The Onset, Development and Pathogenesis of Severe Neutrophilic Asthma

Scientists discuss the advances made in asthma research, the pathogenesis of neutrophilic asthma, the mechanisms of progression to severe asthma, risk factors for asthma exacerbations, and biomarkers and treatment of neutrophilic asthma.
[Immunology and Cell Biology]
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Androgen Receptor Signaling Promotes Treg Suppressive Function during Allergic Airway Inflammation

Using androgen receptor (AR) deficient and Foxp3 fate-mapping mice, researchers determined that AR signaling increased Treg suppression during Alternaria extract challenge by stabilizing Foxp3+ Tregs and limiting the number of ST2+ ex-Tregs and IL-13+ Th2 and ex-Tregs.
[Journal of Clinical Investigation]
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Cryptococcus neoformans in Association with Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus Has Pro- (IL-6/STAT3 Overproduction) and Anti-inflammatory (CCL2/ERK1/2 Downregulation) Effects on Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells

The authors evaluated the effects of the association between Cryptococcus neoformans and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus in the modulation of airway inflammatory responses in an in vitro experimental model using human bronchial epithelial cells.
[Inflammation]
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Overexpression of miR-375 Reverses the Effects of Dexamethasone on the Viability, Migration, Invasion and Apoptosis of Human Airway Epithelial Cells by Targeting DUSP6

The altered expression of microRNAs has been found in asthma. However, the detailed mechanisms responsible for the effects of miR‑375 on Dex‑induced airway epithelial cell dysfunction remain elusive. Researchers elucidated these mechanisms.
[International Journal of Molecular Medicine]
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ITGB4 Deficiency Induces Mucus Hypersecretion by Upregulating MUC5AC in RSV-Infected Airway Epithelial Cells

Researchers found that decreased expression of ITGB4 was negatively correlated with the level of MUC5AC in childhood airway epithelial cells following respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection.
[International Journal of Biological Sciences]
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Identification and Characterization of an Atypical Gαs-Biased β2AR Agonist That Fails to Evoke Airway Smooth Muscle Cell Tachyphylaxis

The authors sought β2AR agonists for treating obstructive lung diseases such as asthma, in which this receptor relaxed airway smooth muscle cells and opened airways.
[Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America]
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Transient Receptor Potential Cation Channel Subfamily V (TRPV) and Its Importance in Asthma.

Transient receptor potential vanilloid 2 (TRPV2) may represent a novel biomarker for asthma in children; meanwhile, TRPV1 and TRPV4 seem to be essential contributors to the development and exacerbations of asthma.
[European Journal of Pharmacology]
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The Protective Effects of Omarigliptin against Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- Induced Inflammatory Response and Expression of Mucin 5AC (MUC5AC) in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells

Researchers investigated whether Omarigliptin possessed a beneficial effect against LPS-induced injuries in human BEAS-2B bronchial epithelial cells.
[Molecular Immunology]
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Budesonide Promotes Airway Epithelial Barrier Integrity Following Double-Stranded RNA Challenge

Researchers tested three classes of drugs commonly prescribed to treat asthma for their ability to promote barrier function using a cell culture model of virus-induced airway epithelial barrier disruption.
[PLoS One]
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Novel Proteinase-Activated Receptor-2 (PAR2) Antagonist C391 Inhibits Alternaria-Induced Human Airway Epithelial Signaling In Vitro and Asthma Indicators in Acute Exposure Murine Models

Investigators developed C391, a potent proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) antagonist effective in blocking peptidomimetic- and trypsin-induced PAR2 signaling in vitro as well as reducing inflammatory PAR2-associated pain in vivo.
[British Journal of Pharmacology]
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Meteorin-β/Meteorin Like/IL-41 Attenuates Airway Inflammation in House Dust Mite-Induced Allergic Asthma

Increased Metrnβ effectively blocked the development of airway hyperreactivity and decreased inflammatory cell airway infiltration and type 2 cytokine production, which was associated with downregulated dendritic-mediated adaptive immune responses.
[Cellular & Molecular Immunology]
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