Epitope-Resolved Profiling of the SARS-CoV-2 Antibody Response Identifies Cross-Reactivity with Endemic Human Coronaviruses

Researchers studied cross-reactivity using a highly multiplexed peptide assay to generate an epitope-resolved view of IgG reactivity across all human coronaviruses in both COVID-19 convalescent and negative donors.
[Cell Reports Medicine]
Ladner, J. T., Henson, S. N., Boyle, A. S., Engelbrektson, A. L., Fink, Z. W., Rahee, F., D’ambrozio, J., Schaecher, K. E., Stone, M., Dong, W., Dadwal, S., Yu, J., Caligiuri, M. A., Cieplak, P., Bjørås, M., Fenstad, M. H., Nordbø, S. A., Kainov, D. E., Muranaka, N., … Altin, J. A. (2021). Epitope-resolved profiling of the SARS-CoV-2 antibody response identifies cross-reactivity with endemic human coronaviruses. Cell Reports Medicine, 2(1). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.xcrm.2020.100189 Cite
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Cytoplasmic Short Linear Motifs in ACE2 and Integrin β3 Link SARS-CoV-2 Host Cell Receptors to Mediators of Endocytosis and Autophagy

Researchers measured the binding affinity of predicted interactions between short linear motifs in the cytoplasmic tails of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 and integrin β3 with proteins that mediate endocytic trafficking and autophagy.
[Science Signaling]
Kliche, J., Kuss, H., Ali, M., & Ivarsson, Y. (2021). Cytoplasmic short linear motifs in ACE2 and integrin β3 link SARS-CoV-2 host cell receptors to mediators of endocytosis and autophagy. Science Signaling, 14(665). https://doi.org/10.1126/scisignal.abf1117 Cite
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Evolution of Antibody Immunity to SARS-CoV-2

Scientists report on the humoral memory response in a cohort of 87 individuals assessed at 1.3 and 6.2 months after infection. They find that IgM, and IgG anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike protein receptor binding domain antibody titres decrease significantly with IgA being less affected.
[Nature]
Gaebler, C., Wang, Z., Lorenzi, J. C. C., Muecksch, F., Finkin, S., Tokuyama, M., Cho, A., Jankovic, M., Schaefer-Babajew, D., Oliveira, T. Y., Cipolla, M., Viant, C., Barnes, C. O., Bram, Y., Breton, G., Hägglöf, T., Mendoza, P., Hurley, A., Turroja, M., … Nussenzweig, M. C. (2021). Evolution of antibody immunity to SARS-CoV-2. Nature, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-03207-w Cite
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Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2): a Systemic Infection

Scientists summarize existing data on the replication of SARS-CoV-2 in different tissues in both patients and ex vivo models.
[Clinical Microbiology Reviews]
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2): a Systemic Infection | Clinical Microbiology Reviews. (n.d.). Retrieved January 18, 2021, from https://cmr.asm.org/content/34/2/e00133-20 Cite
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A Therapeutic Neutralizing Antibody Targeting Receptor Binding Domain of SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein

Researchers screened human monoclonal antibodies targeting the receptor binding domain of the viral spike protein via antibody library constructed from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of a convalescent patient.
[Nature Communications]
Kim, C., Ryu, D.-K., Lee, J., Kim, Y.-I., Seo, J.-M., Kim, Y.-G., Jeong, J.-H., Kim, M., Kim, J.-I., Kim, P., Bae, J. S., Shim, E. Y., Lee, M. S., Kim, M. S., Noh, H., Park, G.-S., Park, J. S., Son, D., An, Y., … Lee, S.-Y. (2021). A therapeutic neutralizing antibody targeting receptor binding domain of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Nature Communications, 12(1), 288. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20602-5 Cite
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Adaptive immunity to SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19

More studies reveal that CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, and neutralizing antibodies all contribute to control of SARS-CoV-2, in both non-hospitalized and hospitalized cases of COVID-19. The specific functions and kinetics of these adaptive immune responses are discussed.
[Cell]
Sette, A., & Crotty, S. (2021). Adaptive immunity to SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19. Cell, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2021.01.007 Cite
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Neuroinvasion of SARS-CoV-2 in Human and Mouse Brain

Scientists used three independent approaches to probe the capacity of SARS-CoV-2 to infect the brain. Using human brain organoids, they observed clear evidence of infection with accompanying metabolic changes in infected and neighboring neurons.
[Journal of Experimental Medicine]
Song, E., Zhang, C., Israelow, B., Lu-Culligan, A., Prado, A. V., Skriabine, S., Lu, P., Weizman, O.-E., Liu, F., Dai, Y., Szigeti-Buck, K., Yasumoto, Y., Wang, G., Castaldi, C., Heltke, J., Ng, E., Wheeler, J., Alfajaro, M. M., Levavasseur, E., … Iwasaki, A. (2021). Neuroinvasion of SARS-CoV-2 in human and mouse brain. Journal of Experimental Medicine, 218(e20202135). https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20202135 Cite
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Capsid-Like Particles Decorated with the SARS-CoV-2 Receptor-Binding Domain Elicit Strong Virus Neutralization Activity

Researchers developed two capsid-like particle-based vaccines displaying the receptor-binding domain of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein.
[Nature Communications]
Fougeroux, C., Goksøyr, L., Idorn, M., Soroka, V., Myeni, S. K., Dagil, R., Janitzek, C. M., Søgaard, M., Aves, K.-L., Horsted, E. W., Erdoğan, S. M., Gustavsson, T., Dorosz, J., Clemmensen, S., Fredsgaard, L., Thrane, S., Vidal-Calvo, E. E., Khalifé, P., Hulen, T. M., … Sander, A. F. (2021). Capsid-like particles decorated with the SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain elicit strong virus neutralization activity. Nature Communications, 12(1), 324. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20251-8 Cite
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Experimental Models to Study COVID-19 Effect in Stem Cells

The authors discuss ex vivo experimental models available to study the effect of COVID-19 on tissue stem cells.
[Cells]
Bobba, C. M., Fei, Q., Shukla, V., Lee, H., Patel, P., Putman, R. K., Spitzer, C., Tsai, M., Wewers, M. D., Lee, R. J., Christman, J. W., Ballinger, M. N., Ghadiali, S. N., & Englert, J. A. (2021). Nanoparticle delivery of microRNA-146a regulates mechanotransduction in lung macrophages and mitigates injury during mechanical ventilation. Nature Communications, 12(1), 289. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20449-w Cite
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MDA5 Governs the Innate Immune Response to SARS-CoV-2 in Lung Epithelial Cells

Scientists found that SARS-CoV-2 replication induced a delayed interferon response in lung epithelial cells. By screening 16 putative sensors involved in sensing of RNA virus infection, they found that MDA5 and LGP2 primarily regulated IFN induction in response to SARS-CoV-2 infection.
[Cell Reports]
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A Novel ACE2 Isoform Is Expressed in Human Respiratory Epithelia and Is Upregulated in Response to Interferons and RNA Respiratory Virus Infection

Researchers identified a novel short isoform of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) expressed in the airway epithelium, the main site of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Short ACE2 was substantially upregulated in response to interferon stimulation and rhinovirus infection, but not SARS-CoV-2 infection.
[Nature Genetics]
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