Potential Role for EZH2 in Promotion of Asthma through Suppression of miR-34b Transcription by Inhibition of FOXO3

Researchers investigated the molecular mechanism of enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) in the development of asthma.
[Laboratory Investigation]
Liu, B., Sun, H., Wang, J., Liu, H., & Zhao, C. (2021). Potential role for EZH2 in promotion of asthma through suppression of miR-34b transcription by inhibition of FOXO3. Laboratory Investigation, 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41374-021-00585-7 Cite
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CD200–CD200R immune checkpoint engagement regulates ILC2 effector function and ameliorates lung inflammation in asthma

Researchers showed that mouse group 2 innate lymphoid cells express CD200 receptor and this expression is inducible.
[Nature Communications]
Shafiei-Jahani, P., Helou, D. G., Hurrell, B. P., Howard, E., Quach, C., Painter, J. D., Galle-Treger, L., Li, M., Loh, Y.-H. E., & Akbari, O. (2021). CD200–CD200R immune checkpoint engagement regulates ILC2 effector function and ameliorates lung inflammation in asthma. Nature Communications, 12(1), 2526. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-22832-7 Cite
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CD200–CD200R Immune Checkpoint Engagement Regulates ILC2 Effector Function and Ameliorates Lung Inflammation in Asthma

CD200R engagement inhibited activation, proliferation and type 2 cytokine production, indicating an immunoregulatory function for the CD200–CD200R axis on Group 2 innate lymphoid cells.
[Nature Communications]
Shafiei-Jahani, P., Helou, D. G., Hurrell, B. P., Howard, E., Quach, C., Painter, J. D., Galle-Treger, L., Li, M., Loh, Y.-H. E., & Akbari, O. (2021). CD200–CD200R immune checkpoint engagement regulates ILC2 effector function and ameliorates lung inflammation in asthma. Nature Communications, 12(1), 2526. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-22832-7 Cite
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Autoreactive T Cells and Their Role in Atopic Dermatitis

The authors evaluate the development of (autoreactive) T cells and their response to (auto)antigens, as well as the role of the peripheral tolerance in autoimmunity in the pathophysiology of atopic dermatitis (AD), including the unmet needs and gaps.
[Journal of Autoimmunity]
Autoreactive T cells and their role in atopic dermatitis. (2021). Journal of Autoimmunity, 120, 102634. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaut.2021.102634 Cite
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Cromolyn Inhibits the Secretion of Inflammatory Cytokines by Human Microglia (HMC3)

To better understand the mechanistic effect cromolyn has in slowing down or halting the neuroinflammatory response associated with Alzheimer’s Disease progression, the authors tested the effect of cromolyn to dampen the inflammatory response in the human HMC3 microglia cell line.
[Scientific Reports]
Wang, Y.-J., Monteagudo, A., Downey, M. A., Ashton-Rickardt, P. G., & Elmaleh, D. R. (2021). Cromolyn inhibits the secretion of inflammatory cytokines by human microglia (HMC3). Scientific Reports, 11(1), 8054. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-85702-8 Cite
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Does the Epithelial Barrier Hypothesis Explain the Increase in Allergy, Autoimmunity and Other Chronic Conditions?

Scientists discuss how the immune responses to dysbiotic microbiota that cross the damaged barrier may be involved in the development of allergic and autoimmune diseases.
[Nature Reviews Immunology]
Akdis, C. A. (2021). Does the epithelial barrier hypothesis explain the increase in allergy, autoimmunity and other chronic conditions? Nature Reviews Immunology, 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41577-021-00538-7 Cite
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UDP-Glucose and P2Y14 Receptor Amplify Allergen-Induced Airway Eosinophilia

Researchers showed that UDP-glucose, a nucleotide sugar, was selectively released into the airways of allergen-sensitized mice upon their subsequent challenge with that same allergen.
[Journal of Clinical Investigation]
Karcz, T. P., Whitehead, G. S., Nakano, K., Nakano, H., Grimm, S. A., Williams, J. G., Deterding, L. J., Jacobson, K. A., & Cook, D. N. (2021). UDP-glucose and P2Y14 receptor amplify allergen-induced airway eosinophilia. The Journal of Clinical Investigation, 131(7). https://doi.org/10.1172/JCI140709 Cite
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Stiffening of the Extracellular Matrix Is a Sufficient Condition for Airway Hyperreactivity

The authors hypothesized that stiffening of the airway extracellular matrix is a core pathological change sufficient to support excessive bronchoconstriction even in the absence of inflammation.
[Journal of Applied Physiology]
Jamieson, R. R., Stasiak, S. E., Polio, S. R., Augspurg, R. D., McCormick, C. A., Ruberti, J. W., & Parameswaran, H. (2021). Stiffening of the Extracellular Matrix is a Sufficient Condition for Airway Hyperreactivity. Journal of Applied Physiology. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00554.2020 Cite
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Incense Smoke-Induced Oxidative Stress Disrupts Tight Junctions and Bronchial Epithelial Barrier Integrity and Induces Airway Hyperresponsiveness in Mouse Lungs

Using mouse and cell culture models, the authors evaluated the effects of incense smoke exposure on airway hyperresponsiveness, expression of multiple epithelial tight junction- and adherens junction-associated mRNAs and proteins in the lungs, and the barrier function of bronchial epithelial cells assessed by transepithelial electronic resistance.
[Scientific Reports]
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Exosomes from Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells Attenuate the Inflammation of Severe Steroid-Resistant Asthma by Reshaping Macrophage Polarization

Investigators evaluated the effects of MSC-exosomes on airway hyper responsiveness, inflammation, histopathology, and macrophage polarization in severe, steroid-resistant asthma in mice.
[Stem Cell Research & Therapy]
Dong, B., Wang, C., Zhang, J., Zhang, J., Gu, Y., Guo, X., Zuo, X., Pan, H., Hsu, A. C.-Y., Wang, G., & Wang, F. (2021). Exosomes from human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells attenuate the inflammation of severe steroid-resistant asthma by reshaping macrophage polarization. Stem Cell Research & Therapy, 12(1), 204. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13287-021-02244-6 Cite
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Role of Extracellular Vesicles in Chronic Lung Disease

The authors provide a broad overview of the roles of extracellular vesicles (EV) in chronic respiratory disease. Recent advances in profiling EVs have shown their potential as biomarker candidates. Further studies have provided insight into their disease pathology, particularly in inflammatory processes across a spectrum of lung diseases.
[Thorax]
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