies to NTD, RBD and S2

Scientists profiled vaccine-induced polyclonal antibodies as well as plasmablast derived mAbs from individuals who received SARS-CoV-2 spike mRNA vaccine.
[Cell]
Amanat, F., Thapa, M., Lei, T., Ahmed, S. M. S., Adelsberg, D. C., Carreno, J. M., Strohmeier, S., Schmitz, A. J., Zafar, S., Zhou, J. Q., Rijnink, W., Alshammary, H., Borcherding, N., Reiche, A. G., Srivastava, K., Sordillo, E. M., Bakel, H. van, Turner, J. S., Bajic, G., … Krammer, F. (2021). SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination induces functionally diverse antibodies to NTD, RBD and S2. Cell, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2021.06.005 Cite
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