Early IL-1 Receptor Blockade in Severe Inflammatory Respiratory Failure Complicating COVID-19

Investigators retrospectively compared 22 patients from three different centers in France with stages 2b and 3 COVID-19−associated pneumonia presenting with acute severe respiratory failure and systemic inflammation who received either standard-of-care treatment alone or combined with intravenous anakinra.
[Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America]
Cauchois, R., Koubi, M., Delarbre, D., Manet, C., Carvelli, J., Blasco, V. B., Jean, R., Fouche, L., Bornet, C., Pauly, V., Mazodier, K., Pestre, V., Jarrot, P.-A., Dinarello, C. A., & Kaplanski, G. (2020). Early IL-1 receptor blockade in severe inflammatory respiratory failure complicating COVID-19. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 117(32), 18951–18953. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2009017117 Cite
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Role of Sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) in Hypoxic Injury in Pancreatic β-Cells

Hypoxic damage significantly increased the TNF-α, IL-6 and ROS levels in INS-1 cells. However, the reduced cell viability and increased inflammatory cytokines from hypoxic damage were ameliorated by SIRT1 activation in INS-1 cells.
[Journal of Drug Targeting]
Lee, Y.-J., Lee, E., You, Y.-H., Ahn, Y.-B., Song, K.-H., Kim, J.-W., & Ko, S.-H. (2020). Role of sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) in hypoxic injury in pancreatic β-cells. Journal of Drug Targeting, 0(ja), 1–27. https://doi.org/10.1080/1061186X.2020.1806285 Cite
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Auranofin Mitigates Systemic Iron Overload and Induces Ferroptosis via Distinct Mechanisms

The authors identified iron modulators by functionally screening hepcidin agonists using a library of 640 FDA-approved drugs in human hepatic Huh7 cells.
[Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy]
Yang, L., Wang, H., Yang, X., Wu, Q., An, P., Jin, X., Liu, W., Huang, X., Li, Y., Yan, S., Shen, S., Liang, T., Min, J., & Wang, F. (2020). Auranofin mitigates systemic iron overload and induces ferroptosis via distinct mechanisms. Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy, 5(1), 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41392-020-00253-0 Cite
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HGF and IL-10 Expressing ALB::GFP Reporter Cells Generated From iPSCs Show Robust Anti-Fibrotic Property in Acute Fibrotic Liver Model

Induced hepatocyte-like (iHep) cells were generated from induced pluripotent stem cells integrated with the albumin reporter gene. The therapeutic properties of these iHep cells were investigated after transplantation in fibrotic liver tissues of a mouse model.
[Stem Cell Research & Therapy]
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Dihydroxystilbenes Prevent Azoxymethane/Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colon Cancer by Inhibiting Colon Cytokines, a Chemokine, and Programmed Cell Death-1 in C57BL/6J Mice

The three dihydroxystilbenes in this study inhibited colon carcinogenesis and tumor growth as well as increases in colon IL-1β, IL-6, MCP-1, and PD-1 levels in AOM/DDS-treated mice in vivo. The three dihydroxystilbenes also suppressed COX-2 expression in colon tumors in vivo and inhibited PD-1 elevations in M2-THP-1 macrophages in vitro.
[European Journal of Pharmacology]
Kimura, Y., Sumiyoshi, M., Kiyoi, T., & Baba, K. (2020). Dihydroxystilbenes prevent azoxymethane/dextran sulfate sodium-induced colon cancer by inhibiting colon cytokines, a chemokine, and programmed cell death-1 in C57BL/6J mice. European Journal of Pharmacology, 173445. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2020.173445 Cite
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The Role of the Oncostatin M/Osm Receptor β Axis in Activating Dermal Microvascular Endothelial Cells in Systemic Sclerosis

Cell culture experiments were performed in human dermal microvascular endothelial cells and included mRNA and protein analysis, and cell migration and proliferation assays. Ex vivo skin organoid culture was used to evaluate the effect of OSM on perivascular fibrosis.
[Arthritis Research & Therapy]
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Human Umbilical Cord-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Prevent the Progression of Early Diabetic Nephropathy through Inhibiting Inflammation and Fibrosis

Scientists identified the basic biological properties and examined the multilineage differentiation potential of umbilical cord-MSCs.
[Stem Cell Research & Therapy]
Xiang, E., Han, B., Zhang, Q., Rao, W., Wang, Z., Chang, C., Zhang, Y., Tu, C., Li, C., & Wu, D. (2020). Human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells prevent the progression of early diabetic nephropathy through inhibiting inflammation and fibrosis. Stem Cell Research & Therapy, 11(1), 336. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13287-020-01852-y Cite
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Single-Cell Analysis of Two Severe COVID-19 Patients Reveals a Monocyte-Associated and Tocilizumab-Responding Cytokine Storm

By employing single-cell analysis of the immune cell composition of two severe-stage COVID-19 patients prior to and following tocilizumab-induced remission, investigators identified a monocyte subpopulation that contributes to the inflammatory cytokine storms.
[Nature Communications]
Guo, C., Li, B., Ma, H., Wang, X., Cai, P., Yu, Q., Zhu, L., Jin, L., Jiang, C., Fang, J., Liu, Q., Zong, D., Zhang, W., Lu, Y., Li, K., Gao, X., Fu, B., Liu, L., Ma, X., … Qu, K. (2020). Single-cell analysis of two severe COVID-19 patients reveals a monocyte-associated and tocilizumab-responding cytokine storm. Nature Communications, 11(1), 3924. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-17834-w Cite
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Dental Follicle Stem Cells Rescue the Regenerative Capacity of Inflamed Rat Dental Pulp through a Paracrine Pathway

Researchers focused on the paracrine effects of rat dental follicle stem cells (DFSCs) on the inflammation and regeneration of rat injured dental pulp to detect whether DFSCs are a potential candidate for mesenchymal stem cell-based minimally invasive vital pulp therapy.
[Stem Cell Research & Therapy]
Hong, H., Chen, X., Li, K., Wang, N., Li, M., Yang, B., Yu, X., & Wei, X. (2020). Dental follicle stem cells rescue the regenerative capacity of inflamed rat dental pulp through a paracrine pathway. Stem Cell Research & Therapy, 11(1), 333. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13287-020-01841-1 Cite
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The BXD21/TyJ Recombinant Inbred Strain as a Model for Innate Inflammatory Response in Distinct Brain Regions

Scientists determined whether BXD recombinant inbred mice strains were more suitable than C57BL/6J mice for the understanding of the relationship between antioxidant response and inflammatory responses.
[Scientific Reports]
López-Granero, C., Ferrer, B., dos Santos, A. A., Barrasa, A., & Aschner, M. (2020). The BXD21/TyJ recombinant inbred strain as a model for innate inflammatory response in distinct brain regions. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 13168. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-70213-9 Cite
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Suppressive Myeloid Cells Are Expanded by Biliary Tract Cancer-Derived Cytokines In Vitro and Associate with Aggressive Disease

Activated signaling pathways and cytokine production were evaluated in a panel of human biliary tract cancer (BTC) cell lines. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells were cultured with BTC supernatants, with and without cytokine neutralising antibodies, and analysed by flow cytometry or immunoblot.
[British Journal of Cancer]
Ware, M. B., Zaidi, M. Y., Yang, J., Turgeon, M. K., Krasinskas, A., Mace, T. A., Keenan, K., Farren, M. R., Ruggieri, A. N., Li, Y., Zhang, C., Chen, Z., Young, G. S., Elnaggar, O., Che, Z., Maithel, S. K., Bekaii-Saab, T., El-Rayes, B., & Lesinski, G. B. (2020). Suppressive myeloid cells are expanded by biliary tract cancer-derived cytokines in vitro and associate with aggressive disease. British Journal of Cancer, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41416-020-1018-0 Cite
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Auranofin Mitigates Systemic Iron Overload and Induces Ferroptosis via Distinct Mechanisms

Scientists identified iron modulators by functionally screening hepcidin agonists using a library of 640 FDA-approved drugs in human hepatic Huh7 cells.
[Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy]
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